Philip Morris's predecessor, Benson & Hedges

In 1929, Joseph F. Cullman Jr. and Howard S. Cullman, of Cullman Brothers Inc., and others, formed Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc., "to invest and trade in securities of companies engaged in the tobacco and allied industries. It [was] the first investment trust in this particular field. The organizers, who will be directors, include the following: William A. Willingham of the Universal Leaf Tobacco Company; Joseph F. Cullman Jr. and Howard S. Cullman of Cullman Brothers Inc.; Fletcher L. Gill of the International Acceptance Bank; J. Taylor Foster of Field, Glore & Co.; Edgar B. Bernhard of Colvin & Co.; Ross E. Young of Edward B. Smith & Co.; and John F. Wharton of Cohen, Cole, Weiss & Wharton. Financial details are being worked out by a banking group headed by Colvin & Co." (To Hold Tobacco Shares. New York Times, Jan. 8, 1929.) As of Dec. 31, 1929 the company had $3,152,287 invested, with substantial investments in the American Tobacco Co. Inc., British-American Tobacco Co. Ltd., General Cigar Co. Inc., Imperial Tobacco Co. of Canada Ltd., Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co., Philip Morris & Co. Ltd. Inc., Porto Rican American Tobacco Co., Tobacco Products Corporation, United States Tobacco Co. Inc., Universal Leaf Tobacco Co. Inc., and Waitt & Bond Inc. (Investing Company Reports For Year. New York Times, Jan. 28, 1930.)

In 1941, Joseph F. Cullman Jr. bought control of Benson & Hedges stock from Tobacco and Allied Stocks, and in 1942 was elected Chairman of the Board of Benson & Hedges (Elected to Chairmanship Of Benson & Hedges. New York Times, Feb. 12, 1942.) In 1953, the boards of directors of Benson & Hedges and Philip Morris agreed to a merger of the two firms. Morgan Stanley & Co., whose co-founder, Harold Stanley (Skull & Bones 1908) was a director of the Tobacco Products Corporation in 1923, did the analysis for the merger between Benson & Hedges and Philip Morris. (2 Boards Approve Cigarette Merger. New York Times, Oct. 23, 1953.) Joseph F. Cullman 3d was elected an executive vice president of Philip Morris in January 1955. After Joseph Cullman Jr. died in March, his brother, Howard S. Cullman, was elected to replace him on the board of directors. (Joins the Directorate of Philip Morris, Inc. New York Times, April 13, 1955.) The Guaranty Trust Company of New York was PM's transfer agent in 1953. In 1954, stockholders of Tobacco and Allied Stocks and Benson & Hedges exchanged their stock for shares of Philip Morris.

PM 1953 Annual Report / tobacco document

"(e) Associates of the following owned shares as indicated: Arthur J. Cohen, 1,190 shares of Common Stock of Philip Morris; John E. Cookman. 50 shares of Common Stock of Benson and Hedges; Junius A. Richards, 10 shares of capital stock of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc.; Godfrey S. Rockefeller, 3,034 shares of Common Stock of Benson and Hedges, 130 shares of capital stock of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc., and 84 shares of Common Stock of Philip Morris; Mary E. Sullivan, 20 shares of Common Stock of Benson and Hedges; and John F. Wharton, 600 shares of capital stock of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc. On the basis of the foregoing, Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc., will own approximately 9%, and Messrs. Joseph F. Cullman, Jr., and Joseph F. Cullman, 3rd, and their families approximately 1%, of the Company's Common Stock upon consummation of the exchange offer. The holdings of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, Inc., thus will constitute the largest single voting interest in the Company and will be represented on its Board by two new directors."

Philip Morris Proxy Statement, Dec. 30, 1953 / tobacco document

Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton and Garrison were counsel to both Tobacco and Allied Stocks and Benson & Hedges "for a number of years." Partner John F. Wharton was a director of both. (Letter from Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison to Philip Morris & Co., Jan. 27, 1954.) In 1960, partner Simon H. Rifkind was a director of Loew's Theatres, Inc., which later acquired Lorillard Tobacco; and in 1977, partner Morris B. Abram was a member of the Citizens' Committee of the Citizens' Campaign Against Bootleg Cigarettes.

Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, Jan. 27, 1954 / tobacco document

Field, Glore & Co.

Marshall Field 3d was the grandson of the founder of the Marshall Field department store and real estate empire of Chicago. His father, Marshall Field Jr., shot himself in 1905 at the age of 37. Marshall Field 3d was born in Chicago in 1893, and studied at Eton College and Cambridge University. He married Evelyn Marshall of New York in 1916, served in the US Army as a captain in the field artillery during World War I, and began managing the Field holdings after the war. "When he was in his forties, he began to show signs of being oppressed by his vast wealth... He consulted Gregory Zilboorg, a psychiatrist, and thereafter began to increase his interest in good works and liberal causes and in the expression of his ideas in newspapers that he established or in which he bought control." In 1935, he sent a $10,000 check in support of Robert M. Hutchins at the University of Chicago. He established the Chicago Sun, later the Sun-Times, in 1941, just before Pearl Harbor. He already possessed about $93 million when he inherited another $75 million from his grandfather (d. 1906), in 1943. He was the head of Field Enterprises, a holding company with large investments in newspapers, magazines and book publishers, retail stores and banks. (Marshall Field Dies At Age of 63. New York Times, Nov. 9, 1956.) Marshall Field 3d was best man at the wedding of his wife's brother, Charles H. Marshall, to Alice Huntington [whose uncle Ford Huntington had been secretary-treasurer of the Havana Tobacco Company], and Mrs. Field was a matron of honor. (Alice Huntington One of Many Brides. New York Times, Jun. 3, 1917.) Mrs. Marshall Field was a benefactor of the New York City Cancer Committee's benefit for the American Society for the Control of Cancer. (Two Fetes in the Offing. New York Times, Oct. 20, 1929.) Edward McCormick Blair, Yale 1938, the son of William McCormick Blair, Skull & Bones 1907, of William Blair & Co., was a director of Marshall Field & Co., Field Enterprises, Inc., Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, and the University of Chicago.

