(The Position of the American Cancer Society Regarding Tobacco and
Lung Cancer. To the City Editor [form letter]. American Cancer Society
News Service, Jan. 7, 1964.)
The year 1960 was a particularly important one in the progress being made in informing the public of the relationship between cigarettes and lung cancer.
In January 1960, the Board of Directors of the Society stated that in its judgment "the clinical, epidemiological, experimental, chemical and pathological evidence presented by the many studies reported in recent years indicates beyond reasonable doubt that cigarette smoking is the major cause of the unprecedented increase in lung cancer."
At the same time the Board also stated that "cigarette smoking is a personal habit and that the risk involved is at the option of the individual. The Society nevertheless, believes that it has a responsibility to do everything possible within its established policies to reduce the alarming and rapidly increasing number of deaths from lung cancer. To that end the Society will continue to support research on lung cancer and to promote the widespread dissemination of information regarding causes and prevention of the disease to physicians and to the public with primary initial emphasis on teen-agers."
An exhibit developed by the Society on cigarettes and lung. cancer for the medical profession entitled, "Lung Cancer and Prevention" was displayed before the American Medical Association's Annual Meeting in June 1960. It pointed up the physician's responsibility and opportunity to protect the nation's health in relation to cigarettes and lung cancer. A leaflet distributed in connection with the exhibit described cancer as a "preventable disease." Since its original showing, the exhibit has been seen by thousands of physicians -- at state and local Medical Society meetings and other professional groups.
The American Cancer Society-Horn report in 1959 on the smoking, habits of Portland, Oregon, high school students provided basic background for educational materials designed specifically for high school and college students. Almost coincident with the January 1960, meeting of the Board, the Society launched an effective cancer prevention program -- The Teen-Age Program on Cigarettes and Lung Cancer. It was designed to make facts about cigarettes and lung cancer available to all secondary school students in an effort to discourage starting smoking and encourage giving up smoking.
The program included a color-sound
filmstrip "To Smoke Or Not To Smoke?", packaged, together with a
teacher's guide as a kit. Since then the program has reached extensive
proportions and new materials have been added. More than half of the
secondary schools in the country have received a teen-age leaflet
"Shall I Smoke?" This has now reached a distribution to teen-agers of
nearly 8,000,000 copies. A 16 minute film -- "Is Smoking Worth It?" was
added in 1962. In the film, four high school seniors discuss the
problem and relate themselves to it. It points up the reasons for
giving up smoking, and the advantages of not starting for those
students who have not begun to smoke. Since the beginning of the
program, many.productive conferences have been held with educators,
public health officials and students on the problem of teen-age smoking
and lung csncer.
It will be recalled that the Gilbert Youth Research in 1959 found that one in three high school students were cigarette smokers. In 1963, Gilbert did another study on the cigarette purchasing and smoking of teen-agers (thirteen to eighteen years of age) for the National Automatic Merchandising Association, national trade group of the vending industry. In response to the question, "Do you smoke cigarettes?" 29 per cent of those questioned answered "yes". In releasing the second study the Gilbert organization pointed out that the incidence of cigarette smoking among teen-agers was lower in 1963. In 1959, it is worth indicating the trend in teen-age smoking was believed to be upward.
In June 1960, the.Board authorized the Executive Vice President to make a "strong" appeal to the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission "that cigarette companies not only be allowed but also encouraged to publish in their advertising the tar and nicotine content of their products," that the Federal Trade Commission "arrange with other appropriate Government agencies promptly to establish a standard, uniform test for the measurement of these ingredients." (On January 6, 1964, the American Tobacco Company announced the introduction of a new cigarette that will have its tar and nicotine contents prominently on every pack.)
At its meeting in January 1960, the Board of Directors of the Society recommended that the Society "in cooperation with other health agencies move to create a commission of five to seven outstanding citizens of the United States to serve as a group to evaluate the evidence of the effect of smoking on health and its implications and that they report to the American people." One of the proposals made was that a direct request be made to the President of the United States to set up a "Presidential Commission on Problems Relating to Tobacco."
In October of the same year the Board reported that the American Public Health Association, the American Heart Association, the National Tuberculosis Association, and the National Health Council had been asked to join in requesting the appointment of a Commission. The Board resolved that the Society should indicate "to any additional agencies asked to join in initiating the move for a Commission that we would like to ask the President to form a Commission on Problems Relating to Tobacco within a reasonable period of time, and that it is the hope of the Society that such requests go to the President by April 1, 1961 . . . "
A letter signed by four agencies - The American Cancer Society, The American Heart Association, The American Public Health Association, and the National Tuberculosis Association - went to President Kennedy on June 1, 1961. It said in part: "In view of the importance of this health problem, we respectfully request that you appoint a Commission to consider it. On the basis of the weight of scientific evidence on the relationship of cigarette smoking to cancer, especially cancer of the lung, to cardiovascular diseases and to other debilitating and fatal diseases, we believe that such a Commission should examine the social responsibilities of business, of voluntary agencies, and of government in the education of the youth of America; and should recommend various ways to protect the public, weighing the costs against the benefits to be achieved and seeking a solution of this health problem that would interfere least with the freedom of industry or the happiness of individuals."
In 1962, President Kennedy called upon U.S. Surgeon General Luther I. Terry to appoint a committee to study the problem of smoking and health.