Marshall Field joined Glore, Ward & Co. in 1920. Its other stockholders and directors were Charles F. Glore, Pierce C. Ward, Allen L. Withers and Earle H. Reynolds. (Marshall Field 3d Goes Into Banking. New York Times, Dec. 30, 1920.) In 1922, Marshall Field, Glore, Ward & Co. moved from leased quarters in the Bankers Trust building at Wall and Nassau Streets into its own seven-story building on Wall Street, purchased from the Bank of Montreal. He also bought properties on Sixty-ninth and Seventieth, adjoining the Harriman residence, on which to construct a home; and 1700 acres with a two-mile frontage on Long Island Sound. (Marshall Field Buys 38 Wall Street. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1922.) Field was a director of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, the Merchants Trust Company, Marshall Field & Co. of Chicago, the Guaranty Trust Company of New York, and the Bank of the Manhattan Company. (Field and Baker Join Bank Board. New York Times, Dec. 6, 1922.) The Fields constructed a 200-room mansion surrounded by 28 other buildings on the country site. (Mrs. Field Insures Life For $2,000,000. New York Times, Jun. 8, 1923.) He was associated with the Beekman Hospital since 1922, when it was called the Volunteer Hospital. He "procured the services of Howard Cullman as President." (Beekman Hospital Fund Drive Opens. New York Times, Apr. 15, 1925.)

Field, Glore reorganized as a partnership in 1930 in order get seats on the New York Stock Exchange, with Maulsby Forrest as the floor member. Other members were Garrett A. Brownback, James H. Douglas Jr., Thomas P. Durell, Marshall Field, James R. Forgan, Charles F. Glore, Milton S. Harrison, Douglas T. Johnston, Thomas W. Kimball and Allen L. Withers. (Changes in Brokerages. New York Times, Mar. 7, 1931; Field, Glore Reorganized. New York Times, Mar. 13, 1931.) Field, Glore & Co. was part of a banking syndicate which enabled William S. Paley to reacquire the Paramount-Publix Corporation's 50 percent share of CBS. The others involved were Brown Brothers, Harriman & Co., the Lehman Corporation, and Herbert Bayard Swope, former executive editor of the New York World. (Paley Completes Radio Chain Deal. New York Times, Mar. 9, 1932.) Field, Glore & Co., Lehman Brothers, Goldman, Sachs & Co, and Hayden, Stone & Co. Field, Glore & Co. underwrote the reorganization of Studebaker and installed Paul G. Hoffman as its president. (Studebaker Plans Approved By Court. New York Times, Jan. 29, 1935.) Charles F. Glore of Field, Glore and John Hertz of Lehman Brothers joined the Studebaker board. (Join Studebaker Board. New York Times, Sep. 29, 1935.) Field retired from banking in 1935. (Marshall Field to Leave Banking. New York Times, Jun. 29, 1935.) Marshall Field's children by his first marriage to Evelyn Marshall, Barbara and Marshall Jr., were a bridesmaid and an usher, respectively, at the marriage of Angier Biddle Duke Jr., the grandson of Benjamin N. Duke of the American Tobacco Company, to Priscilla St. George, the granddaughter of George F. Baker Jr. (~1878-1937). The guest list was lengthy. (Priscilla St. George Is Married To Angier B. Duke in Tuxedo Park. New York Times, Jan. 3, 1937.)

Field, Glore partner James H. Douglas Jr. was an usher at the wedding of David Hunter McAlpin 3d, who was a grandson of William Rockefeller and of tobacco magnate David H. McAlpin. (Miss Underwood Weds D.H. McAlpin. New York Times, Jun. 13, 1924.) His first wife was Grace McGann; she was a granddaughter of Sen. Charles B. Farwell and a niece of Reginald De Koven, who attended the ceremony. Farwell Winston was her half-brother. (Society Attends McGann-Douglas Wedding Service. Chicago Daily Tribune, Nov. 27, 1927.) His father was a founder of the Quaker Oats Company from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He graduated from Princeton in 1920 after an interruption for military service, and spent a year in graduate studies at Corpus Christi College of Cambridge University, before graduating from Harvard Law School in 1924. "He started out as a lawyer with the Chicago firm of Winston, Strawn & Shaw the next year, but switched to investment banking in 1929 with Field, Glore & Company." He left it in 1932 to become Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and later served throughout the Eisenhower administration as Under Secretary and Secretary of the Air Force and Deputy Secretary of Defense. He was a trustee of the University of Chicago for 55 years, and a director of American Airlines, Marsh & McLennan, the Chicago Title and Trust Company and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. (James H. Douglas Jr. Dead At 88; Served Presidents and the Military. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1988.) James H. Douglas Jr. was a director of the Fund for the Republic in 1973.

James H. Douglas Jr. Dead At 88 / New York Times

Grace McGann's mother, Grace Farwell, was the sister of Walter Farwell, Yale 1885, and the widow of Dudley Winston, Skull & Bones 1886. Farwell Winston, Yale 1915, was their son. (R.G. McGann to Wed. New York Times, Jun. 13, 1906; Mrs. De Koven's Sister Weds. New York Times, Jun. 15, 1906; Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1943-1944, p. 28.) In his senior year at Yale, Dudley Winston was secretary to his father, Frederick H. Winston, who was appointed Minister to Persia by President Cleveland. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1890-1900, p. 555.) Her brother-in-law, Winston Seymour Strawn (S&B 1907), founded Winston, Strawn & Shaw with his father. He was general solicitor of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. (Frederick Seymour Winston. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 1074.)

(Walter Farwell, p. 28; John V. Farwell p 13) Obituary Record 1943-1944 / Yale University Library (pdf, 393 pp)
Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1890-1900, p. 555 / Google Books
Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 1074 / Google Books

Corpus Christi College "is the venue of the Intelligence History Seminar, a group of postgraduate historians that discuss newly released intelligence documents. These weekly meetings are presided over by the College's current President, Prof. Christopher Andrew. Invited guests occasionally include past members of the British and other intelligence services. At this seminar, views are expressed according to the Chatham House Rule and under an informal agreement with the group's members such views cannot be published." (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Wikipedia. Accessed 5/30/08.)

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge / Wikipedia

James Russell Forgan

Field, Glore changed its name to Glore, Forgan in 1937. (Banking Firm to Change. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1936.) It later became Glore, Forgan, Wm. R. Staats, Inc, then became du Pont, Glore Forgan Inc. after merging in 1970 with Francis I. DuPont & Co. and Hirsch & Co. The merger was precipitated by the death of partner Marshall Field IV, whose will directed that the money be withdrawn and put into the Field Foundation. Glore, Forgan's house counsel, William J. Casey, was an old OSS buddy of Russ Forgan (and a founder of Capital Cities / ABC). Casey became Director of Central Intelligence during the Reagan Administration. (The Unseen Wall Street of 1969-1975: And Its Significance for Today. By Alec Benn. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, p. 63.)