The action by the President did not come
about easily [Sic. They should compare it with the difficulty of
getting public officials to recognize the Cancer Society's decades of
supression of research on the role of infection]. To the joint letter
from the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association,
National Tuberculosis Association, and the American Public Health
Association, the President replied that the problem properly belonged
within the responsibilities of the Department of Health, Education and
Welfare. A letter was sent to the then Secretary of the Department,
Abraham Ribicoff, from the American Cancer Society asking for an
opportunity to discuss the President's letter and work out a course of
action. Mr. Ribicoff had not replied at the time of the October 1961
Board meeting. As a result the Board moved to make a personal appeal to
the Secretary through Boisseuillet Jones, Assistant Secretary for
Medical Affairs for the Department, and recommended that if no results
could he achieved through personal contact the "Society proceed with
publication in the press of letters to the President and the Secretary
of the Department of Health Education and Welfare."
On January 4, 1962, the Surgeon 0eneral invited representatives of agencies concerned to discuss the problem of establishing a Commission on Smoking and Health. After the conference, the Surgeon General indicated that the request of the agencies, urging a Commission be established, would receive careful consideration.
At a press conference.in late May, President Kennedy was questioned about government consideration of the problem of cigarettes and health. He promised to give an answer at his next news conference, adding that "the matter is sensitive enough and the stock market is in sufficient difficulty without my giving you an answer which is not based on complete information, which I don't have . . ."
Before the next press conference the President had been briefed by the Public Health Service. On June 7, 1962, a few hours before the Presidential press conference, Dr. Terry announced that he would appoint an advisory committee to study the effects of cigarette smoking on health. At his news conference that day, Mr. Kennedy predicted that the study would take some months and would "go into '63."
Dr. Terry's announcement said in part:
"For a number of years the Public Health Service has supported research
to determine whether smoking has any impact upon health. Considerable
evidence has been accumulated on this subject from many sources. It is
timely to undertake a comprehensive review of all available data.
"I have, therefore, decided to appoint an expert advisory committee to study the evidence, evaluate it, and make whatever recommendations may be appropriate."
On October 28, 1962, the Surgeon General. announced the appointment of an Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health to "make a comprehensive review of all available data on smoking and other factors in the environment that may affect health . . . The second phase of the study, which will follow phase one, will concern recommendations for action. No decision on how the Second phase is to be conducted will be made until the first phase has been completed."
Also, in October 1960, the Board directed the Society to "actively provide scientific information regarding smoking and health to key personnel in tobacco and advertising industries, legislation, public health and medicine, particularly to those who express themselves in public media of communication."
In his address at the Annual Meeting of
the Society in 1962, Dr. Thomas Carlile, retiring President, urged the
Society "to utilize every means at its command to mobilize concerned
physicians into an effective voice to speak with conviction and
authority on the relation between smoking and lung cancer. Studies have
shown that more physicians have stopped smoking than any other group,
yet patients complain that their doctors do not take a positive stand
or give them firm advice one way or another."
At an earlier Board meeting in June 1962, a proposal for a bulletin to physicians on smoking and health, to be sponsored jointly by the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, the National Tuberculosis Association and the American Public Health Association, was considered. The bulletin would be in keeping with the Board of Directors instructions to the Society "to promote the widespread dissemination to physicians of information regarding the causes and prevention of cancer." The bulletin would publish abstracts of papers on the subject of cigarette smoking and health. The abstracting and inclusion of articles would be the responsibility of representatives of organizations sponsoring it. The Board approved.
The first issue of "Medical Bulletin on Tobacco" appeared in January 1963, and went to 206,000 physicians and others in the health field. Interest was immediate and the second issue went to 210,000 doctors and other interested persons.
The Board of Directors at its January
1962, meeting authorized Dr. Taylor, Chairman of the Committee on
Tobacco and Cancer, to appoint a subcommittee to draft a "white paper"
to American Cancer Society volunteers and to opinion leaders giving the
evidence of the causal relationship between cigarettes and health. This
action resulted in a detailed and definitive pamphlet entitled,
"Cigarette Smoklng and Cancer -- The Evidence Upon Which the American
Cancer Society's Position and Program are Based," published in April
1963. The booklet, largely edited by
Dr. Harold S. Diehl, Senior Vice President for Research and Medical Affairs of the Society and former Dean of the University of Minnesota Medical School, reviews scientific evidence linking cigarettes and cancer, and answers point by point arguments of tobacco industry spokesmen and the few scientists who question, or refuse to accept, the evidence linking cigarettes and cancer. The pamphlet is now receiving wide distribution.
Another highlight involving smoking and lung cancer was the opening of the National Cancer Institute and the Society's "Man Against Cancer" exhibit in Washington, D. C., on April 2, 1962. While the educational exhibit was devoted to all phases of cancer, important emphasis was placed on the smoking problem. The exhibit on cigarettes and lung cancer proved a major attraction. It included a statement by Surgeon General Terry: "The weight of scientific evidence resulting from epidemiological and laboratory Investigations carried out in the United States and abroad within the past several years demonstrates that cigarette smoking is a major cause of the increase in cancer of the lung. It is clear that an individual's risk of lung cancer rises in relation to the number of cigarettes smoked. Everyone should be aware of these conclusions because of their importance to health."
Later displayed at Seattle's World's
Fair; in Atlanta, Ga.; Philadelphia, Pa.; and Grand Rapids, Mich.; the
exhibit attracted several millions of people.
At the June 1962 meeting of the Board, the question of sponsorship by tobacco companies of college athletic events, with the associated television and other advertising, and the promotion of cigarettes on college campuses was discussed in detail. It was held that this "resulted in advertising appeal to the very age group which the Society is most anxious to prevent from being subject to the persuasion to smoke." The Board approved a suggestion that a letter be sent to a group of approximately 150 presidents of outstanding universities calling attention to the deleterious effects of smoking on health and the propriety of cigarette promotion on college campuses.
On October 9, 1962, Dr. Thomas Carlile, then President of the Society, wrote a letter to 100 college and university presidents, calling attention to the relationship between cigarette smoking and health. He said in part:
"While smoking is a matter of individual choice for adults, the American Cancer Society is disturbed about the efforts that advertisers of cigarettes are making to create a climate of opinion among young people favorable to cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends more than $150,000,000 a year promoting cigarettes -- identifying cigarette smoking with athletes, with sophistication, with adventure, with romance, with youth. On many college and university campuses, cigarette promotion is extensively and intensively promoted. Television presentations of many of the most prestigious college athletic events are sponsored by cigarette companies. We believe that such promotional activities are worthy of special attention because surveys indicate that the younger the age at which the smoking habit is acquired, the more an individual tends both to smoke and to inhale; both of which increase the risk of lung cancer, and of the other diseases related to cigarette smoking.
"In view of this, the Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society has directed that I bring this major health problem to the attention of college and university presidents and raise the question of institutional acquiescence and encouragement of the promotion and advertising of a product which medical and scientific opinion overwhelmingly believes to be harmful."
On May 8, 1963, Dr. I. S. Ravdin, President of the Society, sent a similar letter to about 1,500 additional college and university presidents. Some colleges and college newspapers began dropping cigarette promotion.
Graphic material for use by physicians in speaking before medical meetings on smoking and lung cancer was prepared and distributed by the Society in 1963. Charts and tables and other illustrative material explained the statistical data and research findings on smoking and lung cancer.
On December 4, 1963, Dr. Hammond presented new evidence based on his massive Cancer Prevention Study on the relationship between cigarette smoking and death rates and disease before a meeting of the American Medical Association in Portland, Oregon. The report received front page news and wide radio and television coverage.
The report was based on a continuing study of' 422,094 men between the ages of 40 and 89 who were enrolled by volunteer workers of the American Cancer Society. All of these subjects were traced for an average of 34.3 months after they answered detailed questionnaires. The results not only confirmed findings in earlier studies, but added a "great many factors which were previously not covered or only partially covered."
Dr. Hammond's paper answered numerous questions and refuted arguments raised by the tobacco industry and the scientists who have challenged various aspects of earlier studies. For example, it compared mortality rates of pairs of subjects -- one a cigarette smoker, the other a non-smoker -- matched for such characteristics as age, race, height, native or foreign born, residence (urban or rural), religion, education, marital status, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, exercise, nervous tension, drug use,.sicknesses, and numerous other factors.
This aspect of the study, known as a "matched pair analysis," involved 36,975 non-smokers and 36,975 men who smoked a pack of cigarettes or more per day. The purpose was to study the death rate of men who were alike in many ways but who differed in respect to cigarette smoking.
During the course of the study 1,385 of the 36,975 cigarette smokers died while only 662 of the same number of non-smokers died. Of the cigarette smokers, 110 died of lung cancer, 15 of emphysema, 30 of aortic aneurysm, 654 of coronary artery disease and 576 of other causes. Of the non-smokers, only 12 died of lung cancer, 1 of emphysema, 8 of aortic aneurysm, 304 of coronary,artery disease and 329 of other causes.
"It is hard to escape the conclusion that this difference in number of deaths was due to the difference in smoking habits," said Dr. Hammond.
In conclusion, it can be said that over the last 15 years, the Society has called attention to the great increase in deaths from lung cancer and stimulated research in the field and public, professional and governmental action.
Support of the findings linking smoking and lung cancer has come from many national and state medical groups, health organizations, local and state governments, public health officers, foreign countries and organizations.
No single agency, here or abroad, can
claim credit for the extraordinary developments of the last 15 years in
establishing cigarettes as the major cause of the unprecedented
increase in lung cancer mortality.
According to the official history in the 1964 Surgeon General report, "The U.S. Public Health Service first became officially engaged in an appraisal of the available data on smoking and health in June, 1956, when, under the instigation of the surgeon General, a scientific Study Group on the subject was established jointly by the National Cancer Institute, the National Heart Institute, the American Cancer Society, and the American Heart Association." Naturally, this group concluded that there was a causal relationship between excessive smoking of cigarettes and lung cancer, and did not care to inquire into additional factors, such as infection, that they did not believe in. Subsequently on July 12, 1957, Surgeon General Leroy Burney declared that "The Public Health Service feels the weight of the evidence is increasingly pointing in one direction, that excessive smoking is one of the causative factors in lung cancer." Those modifying words, "excessive" and "one of," are his own.
"The immediate antecedents of the establishment of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health began in mid-1961. On June 1 of that year, a letter was sent to the President of the United States, signed by the Presidents of the American Cancer Society, the American Public Health Association, the American Heart Asssociation, and the National Tuberculosis Association (predecessor of the American Lung Association). It urged the formation of a Presidential commission to study the 'widespread implications of the tobacco problem'" [sic], which Surgeon General Luther Terry proceeded to do.
The Surgeon General's report was a review and assessment of the
available evidence, and the one-sided torrent of "evidence" courtesy of
the Lasker Syndicate's centralized control of funding at the National
Institutes of Health, through which they also controlled what work was
done at universities and other research institutions, ensured that they
would reach the desired conclusions, and without any inconvenient
shadows of doubt. One of those shadows of doubt that should have been
addressed in subsequent research is the role of infection in alleged
"smoking related" cancers. It was known at the time of this report that
viruses cause cancer in animals. The subject was mentioned only
briefly: "VIRUSES. -- Bronchogenic carcinoma has been induced in
animals inoculated with polyoma virus by Rabson et al. (282).