The Unseen Wall Street of 1969-1975 / Google Books

James Russell Forgan, the chairman of Glore, Forgan, became a partner in 1930. He served in the European theater of the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, and was chairman of the two committees that prepared the planning documents for the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency. He was a 1922 Graduate of Princeton University. His widow was the former Ada Johnson. (J. Russell Forgan Dead At 73; Banker Was Official of O.S.S. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1974.) Mrs. Russell Forgan was a fund-raiser for the American Heart Association. (Plans Advanced By Heart Group For Fete May 2. New York Times, Dec. 4, 1960; Aides Are Listed For Heart Ball At the Waldorf. New York Times, Feb. 4, 1962.) J. Russell Forgan personally attended at least two regular meeting of the Board of Directors of Philip Morris in 1959, and the firm handled PM's sale of $55 million in notes in 1964. The object was evidently to build up the company, which was then one of the smaller ones, as the Judas to lead the others to disaster. Maurice Stans was made president of Glore-Forgan-William R. Staats and Co.; he had been Director of the Bureau of the Budget during the Eisenhower Administration, and subsequently served as Secretary of Commerce in the Nixon Administration.

J. Russell Forgan's father was David Robertson Forgan, vice chairman of the executive committee of the Central Republic Bank and Trust Company of Chicago. He was born in Scotland in 1862. His father founded Robert Forgan & Son to manufacture golf balls and cluibs. When he was 15, he and several other boys applied for a job at the Clydesdale Bank in St. Andrews, where his Sunday school teacher was an official of the bank. He got a position at the Bank of Nova Scotia three years later, and held positions in Winnipeg and Fredericton, N.B. In 1888, he became cashier of the American Exchange Bank in Duluth, Minn., and two years later went to the Northwestern National in Minneapolis. In 1896, he came to Chicago as a vice president of the Union National Bank and was made president two years later. It 1900 it merged with the First National, where his brother, James B. Forgan, was president. He became its president from 1907 to 1925, when it merged with the National Bank of the Republic, of which he became vice chairman, and continued after it merged with the Central Trust to become the Central Republic Bank and Trust. "He was a close friend of the late President William Howard Taft and General Charles G. Dawes, American Ambassador to London." His sons, Robert R. Forgan, David Robertson Forgan Jr., and J. Russell Forgan, and daughters Mrs. Halstead G. Freeman and Mrs. P. Lyndon Dodge [Skull & Bones 1907] all lived in New York City. (D.R. Forgan Dies; A Chicago Banker. New York Times, Dec. 27, 1931.) David R. Forgan was the head of the Taft Club in Chicago. (To Boom Taft in Illinois. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1912.)

Robert R. Forgan went to the National City Bank of Chicago as a vice president, and continued until its merger, when he formed his own banking and securities company of Robert Russell Forgan & Co. He was born in Fredericton, N.B. and served on the U.S. War Credits Board during World War I. (Robert R. Forgan, Banker, Dies At 49. New York Times, Oct. 13, 1935.) In 1919, he married Margaret Huntington of Cleveland. They were divorced a few years later. (Mrs. Forgan Asks Divorce. New York Times, Jan. 31, 1925; Huntington Heiress Gets Divorce. New York Times, Apr. 7, 1925.) He began as an assistant cashier at the National City Bank. (Few Changes in Bank Directorates. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1918.)

J. Russell Forgan's uncle, James Berwick Forgan was born in St. Andrews in 1852. An uncle who was local agent for the Royal Bank of Scotland got him a place as a banking apprentice. He worked for the Bank of British North America, the Bank of Nova Scotia, and the Northwestern National Bank in Minneapolis in 1886. He became a vice president of the First National Bank of Chicago in 1892, and later Chairman of the First National Bank and the First Trust and Savings Bank. He died of bleeding stomach ulcers. (J.B. Forgan Dies; Sings Hymns At End. New York Times, Oct. 29, 1924; Mrs. James B. Forgan. New York Times, Nov. 1, 1935.) He was a director of the Equitable Life Assurance Society between at least 1904 and 1915.

Charles F. Glore

Charles Foster Glore was born in Eureka Springs, Ark., around 1889. He roomed at the University of Chicago with Harold Higgins Swift of the Swift & Co. packing company, and dropped out to work there, but switched to selling bonds with A. B. Leach & Co. After World War I, he founded his own firm, selling bonds to wealthy North Shore friends. Glore, Ward & Co. financed three investment trusts, the Chicago Investors' Corp., the Chicago Corp. and the Continental Chicago Corp., which were merged into the Chicago Corp. in 1932. Its directors included Edward A. Cudahy Jr., William McCormick Blair [S&B 1907], James B. Forgan Jr. of the First National Bank of Chicago; "Sewell Lee Avery, president of U. S. Gypsum, Morgan-picked board chairman of Montgomery Ward & Co., director of Northern Trust; President David A. Crawford of Pullman Co.; Robert Douglas Stuart of Quaker Oats Co.; Donald Roderick McLennan, only Chicago director of Pennsylvania R. R. and head of Marsh & McLennan, reputedly largest U. S. insurance brokers. At Continental Illinois Bank & Trust Co., Banker Glore has Stanley Field, chairman of the executive committee." (Chicago's Three-in-One. Time, Nov. 28, 1932.) He became a director of the Continental and Commerical banks in 1927. (Chicago Bank Personnel Changes. New York Times, Jan. 16, 1927.)

Charles Glore was one of the founding trustees of the University of Chicago Cancer Research Foundation, whose other trustees were Graham Aldis of Aldis & Co. real estate; Edward Eagle Brown, chairman of the board of the First National Bank of Chicago; Col. Henry Crown, president of Materials Service Corp.; Frank McNair, executive vice president of the Harris Trust and Savings Bank; Maurice Goldblatt, Louis Goldblatt, and Frances Goldblatt, widow of Nathan Goldblatt, of Goldblatt Brothers Department Stores, Inc.; and Lawrence F. Stern, president of the American National Bank and Trust Co. The Goldblatt Brothers Foundation gave $1 million for the new Nathan Goldblatt Memorial Hospital. The cancer foundation claimed a capital fund of $4 million and annual support of $600,000. (U of C Broadens Cancer Research. Southeast Economist, Dec. 26, 1946.)

Charles F. Glore was chairman of the executive committee and a director of the Chicago Corporation, a member of the executive committee and board of the Continental Casualty Company and Continental Assurance Company, and Libby McNeill and Libby, a director of the Studebaker Corporation, and president and a director of the 208 South La Salle Street Building Corporation. He was billeting officer on the staff of Gen. Pershing during World War I. (Charles F. Glore, Chicago Banker. New York Times, Oct. 7, 1950.) He married Ellen Josephine Hixon, the daughter of Wisconsin lumber heir Frank Pennell Hixon. His old roommate, Harold H. Swift, was his best man. (Miss Ellen Hixon Will Wed Chicago Man on Saturday. La Crosse Tribune, Sep. 10, 1915; Miss Ellen Hixon Became Mrs. Glore Saturday Night. La Crosse Tribune, Sep. 13, 1915.) Mrs. Glore was the niece of Robert Hixon, Skull & Bones 1901.

His son, Robert Hixon Glore, has been a trustee of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke Medical Center since at least 1974. Edward McCormick Blair, managing partner of William Blair and Company, was chairman of the executive board. (Blair et. al. elected to positions at Rush. South End Review, Dec. 5, 1974.)

Clinton Clark, Yale 1908

Clinton Clark was salesman for Marshall Field, Glore, Ward & Co. Inc. and Glore, Forgan & Co. in New York City from 1922-1950. He married Muriel Jane Lilley in Salt Lake City in 1921. (Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased during the Year 1949-1950, p. 81.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1949-1950 / Yale University Library (pdf, 221 pp)

Arthur J. Cohen

Arthur J. Cohen Sr. was counsel to the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. "Mr. Cohen served for many years as chairman of the board of the Metropolitan Tobacco Company and the New Jersey Tobacco Company. He was also a director of Cullman Brothers, Inc." He graduated from Dartmouth in 1903, then Columbia Law School. (Arthur J. Cohen, 83, Prominent Lawyer. New York Times, Apr. 15, 1965.) Mrs. Cohen's brother, Paul Stuart Zuckerman, was an Army Air Force intelligence officer in the Middle East, Europe and the United States during World War II. (Paul S. Zuckerman, Broker Here, Was 66. New York Times, Dec. 4, 1965.) She established the Arthur J. and Nellie Z. Cohen Professorship at Wellesley College, where she graduated in 1912. (Wellesley College Gets a Cohen Chair. New York Times, Oct. 15, 1969.) Arthur J. Cohen was a nephew of Supreme Court Judge William N. Cohen, who was chief counsel for the Alexander group in the Equitable Life Assurance Society litigation that led to the insurance investigations of Charles Evans Hughes. He was an advisor to President Theodore Roosevelt and important in the Republican Party. During the First World War, he was chairman of the ocean advisory committee of the United States Shipping Board. He graduated from Dartmouth in 1879. (Ex-Justice Cohen, Lawyer Here, Dies. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1938.) Arthur J. Cohen was the executor of his estate and received half the residue, about $1.5 million. (Wills For Probate. New York Times, Mar. 4, 1938; W.N. Cohen Estate Put at $4,065,671. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1941.) Arthur J. Cohen Jr. was one of the guests at the birthday party in the Perroquet Suite of the Waldorf-Astoria for Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3d and Arthur Cullman. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Lasker and Michael Eisner's father were also guests. (Mrs. J.F. Cullman 3d Has Birthday Party. New York Times, Dec. 31, 1935.)

Cullman to Cohen, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

John A. Coleman

John Aloysius Coleman was chairman of the New York Stock Exchange from 1943 to 1947. He was senior partner of Adler, Coleman & Co. "Mr. Coleman was a close friend of Patrick Cardinal Hayes, Francis Cardinal Spellman and Terence Cardinal Cooke and was intimately associated with all the works of Catholic Charities in New York for more than 50 years, the Archdiocese of New York said.... In 1920, at the age of 19, he was already a member of the Cardinal's Committee of the Laity, soliciting special gifts. By 1934, he had become executive chairman. The late Pope Pius XI appointed him a Knight of St. Gregory the Great in 1937 and in 1940 he was made a Knight of the Order of Malta." He was appointed a Papal Chamberlain by Pope Pius XII in 1957. He was born in New York City in 1901, and dropped out of high school at age 15 to take a job as a page; became a stockbroker at age 21 and the youngest member of the New York Stock Exchange two years later. "His function on the trading floor was to perform the little-known but often highly profitable task of specialist, maintaining a fair and orderly market in a select group of stocks ranging from Avon, Coca-Cola Bottling of New York and W.R. Grace to Motorola, J.C. Penney and Squibb." (John A. Coleman, Philanthropist, Big Board Chairman, Dies At 75. By Robert Cole. New York Times, Feb. 25, 1977.) He was a governor of the Exchange since 1938 and vice chairman since 1941. (J.A. Coleman Nominated to Head Board of Governors of Exchange. New York Times, Apr. 13, 1943.) He was elected to the Board of the Health Insurance Plan of New York in 1948. Mrs. Albert D. Lasker was a fellow trustee. (Health Plan Pays $2,373,938 in Year. New York Times, May 19, 1948.) In 1959, he was elected a director of the Hanover Bank. (Hanover Bank Elects 3 Trustees. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1959.)

According to Lewis Cullman, Paul Adler of Adler, Coleman called Joseph Cullman Jr. in 1926 and advised him to buy a seat on the Stock Exchange for $500,000. Cullman thought it was too expensive and offered $50,000. It finally went to him at that price in 1936. (Can't Take It With You: The Art of Making and Giving Money. By Lewis B. Cullman. John Wiley & Sons, 2004.)

In 1958, 1960 and 1964, John A. Coleman and Howard S. Cullman were members of the Board of Directors of the New York Heart Association. (New York Heart Association Inc., 1958, 1960 and 1963-64 Annual Reports.) Cullman had been on the board since 1951.

New York Heart Association 1958 Annual Report / tobacco document
New York Heart Association 1960 Annual Report / tobacco document
New York Heart Association 1963-64 Annual Report / tobacco document

The Gallagher President's Report, July 24, 1968, said: "Opportunity for Sen. John Williams (Dem. Del.) to call for investigation. (Williams sponsor of recent tender offer disclosure bill.) Require SEC chairman Manny Cohen to testify. Manny good public servant. Too cautious. Fears power. Stands in awe of Wall Street Establishment. E.g., New York Stock Exchange chairman "Wallpaper Gus" Levy, Adler & Coleman partner "Holy John" Coleman. Manny should recommend legislation to curb abusive practices."

The Gallagher President's Report, July 24, 1968 / tobacco document

Sister Margaret Sweeney, president of St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center in New York, thanks Peter N. Schmidt, Philip Morris Media Analyst, for its donation to the hospital's New York Ballet Benefit. (Sweeney to Schmidt, May 1, 1984.) The hospital was founded by the Sisters of Charity in 1849. In 1983, it opened its John A. Coleman Pavilion - which was named for him. Thomas A. Coleman and J. Peter Grace Jr. were on the Board of Trustees.