Carcinogens enhanced the effect of viruses known to cause cancer in
animals (99) and localize the neoplastic lesions at the site of
inoculation of the virus (98). However, no evidence has been
forthcoming to date implicating a virus in the etiology of cancer in
man" [page 166]. The report also acknowledged the inadequacy of
existing research in humans. [note: Rabson was Alan Rabson, later deputy director
of the National Cancer Institute and husband of former Acting Director
of the National
Institutes of Health Ruth Kirschstein.)
(3) Previous respiratory infections.-- Relatively few soundly designed studies have tested the effect of prior respiratory disease, particularly infections, on the development of lung cancer.
Winternitz (371) called attention in 1920 to proliferative changes in cases of post-influenzal pneumonia similar to those seen in invasive, malignant neoplasms of the lung but this report stimulated relatively few epidemiologic observations. In the retrospective study of the smoking-lung cancer relationship by Doll and Hill (82) inquiry into a history of previous respiratory infections led to finding a significant excess of antecedent chronic bronchitis and pneumonia among lung cancer patients even when smoking class was controlled. However, because a collateral comparison with another control group of patients, for whom a lung cancer diagnosis was found to be in error, failed to reveal a difference, Doll and Hill concluded that either "chronic bronchitis and pneumonia predispose to a whole group of respiratory disorders... or that patients with respiratory disorders recall previous chronic bronchitis and pneumonia more readily than do patients with diseases with other symptoms." However, almost simultaneously Beebe (20) investigated the relationship between mustard gas exposure, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza and lung cancer, and Case and Lea (53) between mustard gas exposure and/or chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Smoking histories wer controlled in these studies. Beebe found no evidence of an increased lung cancer risk with an antecedent history of influenzal pneumonia and primary pneumonia but there did appear a highly suggestive relationship between mustard gas exposure and lung cancer. No relationship between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was noted. Case and Lea, however, interpreted their findings to mean a sequential relationship between mustard gas exposure, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk was doubled by pre-existing chronic bronchitis. Doll, in a later review (76), however, indicated that since the smoking-lung cancer relationship is stronger than the chronic bronchitis-lung cancer relationship, chronic bronchitis is not a necessary intermediate pathogenetic process. The failure of the Beebe study to affirm the Case and Lea findings in regard to chronic bronchitis may lie in the problem of differences in British and American diagnoses of chronic bronchitis.
In an epidemiological approach to other factors in lung cancer risks, Denoix et al. (72) studied 160 characteristics. Among other factors, much less strongly associated with lung cancer than smoking of cigarettes, they found a history of war gas and chronic bronchitis to predispose to lung cancer. The war gas component was strong enough to double the risk of lung cancer even with control on smoking class.
Thus, the observations on previous respiratory illness are too few in number to place any degree of assurance on a relationship, but the studies by Case and Lea and by Denoix et al. remain interesting.Surgeon General Report - Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking, 1964 / CDC
Luther Terry interview (Report on Smoking, over WABC-TV, NY, & ABC-TV Net 7:00 P.M., January 11, 1964 SPECIAL RUSH SERVICE).Terry Interview, 1964 / tobacco document
Stanhope Bayne-Jones's cousin, Hugh Aiken Bayne (1870-1954), was a
member of Skull & Bones class of 1892. He graduated from Tulane
University Law School in 1894, and practiced law in New Orleans until
1898, then in New York City until 1917. He was a member of Maj. Gen.
Pershing's staff in the Allied Expeditionary Force in 1917, counsel to
the Prisoners of War mission in 1918. From 1919 to 1928 he was a member
of the American Reparations Commission, which had been established by
the treaties of Versailles and St. Germaine. During this time he served
as a judge deciding the claim of Belgium vs. Austria, regarding the
Treasure of the Order of Golden Fleece. The King of Belgium requested
that the treasure be transferred to him as the new ruler of the former
Habsburg lands of the Austrian Netherlands. The three judges, of whom
Bayne was one gave serious consideration to handing the treasure over
to Belgium. However at the request of Emperor Carl, King Alfonso XIII
of Spain intervened and the treasure remained in Austrian hands. He
also handled the claim of Czecho-Slovakia being the successor to the
Kingdom of Bohemia, and a claim regarding 500 works of art stolen from
Bohemia by Austria between 1616 and 1914. One of the most interesting
claims he handled was Standard Oil Co. vs. the Reparations Commission.
The commission had appropriated 21 oil tankers owned by a Germany
subsidiary of Standard Oil to pay for Germans reparations. He also
handled cases on disarmament clauses." (Hugh Bayne Dies; Retired
Attorney. New York Times, Dec. 26, 1954; Hugh Aiken Bayne. Wikipedia,
His uncle, Thomas Levingston Bayne, Skull & Bones 1847, was was
born in Clinton, Georgia. His parents died when he was young, and he
moved to his uncle's house in Butler County,
Alabama, He married Mary, the daughter of Alabama Governor John Gayle.
In 1848, he went to New Orleans and became a law partner of
Thomas Allen Clarke in 1852. After serving in the Confederate military,
he resumed practice in New Orleans with his former partner.
"One of his sons was a member of the class of 1887, Yale College, and
another graduates the present year." (Obituary Record of Graduates of
Yale University, 1890-1900.) His wife's sister,
Amelia Gayle, married Gen. Josiah Gorgas, the Chief of Ordnance in the
Confederate Army. He was the father of Capt. Richard Haynsworth Gorgas
and Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, famous for controlling yellow fever in
the Panama Canal Zone. (Capt. Richard H. Gorgas. New York Times, Sep.
30, 1935.) Josiah Gorgas was a native of Pennsylvania and a graduate of
West Point. He served in the Mexican War as well. (Obituary Notes.
Philadelphia North American, May 16, 1883.) Returning to duty in
Richmond after recovering from wounds at Shiloh [Apr. 6-7, 1862], Bayne
was assigned to ordnance with his brother-in-law. "He was subsequently
promoted to major, and subsequently to lieutenant colonel of artillery,
and was appointed chief of the bureau of foreign supplies, reporting
directly to the secretary of war. When it became necessary to evacuate
Richmond, Colonel Bayne left with the other officers of the government
for Danville, Va., where he remained until the surrender of General Lee
at Appomattox, and from thence removed to Charlotte, N.C., where the
confederate government was virtually dissolved. The several officers
then departed for their homes and Col. Bayne returned to New Orleans,
where he resumed the practice of law with his former partner, Mr.
Clarke." (Colonel Thomas L. Bayne. New Orleans Daily Picayune, Sep. 16,
1888.) Gorgas took a position as head of the School of Engineering and
Physics at Sewanee University. The foundation stone of the university
was laid in 1860 under Bishop Polk, but the war halted all work. The
English Episcopal Church funded its new start, and it was opened in
1868. ((University of the South. New-Orleans Commercial Bulletin, Aug.
28, 1868; The University of the South - Its Origin and Wonderful
Growth. Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Georgia Journal & Messenger,
Macon, Feb. 10, 1874.)
Thomas L. Bayne's daughter, Amelia Elizabeth [Minna], married Dr.
Stanhope Jones. (Society. New Orleans Daily Picayune, Nov. 13, 1887;
Vital Statistics. New Orleans Daily Picayune, Nov. 20, 1887.) He died
in 1894 in Coeburn, Wise County, Va. at age 33. (Dr. Stanhope Jones.
New Orleans Daily Picayune, Jul. 25, 1894; The Martin House.) He was
the son of Dr. Joseph Jones, born in 1833 in Liberty County, Ga., who
graduated from Princeton in 1853 and received his M.D. from the
University of Pennsylvania in 1856. He was appointed to the chair of
chemistry in the medical college of Savannah, Ga. that year. In 1858 he
was professor of natural philosophy in the University of Georgia at
Athens, and professor of chemistry in the Medical College of Georgia,
Augusta from 1859 to 1866. From 1866 to 1868 he was professor of the
Institutes of Medicine in the University of Nashville. In 1868, he
became professor of chemistry and clinical medicine at the University
of Louisiana, now Tulane University. He was president of the Louisiana
State Board of Health from 1800 to 1884. (Joseph Jones, M.D. New
Orleans Daily Picayune, Sep. 11, 1887.) In a dispute over the cause of
death of a sailor, Stanhope
Jones once came to blows with Dr. Gustave Devron, a leading member of
the Sanitary association. Jones "pulled out a cowhide and attacked the
other physician, striking several severe blows. When Dr. Devron
advanced on him, Jones pulled out a pistol, but was prevented from
using it by a bystander. The two men were finally separated, Devron
being much cut and hurt by the blows of the cowhide." (New Orleans.
Galveston Daily News, Aug. 16, 1883.)
"Stanhope Bayne-Jones was born in New Orleans. He received his B.A.
in 1910 from Yale University, his M.D. in 1914 from the Johns Hopkins
University School of Medicine, and his M.A. in 1917 from the Johns
Hopkins University. Until 1924, he held various faculty positions at
the school of medicine, ranging from instructor in pathology to
associate professor of bacteriology. He then served on the medical
faculties at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and the
Yale University School of Medicine, becoming dean of medicine at Yale
in 1935. Bayne-Jones also served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps in
World Wars I and II and was promoted to brigadier general. A
bacteriologist, he was chosen as one of the ten members of the U.S.
Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, which
issued the famous Surgeon General's Report in 1964 that linked smoking
to cancer. In 1968, a professorship in medicine was established at the
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in his honor." (The
Stanhope Bayne-Jones Collection. Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives,
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.)
Stanhope Bayne-Jones had begun medical school at Tulane University.
"Unhappy at Tulane, he wrote to William Welch seeking a transfer to the
Johns Hopkins Medical School. He was accepted and by chance ended up
living in the same Baltimore rooming house as Welch. Bayne-Jones moved
the bed in his room so that it was directly above the bed in 'Popsy'
Welch's room. Whether thanks to vertical emanations [sic] from the room
below or to his own native intelligence, he graduated first in his
class and was asked to remain at Johns Hopkins in the pathology
department. In 1916 Welch arranged for Bayne-Jones to study under Hans
Zinsser at Columbia." When the U.S. entered World War I in 1917, his
uncle, Surgeon General William Crawford Gorgas, arranged for him to
serve with the British Expeditionary Force. His old professor at Johns
Hopkins, Milton C. Winternitz,
recruited him to Yale, "primarily to be master of Trumbull College and
secondarily to be professor of bacteriology and immunology," in 1932.
(Chapter 6. The Bubble Bursts. In: A History of Yale's School of
Medicine: Passing Torches to Others, by Gerard N. Burrow. Yale
University Press, 2002.)
"The President and Mrs. Taft were the guests of honor at a small
dinner given last night by Miss Mabel Boardman. Mr.
Robert Taft, Mr.