Sweeney to Schmidt, May 1, 1984 / tobacco document
St. Vincent's Hospital Ballet Benefit, 1984 / tobacco document
Cullman to Coleman, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

His daughter married Harry Coleman Hagerty Jr. (Mary Ann Coleman Is Married Here. New York Times, Sep. 20, 1959.) Harry C. Hagerty Sr. was vice chairman and chief financial officer of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. "He joined Metropolitan Life in 1917 as a statistician, became assistant treasurer in 1931, treasurer in 1936, financial vice president in 1951, and vice chairman in 1960. He retired in 1964." He was on the board of W.R. Grace & Company, the First National City Bank, the Radio Corporation of America, the National Broadcasting Company, the Amerada-Hess Corporation, the Long Island Lighting Company, Brinks Inc., the East River Savings Bank, the Rochester Gas & Electric Corporation and the Commercial Solvents Corporation. He was a trustee of the University of Notre Dame, Fordham University, Holy Cross College and Manhattanville College. He was a board member of Catholic Charities, and a member of the Cardinal's Committee of the Laity. He was appointed a Papal Chamberlain in 1957 by Pope Pius XII, and was a Knight of the Order of Malta and a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre. (Harry C. Hagerty, Retired Executive. By George Dugan. New York Times, Sep. 25, 1977.)

Frederic W. Ecker, Chairman of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, was a director-at-large of the American Cancer Society from 1960-62. (Know Your Board of Directors 1961. American Cancer Society.)

ACS Board of Directors, 1961 / tobacco document

John E. Cookman, Elihu 1931

In 1951, John E. Cookman, a vice president of New York Trust Company and a director of the Pacific Fire Insurance Company, the Bankers and Shippers Insurance Company and the Jersey Insurance Company of New York, was appointed assistant to the president, Joseph Cullman Jr. (To Join Cigarette Concern. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1951.) Cookman's father-in-law, Clinton Vanderbilt Meserole, was the president of those three insurance companies, and president of the board of trustees of Vassar College. (Meserole--Cookman. New York Times, July 13, 1936.) Louis Walker, Skull & Bones 1936, an uncle of President GHW Bush, was an usher at his wedding (Anne B. Meserole Is Wed to Banker. New York Times, Oct. 17, 1936.) Louis's brother John M. Walker, S&B 1931, was later chairman and CEO of Memorial Hospital. Cookman graduated from Yale in 1930, and was a member of the Elihu Club, a senior society akin to Skull & Bones. (Yale Tap Day Held; 10 Refuse Election. New York Times, May 16, 1930.) He tapped Hoyt Ammidon as his successor on Tap Day, 1931 (Yale Tap Day Critic Accepts Election. New York Times, May 15, 1931.) His three brothers were also graduates of Yale, and his father, Arthur S. Cookman, was made an honorary Yale alumnus for this in 1938. He was a vice president of Benson & Hedges in 1953.

Cullman to Cookman, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

"Bottom, Right: A $75 million check, representing a 25-year debenture issue, is presented to John E. Cookman [right], Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Shown at the presentation are [left to right] F. Warren Hellman of Lehman Brothers, Sydney J. Weinberg, Jr., of Goldman, Sachs & Co., Frederick L. Ehrman of Lehman Brothers and James W. Cozad, Treasurer of Philip Morris." (Philip Morris 1968 Annual Report, p. 8 [p. 10 of document].) Hellman was Ehrman's nephew.

PM 1968 Annual Report / tobacco document

His brother, George E. Cookman, Elihu 1938, was killed in World War II. Their father was Arthur Shirley Cookman (B.A. Haverford Coll 1902), president of A.S. Cookman & Co., importers and exporters; son of John Emory and Margaret (Howland) Cookman of New York City. His brother-in-law was Daniel A. Lindley [Scroll & Key 1926], and Allen L. Lindley Jr. [Wolf's Head 1932]. (90 Juniors Tapped By Yale Societies. New York Times, May 14, 1937; George Eustis Cookman, B.A. 1938. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1943-1944, p. 183.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1943-1944 / Yale University Library (pdf, 393 pp)

Their family was among the heirs to the Howland fortune, which was litigated for 53 years. In 1872, Margaret Smith Howland married "Rev. John Emory Cookman, born June 8, 1836, at Carlisle, Pa., died in New York, March 29, 1891, son of Rev. George Grimston and Mary (Barton) Cookman of England, who came to this country early in the nineteenth century. Rev. George G. Cookman became chaplain of the United States Senate, and was sent on a diplomatic mission to England, taking passage on steamship President, which was never heard from after leaving New York harbor. Two of his sons became clergymen." The second son, Arthur Shibley Cookman was born in 1880. (The Howland Heirs: Being the Story of a Family and a Fortune and the Inheritance of a Trust Established for Mrs. Hetty H. R. Green. By William Morrell Emory. E. Anthony and Sons, Inc., 1919.)

The Howland Heirs / Google Books

Howard Stix Cullman, Yale 1913

"Mr. Cullman, who was born Sep. 23, 1891, was the son of Joseph F. and Zillah Stix Cullman. His grandfather was Ferdinand Cullman, who, after his arrival here in 1848, had become a millionaire in the tobacco business." He attended Philips Exeter Academy and graduated from Yale in 1913. "A severe case of tuberculosis sent Mr. Cullman to Colorado in 1918. In the three years he lived there, recuperating he read extensively about social problems and became, as he said years later, 'socially conscious.' Returning to New York in 1921, he sought a means of doing good works. He became interested in the Volunteer Hospital, in the Wall Street area, which was about to default on a $400,000 mortgage. He led a group of businessmen who took over management of the hospital, renamed it Beekman Hospital, and put it on a sound financial footing. For 42 years Mr. Cullman was president of Beekman-Downtown, and was board chairman at his death." He was treasurer for Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt's election campaigns. He was a member of the Port of New York Authority from 1927 to 1969, and its chairman since 1945. In 1938, after their father's death, he and his brother Joseph gained control of Cullman Bros., "which owned a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, and through it made investments in tobacco, real estate, and other interests." Hugh and Paul Thomas Cullman were sons from his first marriage, and Brian and Marguerite Cullman were from his second marriage, to Marguerite Wagner. "He was a chain smoker, and from time to time embarked on campaigns to ease laws that forbid smoking in legitimate theaters." (Howard S. Cullman, 80, of Port Authority, Dies. By Albin Krebs. New York Times, Jun. 30, 1972.) Howard and Joseph Cullman Jr. inherited a net estate of $859,680 when their mother died. (Mrs. Cullman left estate of $859,680. New York Times, Feb. 2, 1937.) Joseph F. Cullman Sr. left $50,000 to Mount Sinai Hospital and $5,000 each to the Beekman Hospital and the Society for Ethical Culture. His sister Lina was Mrs. L.C. [Lawrence Cullman] Stix. (Wills for Probate. New York Times, Aug. 6, 1938.)

H.S. Cullman was a member of the board of trustees of the New York Homeopathic Medical College. Charles D. Halsey was its president, and Clifford Hemphill was vice president. ($227,335 for Hospital. New York Times, Jun. 16, 1931.) Clifford Hemphill was a founder of Hemphill, Noyes, which funded both Philip Morris and Johnson & Johnson in the 1940s.