George Harrison, and Mr.
Stanhope Bayne-Jones, who came to Washington
from Harvard to spend the week-end at the White House, departed
yesterday for the university.... Miss Frances Lippitt, daughter of
Senator Lippitt, of Rhode Island, entertained at a luncheon yesterday
at the Chevy Chase Club in honor of Miss Helen Taft and Mr. Robert
Taft. The other guests were Mr. George Harrison and Mr. Stanhope
Bayne-Jones, Miss Catherine Anderson, Miss Southerland, Miss Marion
Wise, Miss Elsie Aldrich, Miss Wadsworth, Miss Ruth Wales, Paymaster
Little, Mr. Samuel Elliot, Mr. Burrell Little, Mr. Henry Lippitt." (Mr.
and Mrs. Taft Dine With Miss M. Boardman. Washington Post, Mar. 4,
1912.) Stanhope Bayne-Jones was an usher at the wedding of former
William H. Taft's son, Robert A.
(S&B 1910), to Martha Bowers.
George Harrison was best man. (Robert A.
Taft Weds Miss Bowers. New York Times, Oct. 18, 1914.)
Groundbreaking ceremonies for the new National Cancer Institute at
Bethesda, Maryland were held on the all-day quarterly meeting of the
National Advisory Cancer Council of the U.S. Public Health Service.
"The Council, under the chairmanship of Surg. Gen. Thomas Parran, Jr.,
will hear a report on fundamental cancer research, which has been
prepared by Dr. James B. Murphy and Dr. J.H. Northrup, of the
Rockefeller Institute; Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, dean of the School of
Medicine of Yale University; Dr. Ross G. Harrison, of Yale, and Dr.
C.C. Little, of the American society for the Control of Cancer. Dr.
Ludwig Hektoen, executive director of the council, will also make a
report. Dr. Arthur H. Compton, of the University of Chicago, will
describe the progress of Dr. E.O. Lawrence, of the University of
California, on the cyclotron, a new apparatus which may be of great
value in cancer treatment. Dr. Lawrence is working under one of the 14
grants recommended thus far by the council. Dr. James Ewing will report
on the training of specialists in the field of cancer treatment and
research." (Work Starts on Cancer Institute Today. Washington Post,
Oct. 3, 1938.)
Friends of the late Sen. Robert A. Taft formed the Robert A Taft Memorial Foundation, Inc., "to plan steps for perpetuating his ideals of government." Bayne-Jones head a committee to study scholarship grants; Rep. Clarence J. Brown (R-Ohio) to consider a physical Taft Memorial in Washington; Mrs. Preston Davie of New York, to consider a Taft Memorial Institute; and Ben E. Tate of Cincinnati, a subcommittee on budget and ways and means. Taft Friends To Perpetuate His Ideals. Washington Post and Times, Herald Sep. 9, 1954.)
Stanhope Bayne-Jones was a correspondent of William Henry Welch
(S&B 1870); Pierre Jay (S&B 1892), Chairman of the Board of the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York; Charles Seymour (S&B 1908),
President of Yale from 1937 to 1950; and of members of his Skull &
Bones Class of 1910: Robert Dudley French, professor of English at
Yale, 1919-1950; Carl Albert Lohmann, Secretary of Yale 1927-1953; and
also of C.E.A. Winslow and James R. Angell.
Bayne-Jones was elected to the board of trustees of the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation in 1938. Dave Hennon Morris was chairman of the board; Dr. Ludwig Kast, president; J. Macy Willets, secretary; Robert E. Allen, treasurer; Lawrence K. Frank, vice president; and Dr. Charles Sidney Burwell, trustee. The foundation was established in 1930 by Mrs. Walter G. Ladd in memory of her father. (Research Group Elects. The New York Times, Dec. 8, 1938.)
"A committee has been formed to make known, especially among alumni
and close friends of the University, the work of Yale in medicine and
public health, as headed by Dr. Harvey
Cushing as general chairman and
with Dean Stanhope Bayne-Jones as chairman, and and Fuller F. Barnes of
Bristol, Conn.; William McCormick Blair
[S&B 1907] of Chicago, George Parmly Day and Thomas W. Farnam of
Yale University, Dr. Norman E. Freeman of Philadelphia, Harry C. Knight
of New Haven, Dr. Fred T. Murphy
of Detroit, Professor C.E.A. Winslow
of Yale University and Dr. Milton C. Winternitz of Yale University as
members." Their new facilities included the ultracentrifuge. (Yale Will
Expand Its Medical School. New York Times, May 14, 1939.)
In 1949, Bayne-Jones was president of the joint adminsitrative board of the New York Hospital - Cornell Medical Center. Addressing the American College of Physicians annual meeting, he called for preventive clinical medicine aimed at "the chronic diseases of those over 40 years of age." No mention of smoking was reported. (Broader Function of Hospitals Cited, by William L. Laurence. The New York Times, Mar. 29, 1948.)
In 1950, Stanhope Bayne-Jones was a member of the New York City Board of Hospitals, of which Mrs. Albert D. Lasker was also a member. (Hospitals Board Named By Mayor. New York Times, Aug. 11, 1950.)
In 1956, the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, Inc., along with George Gund, the George Gund Foundation, and David M. Levy, funded the James Stevens Simmons Memorial Fund at the Harvard School of Public Health. (Gifts to Harvard, January 1 to March 31, 1956. Nathan March Pusey. ctr/50001545-1580.) Simmons was the Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1946 to his death in 1954. From 1940 to 1946, he was a founder of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, with then-Col. Stanhope Bayne-Jones as his executive assistant. (The Genesis of the Board for the Investigation and Control of Influenza and Other Epidemic Diseases in the Military. US Army)The Genesis of the Board for the Investigation and Control of Malaria / US Army (pdf, 50pp)
With the approval of the National Advisory Cancer Council, the National Cancer Institute established a Panel on Viruses and Cancer at the November 1958 meeting, with Stanhope Bayne-Jones as Chairman. He resigned from the NACC after reagents, mostly for enteroviruses and adenoviruses, were moved to the jurisdiction of the NIAID (p. 39). (An Administrative History of the National Cancer Institute’s Viruses and Cancer Programs, 1950-1972. By Carl G. Baker, M.D)History of the National Cancer Institute’s Viruses and Cancer Programs / National Institutes of Health (pdf, 379pp)
Members of the NACC in 1958 were Lane Adams of the American Cancer Society; Dr. Murray M. Copeland; Dr. Charles A. Evans; Dr. Henry S. Kaplan; Mrs. Mary W. (Albert D.) Lasker; Dr. Robert A. Moore; Dr. Isidor S. Ravdin; Dr. Leo G. Rigler; Dr. Joseph F. Ross; Dr. Harold P. Rusch; Dr. Richard S. Schreiber; Dr. Howard E. Skipper; Dr. Warren Weaver; Mr. James E. Webb; and Dr. Sidney Weinhouse. Bayne-Jones was a member of the National Advisory Cancer Council from 1959 to 1961. ([Members of the President's Cancer Panel, 1976, and National Advisory Cancer Council, 1957-71] J Natl Cancer Inst 1977 Aug;59(2suppl):763.)President's Cancer Panel - J Natl Cancer Inst 1977 / tobacco document
Bayne-Jones was appointed to the Surgeon General's Advisory
Committee on Smoking and Health (US Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, Press Release, Nov. 11, 1962). "BAYNE-JONES acted as their
quasi-chairman/ was sr.-most member,, LMS had used his textbook on
microbiology while at med sch. so he inspired a certain element of awe
in him/his skills cut across all the others' & he'd been
administrator as Yale med. dean: he was 'the father figure' for the
group//" (Richard Kluger's notes for "Ashes to Ashes," interview of
SGAC member Leonard M. Schuman, public health epidemiologist from
University of Minnesota; July 15, 1988.) Mary W. Lasker's friend Florence Mahoney had close ties to President
Between 1964 and 1968, Stanhope Bayne-Jones was the General Chairman of the Conference and Workshops for Research on Tobacco and Health, sponsored by the American Medical Association Education and Research Foundation, which was funded by the Council for Tobacco Research. (Program, Colorado Springs,Nov. 2-3, 1966; San Francisco, June 19, 1968; The Project for Research on Tobacco and Health 1964-1968. Report to the Profession and Abstracts of the Grants - June, 1968.)Program, Nov. 2-3, 1966 / tobacco document
Bayne-Jones joined Dr. Leonard Schuman in his militant false assertion that "the studies of the many investigators abstracted in the Progress Report and the overwhelming majority of all other research efforts in these areas enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the _well-established_ relationships between smoking and several important diseases of man. For the most part, these many studies carry us closer to judgments of causality in some diseases and strengthen the judgments of causality made four years ago on the basis of thousands of studies then completed." [Their understanding being that correlation equals causation, although to this day no specific mechanism has been identified -cast] (Stanhope Bayne-Jones to Dr. Francis L. Blasingame, Executive Vice President of the AMA, July 2, 1968; with enclosure of Schuman's statement.)Bayne-Jones to Blasingame, July 2, 1968 / tobacco document
AMA-ERF Committee for Research on Tobacco and Health: Richard J. Bing of the CTR; Stuart Bondurant, Albany Medical College; Earl A. Evans Jr., U. of Chicago; Robert J. Hasterlik of La Jolla, Cal.; John B. Hickam, U. of Indiana; Paul Kotin, former CTR SAB; Marvin Kuschner, SUNY - Stony Brook; Paul S. Larson, of the CTR; Charles LeMaistre ["Enron Boy"], U. of Texas; Richard D. Remington, U. of Michigan; Maurice H. Seevers, U. of Michigan; Chester M. Southam, Thomas Jefferson U. AMA Staff Secretaries: John C. Ballin and Ira Singer. (Tobacco and Health. Compiled by the AMA-ERF Committee for Research on Tobacco and Health. American Medical Association Education and Research Foundation, 1978.) They smugly announced that they had discovered absolutely nothing to contradict "the 1963 report of the Surgeon General," thereby proving that defective science that ignores infection continues to produce defective results. They were especially proud to proclaim that "Gastrointestinal tract studies include new mechanisms by which nicotine may influence peptic ulcer" - WHICH WE NOW KNOW WERE CAUSED BY HELICOBACTER PYLORI. So, thanks to these corrupt vermin whose only interest was to lynch smoking and avoid exonerating it at any cost, hundreds of thousands of people suffered and died needlessly. And, they and the rotten-to-the-core health establishment they represent have perpetrated the same scam with every ailment - and all without the slightest squeak of rebuke from the corrupt vermin in the media, whose only interest is likewise to lynch smoking by screeching self-righteous lies accusing the TOBACCO INDUSTRY of corrupting science.Tobacco and Health, 1978 / tobacco document