Howard S. Cullman was a director of the Bankers Trust Co. from 1951 to 1954, and again from 1956 until at least 1964. Cullman told Paul M. Hahn, President of the American Tobacco Company, about a phone call he received from Simon Flexner's nephew, James Flexner. Cullman said Flexner said that he was "outraged at the connotation of the mousetrap we have been put in in what he calls the fictitious relation of skin cancer via painting the backs of mice," and "thinks scientifically reputable men should knock down the hoax of the connotation and its implications that have been given wide publicity in the Reader's Digest, Time and Life." (Cullman to Hahn, Jan. 7, 1954.)

Cullman to Hahn, Jan. 7, 1954 / tobacco document

In 1951, the board of directors of the New York Heart Association was enlarged by 15 members. "The new board members are: Howard S. Cullman, Col. J. Edward Johnston, Dr. Theodore G. Klumpp, Mrs. H. Nelson Slater, Dr. J. Murray Steele, Dr. Robert Watson and William Zeckendorf. Appointed at an earlier meeting, but not previously reported, were Arthur Baer, Dr. Adolph R. Berger, H. Donald Campbell, Mrs. Preston Davie, James A. Farley, Mrs. Vincent R. Impellitteri, John Sloan and Dr. May G. Wilson." Elliott V. Bell was the chairman. (Heart Board Enlarged. New York Times, Feb. 6, 1951.) In 1958, 1960 and 1964, John A. Coleman and Howard S. Cullman were members of the Board of Directors of the New York Heart Association. (New York Heart Association Inc., 1958, 1960 and 1963-64 Annual Reports.)

New York Heart Association 1958 Annual Report / tobacco document
New York Heart Association 1960 Annual Report / tobacco document
New York Heart Association 1963-64 Annual Report / tobacco document

Cullman met several times with President Eisenhower between 1953 and 1956, including "DDE Diary Oct.-Dec. 1953 [National Security Training Commission; Howard Cullman on relationship of lung cancer to cigarette smoking..."; and again in January and October 1956. (Scope and Content Note, Dwight D. Eisenhower Diaries.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower Diaries / ibiblio.org

Louis Stix Weiss, Yale 1915

Louis S. Weiss was the son of Samuel William Weiss and Carrie Stix Weiss. He graduated from Yale in 1915. In 1920, he joined Simpson, Thacher & Barlett, and three years later joined Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. He was chief counsel for the Marshall Field interests, a director and secretary of the Field Foundation, and general counsel for the New York newspaper PM and its successor, the New York Star. He became a trustee of the New School for Social Research in 1941 and the next year its chairman. He was chairman of the Legal Defense Committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and a trustee of the National Opinion Research Center [which had been sponsored by the Marshall Field Field Foundation in Colorado in 1941]. (Louis Stix Weiss, Lawyer 30 Years. New York Times, Nov. 15, 1950; (Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, page 81.) He was a member of Cohen, Cole, Weiss & Wharton, attorneys for the Seeman Brothers, and was a director of the company. (Plan 2 Banks for 5 Closed in Toledo, O. Chicago Daily Tribune, Oct. 23, 1931.) He was a director of the Chicago Sun, which Marshall Field owned, and of Field Enterprises Inc. (Owns the Chicago Sun. New York Times, Sep. 1, 1944; Field Enterprises are Incorporated. Washington Post, Sep. 3, 1944.) Weiss was an executor/trustee of the estate of Nina Loeb Warburg, the widow of Paul M. Warburg. She left $25,000 to the United Hospital Fund. (Mrs. Warburg Left Fund to Harvard. New York Times, Jan. 25, 1946.)

Obituary Record 1950-1951 / Yale University Library (pdf, 160 pp)

Weiss's mother and Howard S. Cullman's mother were daughters of Louis Stix, founder of Louis Stix and Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio. (Mrs. Samuel W. Weiss. New York Times, Feb. 3, 1938; Stern Genealogy Page 285, American Jewish Archives.) Samuel William Weiss was born in Honesdale, Pa. and came to New Haven in 1867. He graduated from Yale in 1872. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1910-1915, p. 75.)

Stern Genealogy Page 285 / American Jewish Archives (pdf, 1p)
Search Results, Page 285 / American Jewish Archives
Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1910-1915, p. 75 / Google Books

Louis Stix

Louis Stix founded the dry goods firm of Louis Stix & Co. in Cincinnati, Ohio. He died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Samuel W. Weiss. He was survived by Mrs. Stix and ten children. (Obituary Notes. New York Times, Jul. 27, 1902.) Their children, seventeen grandchildren, and three brothers - William, Nathan and Henry Stix, and Mrs. Stix's only sister, Mrs. C. Swartz, celebrated their golden wedding in 1901. (Golden Wedding Celebrated. New York Times, Mar. 12, 1901.) He was a trustee of Mount Sinai Hospital since at least 1876. Hyman Blum was its president, Isaac Wallach vice president, and Samuel M. Schafer, treasurer.Other trustees included Isaac Blumenthal, Solomon Sulzberger, and Henry Rosenwald. (One Year of Hospital Work. New York Times, Dec. 27, 1880.) He was an organizer of the dry goods trade auxiliary to the Hospital Saturday and Sunday Association, along with Walter H. Lewis of Lewis Brothers & Co.; A.W. Kingman of Brown, Wood & Kingman; V. Mumford Moore of A. Person, Harriman & Co.; Hyman Blum of L. & H. Blum; Isaac Wallach of H. Wallach's Sons; and M.W. Cooper, of M.W. Cooper & Co. (In Aid of the Hospital Funds. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1882; Merchants Aiding the Hospitals. New York Times, Dec. 24, 1883.) Samuel W. Weiss was Attorney for the Administrators of the estate of Yette Stix, his widow, who died in 1905. (Died. New York Times, Aug. 17, 1905; Surrogate Notices. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1906.)

Louis Stix's brother, Henry Stix, was among the Cincinnati merchants who hosted a banquet for Prussian legislator Eduard Lasker when he visited that city. (Parting Attentions. Galveston Daily News, Dec. 9, 1883.) Louis Stix's son, Robert L. Stix, was a tobacco wholesaler in New York City. (Obituary Notes. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1915.) Mrs. R.L. Stix was the daughter of Ferdinand Cullman, "for fifty years a wholesale tobacco merchant," who immigrated to the US in 1848. Joseph Cullman Sr. was her brother. (Obituary Notes. New York Times, Dec. 1, 1903.)