Stanhope Bayne-Jones died in 1970. His wife was Nannie Moore Smith. (Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones Dies; Bacteriologist and Educator, 81. New York Times, Feb. 21, 1970.) Mrs. Stanhope Bayne-Jones was the sister of Robert Hall Smith, president of the Norfolk & Western Railroad. He was born in Baltimore in 1882, but grew up on a ranch in Colorado. He first worked for the line in 1910 while still an engineering student at Princeton, and joined it in 1911. Her niece was Mrs. Carter L. Burgess. (Former N&W Head Succombs At 72. Raleigh Register [Beckley, WV], June 20, 1960.) Mrs. Bayne-Jones was a grandniece of John Donnell Smith, Skull & Bones 1847 (1829-1928). John Donnell Smith was a lawyer who never practiced law, preferring to spend several years in Europe, attending lectures on law and history at the University of Heidelberg, in the decade before the U.S. Civil War. He was a trustee of the Peabody Institute in Baltimore from 1888 to 1915. His grandfather, Robert Smith (Princeton 1781), was Secretary of the Navy 1802-1805, Attorney General 1805-1809, and Secretary of State 1809-1811. His grandfather, John Donnell, was an immigrant from Londonderry, Ireland, who came to Baltimore about 1783. (Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20.) John Donnell Smith's brother, Robert Hall Smith, graduated from Yale in 1846. (Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915.) Their father, Samuel W. Smith, was a director of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company from 1850 to 1877, when Henry C. Smith was elected in his place. Johns Hopkins, the benefactor of Johns Hopkins University, was a fellow director. (Editor's Correspondence. Daily National Intelligencer, Oct. 22, 1850; Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. New York Times, Nov. 20, 1877.) Samuel W. Smith was one of the original trustees of George Peabody's Institute in Baltimore. (The Peabody Institute in Baltimore. New York Times, Mar. 26, 1857.)Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20 / Internet Archive
John Donnell imported five boxes of opium on the schooner Elizabeth
from Smyrna. (Abstract of Merchandize entered at the Custom-House,
since last publication. Baltimore Price-Current, Aug. 19, 1809; From
the Merchant's Coffee-House. Books. Federal Republican, Aug. 17, 1809.)
Donnell was a director of the Bank of the United States between 1816
and (Philadelphia, Nov. 1, 1816. Essex Register, Nov. 6, 1816;
Baltimore Branch Bank. City of Washington Gazette, Dec. 1, 1819;
National Bank. Manufacturers' & Farmers' Journal, Jan. 10, 1820;
Baltimore Patriot, Dec. 3, 1821, and Nov. 29, 1823.) He died in 1827.
(Died. The Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, Nov. 17,
1827.) Edward Jones offered up to $50 reward for the return of a slave
owned by the Heirs of John Donnell. ($50 Reward. Baltimore Patriot,
Jun. 6, 1831.)
"Louisiana's Constitution of 1868 had extended public education to blacks and created a dilemma for opponents of desegregation. They were indignant over the prospect of having to send their children to an institution of higher learning that was no longer the exclusive domain of whites, and privatization was seen as a solution." Merchant Paul Tulane chose Randall Gibson, Yale 1853, to assemble a group of prominent citizens to convince the state legislature to permit them to take over the financially troubled University of Louisiana. Not surprisingly, they succeeded. Gibson was the first president of the Board of Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund, serving from 1882 until his death in 1892. Gibson's cousin, William Preston Johnston [Skull & Bones 1852], was the first president of Tulane University (1884-1899). "The great irony about segregationist Randall Lee Gibson is that his own great grandfather, Gideon Gibson, was a free man of color who had married a white woman and settled in South Carolina. Gibson's African ancestry was a family secret." [His black ancestor was also a slaveowner.] (Shedding Light on Tulane History. By Dr. Carl Bernofsky. Tulanelink, How a Powerful University Promotes Judicial and Political Corruption and Prevails in the Courts of Law, accessed 05/26/08.)Shedding Light on Tulane History / Tulanelink
Randall Lee Gibson. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University,
1890-1900, p. 177; and:
Randall Lee Gibson of Louisiana: Confederate General and New South
Reformer. By Mary Gorton McBride, Ann M. McLaurin, 2007.
William Preston Johnston. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale
University, 1890-1900, p. 685.
"The Southern Yale Alumni Association had their first reunion at the
Pickwick Club on Monday evening. Thomas L. Bayne, of the class of 1847,
presided, and on his right was Mr. Calvin Frost, of New York, of the
class of '42, and on his left, Judge E.D. Estilette, of '57, and
following on the right and left were: Dr. Howard Smith, of '44; W.A.
Vilet, of '78 S; E.L. Simonds, of '81; Blair Jamison, of '81; J.V.A.
Weaver, of '81; Jas. E. Zunts, of '81; Chas. S. Wiley, of '85; Percy
Jackson, of '85 S; J.O. Dyer, of '86 S; T.L. Bayne, Jr., of '87; Albert
Hamm, of '87; E.K. Dillingham, of '88; Wm. Bull, of '88 S; Louis Le
Sassler, of '88 S. Vice President William Preston Johnston, president
of Tulane University, at the other end of the table, had on his right
United States District Judge E.C. Billings, of '53, and on his left
Charles C. Palfrey, of '54." Johnston "gave to old Yale much credit"
for Tulane's growth. Rev. William K. Douglass '51 also attended.
Regrets were received from Gen. Cassius M. Clay '32, Rt. Rev. Bishop
Richard Wilmer '36, W.J. Flemming '38, Gen. J.C. Tappan '45, and Rev.
Louis H. Reid '47. James E. Junts '81 of Birmingham was a member of the
executive committee. (Yale Alumni. New Orleans Daily Picayune, Feb. 15,