Joseph Taylor Foster, Skull & Bones 1908

J. Taylor Foster was from Scranton, Penn., and was president of the Yale football association and team manager (Boston Daily Globe, Mar. 5, 1907), also a member of Skull & Bones. (Yale's Society Elections. New York Times, May 24, 1907; Surprises at Tap Day. Chicago Daily Tribune, May 24, 1907.) He was the son of Rufus J. Foster, editor of the Colliery Engineer and founder of the International Correspondence Schools; and Jane Bennett Taylor, the daughter of Joseph F. Taylor. (Rufus J. Foster. In: City of Scranton, p. 258, on p. 7.)

City of Scranton / Pennsylvania State University (pdf, 8 pp)

In 1921, he was admitted to full partnership in Montgomery & Company, along with Charles P. Stokes, who became a director of the Research Institute of Temple University. (Display Ad 215. New York Times, Jan. 2, 1921; Stock Exchange News. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1921 p. 21.) Most of the partners of Montgomery & Co. had ties to Pennsylvania. In April, James H. Perkins left to become president of the Farmers' Loan & Trust, which became a major stockholder of the American Tobacco Company. The partnership was dissolved and re-formed a few months later with just Stokes, Walter C. Janney, Harry E. Marlor, and J. Keating Willcox. (Display Ad 124. New York Times, Jun. 1, 1921 p. 31.) In 1927, Foster was an incorporator of the International Germanic Trust Company, along with E. Roland Harriman (S&B 1917) and Franklin D. Roosevelt. (Germanic Trust is Organized Here. New York Times, Jul. 11, 1927; New Bank Organized. New York Times, Aug. 13, 1927; Chapter 3: FDR: International Speculator. In: Wall Street and FDR. By Antony Sutton.)

Ch. 3, Wall Street and FDR / Reformation.org

In 1925, he was with Field, Glore & Company, and he and several other Field, Glore personnel were involved in fundraising for the Beekman Street Hospital. The head of this effort was Marshall Field's brother-in-law, Charles H. Marshall of Butler, Herrick & Marshall. (Bankers Organize For Hospital Drive. New York Times, Apr. 16, 1925.) In 1929, still affiliated with Field, Glore & Co., Foster was one of the organizers of Tobacco and Allied Stocks Inc. The other board members were William A. Willingham, chairman of Universal Leaf Tobacco Company; Joseph F. Cullman Jr., president of Cullman Brothers Inc.; Howard S. Cullman, vice president of Cullman Brothers; Fletcher L. Gill, vice president of the International Acceptance Bank Inc.; Edgar B. Bernhard of Colvin & Co.; Ross E. Young of Edward B. Smith & Co.; and John F. Wharton, of Cohen, Cole, Weiss & Wharton, counsel. (To Hold Tobacco Shares. New York Times, Jan. 8, 1929; Display Ad 126. New York Times, Jan. 17, 1929.) Howard S. Cullman was president of the Beekman Street Hospital in 1930, and Marshall Field was head of the committee to select a building site for a clinic. (Beekman Hospital Seeks Clinic Site. New York Times, Jan. 22, 1930.)

In 1932, he founded Foster & Co., Inc, with S.S. Furman, W.H. Gregory, and Philip Bryden. (Many Firms Make Personnel Changes. New York Times, Jan. 4, 1932.) The Chicago correspondent of Foster & Co. was Blair, Bonner & Co., the newly-founded predecessor of William Blair & Company led by William McCormick Blair (S&B 1907) and Francis A. Bonner. (Blair, Bonner & Company Open La Salle Street Office. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jun. 8, 1935.) Both Blair and Bonner were formerly with Lee, Higginson & Co.

He was a president of the Bond Club of New York, succeeding Henry S. Morgan, J.P. Morgan's son who was the partner of his old 1908 Bones classmate Harold Stanley in Morgan Stanley & Co., Inc. (J. Taylor Foster Heads Bond Club. New York Times, Jun. 19, 1941.) He was a partner of Spencer Trask & Co. from 1940 to 1942, when he resigned to become vice president and a director of the Lee Higginson Corporation. (Elected Vice President of Lee Higginson Corp. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1942; Display Ad 29. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1942 p. 31.) He was a vice president of Lee Higginson and a director of Tobacco and Allied Stocks when he exchanged his shares of Benson & Hedges for Philip Morris stock in 1954. He said "I own no shares." (Cullman to Foster and reply, Jan. 18, 1954.) He and his son, Rufus James Foster, were inside stockholders of Chemical Enterprises Inc., of which Kingsley Kunhardt of the Guaranty Trust was a director. (Insiders' Stockholdings. New York Times, Apr. 9, 1964.) J. Taylor Foster died on a train from Philadelphia to New York at age 84. (J. Taylor Foster. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1969.)

Cullman to Foster and reply, Jan. 18, 1954, and reply / tobacco document

Bayard F. Pope

In 1953, Bayard Foster Pope, Chairman of the Marine Midland Trust Company, was elected to the board of Benson & Hedges. (Benson & Hedges Names New Member of Board. New York Times, Jun. 11, 1953.) He was a longtime official of the New York Port Authority and crony of Howard S. Cullman (Cullman Elected By Port Authority. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1945; B.F. Pope Renamed to Port Authority. New York Times, Mar. 10, 1959.) In 1931, as president of Stone & Webster and Bodgett, Inc., Pope had been a member of the executive committee of Selected Industries, Inc., along with Eugene W. Stetson, vice president of the Guaranty Trust, who had been a member of the Morrow group that purchased United Cigar Stores, the old owner of Philip Morris. (Trust Elects Officers. New York Times, May 13, 1931.) Charles D. Hilles Sr. was a fellow director of Marine Midland, whose main office was at the famous address of 120 Broadway. (Display Ad 34. New York Times, Jul. 6, 1933 p. 38; Display Ad 38. New York Times, Apr. 3, 1934 p. 37.) Pope was chairman of the membership committee of the Charity Organization Society, during which time 25 descendants of founder Robert W. de Forest joined up (Aid Charity Organization. New York Times, May 12, 1935), and a vice president (Gifford Again Heads City Welfare Group. New York Times, Nov. 18, 1937.) He was a defendant director in a stockholder suit against Remington-Rand, whose fellow directors included Prof. Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) of the Life Extension Institute. (Misconduct Laid to Rand Officials. New York Times, May 25, 1935.) In 1941, he was elected vice chairman of the executive committee of the Marine Midland Trust Company of New York. He was also chairman of the board of the Marine Midland Corporation and a director of the trust company in New York, and the Marine Trust Company of Buffalo. He was also a director of Hotels Statler Inc., Remington Rand Inc., the Carrier Corporation and Selected Industries Inc. (Fills New Committee Post of Marine Midland Trust. New York Times, Jan. 18, 1941.) Pope was a member of a new health committee of the Community Service Society that was formed "to study the society's program for preventable diseases in New York City." It was headed by Albert G. Milbank of the Milbank Memorial Fund. Mrs. August Belmont; Morris Hadley (S&B 1918); Presbyterian Hospital trustee and Davis, Polk, Wardwell et al. partner Frederick A.O. Schwartz; and Ruth Twombly were members. (Fund's President Heads New Health Committee. New York Times, Feb. 4, 1943.) He was elected a director of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, conveniently located at 120 Broadway. (Aid Drive on Paralysis. New York Times, Jun. 12, 1943.) In 1945, Pope was on the board of directors of the United Hospital Fund. Fellow directors included James S. Adams, who was a member of Lasker ASCC takeover group; Roy E. Larsen, the president of Time, Inc.; and T.J. Ross, who was Secretary of the American Health Foundation at its founding in 1969. (Baker Again Heads City Fund Drive. New York Times, Feb. 16, 1945.) He was a member of the 11-member board of New York University - Bellevue Hospital, along with George A. Brownell, partner of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, et al. (11 Men Will Guide New Medical Unit. New York Times, May 17, 1948.) He was a director of the New York Telephone Company, which was the largest unit of the American Telephone & Telegraph system. (Two Join N.Y. Telephone Board. New York Times, Jan. 28, 1949; 5% Return Shown By N.Y. Telephone New York Times, Feb. 28, 1949.) He was a longtime director of the Greater New York Fund Fund Re-Elects Goetz. New York Times, Oct. 16, 1958.) Bayard F. Pope and other officials of A.T.& T., were accused of "flagrant lobbying and anti-trust fixing," and Justice Department attorney Edward A. Foote of giving A.T. & T. and Western Electric a "milk-and-water consent decree." Sen. William E. Miller (R-NY), who tried to squelch the report, was a director of the Midland Banks. Pope was also a member of the executive committee of the New York Telephone Company, and a director of the Statler Hotels. (Report on A.T. & T. Is 'Pried Loose.' By Drew Pearson. Washington Post and Times Herald, May 23, 1959.) He was a director of Sperry Rand and a commissioner of the New York Port Authority until 1967 (Sperry Rand Fills Two Board Posts. New York Times, May 28, 1959; Sperry Rand Plan Cash Payout Again. New York Times, Jul. 26, 1967; Rockefeller Gives Ronan Recess Seat On Port Authority. New York Times, Dec. 6, 1967.) He remained on the senior advisory board of the Marine Midland Banks until his death. (DisplayAd 91. New York Times, Jul. 16, 1968 p. 53; Bayard Pope, 81, Banker, Is Dead. New York Times, Nov. 12, 1968.)

Bayard F. Pope Jr. was a vice president and director of the New York advertising agency Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne, Inc. (Carol Kent Pope Becomes A Bride. New York Times, Mar. 2, 1958; B.B.D. & O. Adds to Board. New York Times, Mar. 18, 1968; Miss Leslie Leigh Is Future Bride. New York Times, Mar. 26, 1972.) Bayard F. Pope 3d was with New York investment bankers White, Weld & Co. (Miss Claudet A. McPherson Betrothed to Bayard Pope 3d. New York Times, Apr. 4, 1965), and later a vice president and investment officer of First Bancorp of New Hampshire. (Comment. Evil Expectations. By Bayard F. Pope 3d. New York Times, Sep. 27, 1981.)

Bayard Pope's brother, Allan Melville Pope, was elected to the council of New York University in 1931, along with George Emlen Roosevelt and Benjamin Strong Jr. (Three Financiers Join N.Y.U. Council. New York Times, Nov. 3, 1931; Named For New Term on Council of N.Y.U. New York Times, Nov. 14, 1941.) He retired from business in 1947 and became chairman of the finance committee of N.Y.U. full time. (Will Succeed to Top First Boston Posts. New York Times, Dec. 12, 1947; Accepts Full-Time Post On Finances of N.Y.U. New York Times, Dec. 18, 1947.) Allan M. Pope was chairman of the First of Boston Corporation, which took over the securities division of Chase Harris Forbes (Chase Bank to Cut Ties With Two Units. New York Times, May 11, 1934.) In 1948, New York University bought Zion Industries, Inc., founded by Dr. John Alexander Dowie; Allan M. Pope was its president. Dowie also founded the Christian utopian town of Zion, Illinois. (Zion Industries Discloses List of Its Officers. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jan. 25, 1950.) Allan M. Pope, Bayard F. Pope, and George E. Roosevelt were on the fundraising committee of the New York University-Bellevue Medical Center Center Fund (Display Ad. 63. New York Times, Dec. 11, 1950 p. 14.)

Zion City Records / Newberry Library

Bayard F. Pope's grandfather, William Pope, was a trustee of the Homeopathic Medical Society and the Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital in Boston, and his grandmother, Sarah A. Pope, who died in 1888, was president of the Ladies' Aid Society of the Homeopathic Hospital. His aunt, Elizabeth Pope, was married to Dr. Conrad Woesselhoeft, who was also a trustee. (Homeopathic Medical Society. Boston Daily Globe, Oct. 10, 1872; Annual Meetings. Boston Daily Globe, Jan. 12, 1877; Homeopathy's Growth. Boston Daily Globe, Jan. 16, 1885; Homepathic Hospital Work. Boston Daily Globe, Jan. 23, 1895.) John Murray Forbes, the head of J.M. Forbes & Co., was a trustee in 1872, and his son-in-law and former partner, Henry Sturgis Russell, who married his daughter Mary, was a longtime trustee and president of the HMS. Royal E. Robbins of the Waltham Watch Company was another trustee. (Col. Russell Dead. Boston Daily Globe. Feb. 17, 1903; Mrs. M.F. Russell Dead. Boston Daily Globe, Apr. 4, 1916.) Bayard Pope's father was Boston real estate dealer William Carroll Pope. His mother was a daughter of Samuel Downer, who founded the Downer Kerosene Oil Company and later went into petroleum refining at Corry, Pennsylvania. (Mrs. William C. Pope. New York Times, Jun. 23, 1948.) Samuel Downer was a close friend of Horace Mann, the first president of Antioch College, which "designs to devote particular attentions to the study of the laws of health, and every effort will be made to prevent, on the part of the student, any conduct of life that shall violate those laws." (Horace Mann's Antioch College. New York Daily Times, Aug. 10, 1853.) Alphonso Taft, who co-founded Skull & Bones with William Huntington Russell in 1833, was one of the leading trustees of Antioch College.

William Carroll Pope / Dorcester Athenum
Henry Sturgis Russell / The Bingham Genealogy Project

Joseph Cullman letter to Bayard F. Pope concerning exchange of stock and Pope's reply, Jan. 18, 1954: "As you know I unfortunately own no Benson & Hedges. If and when I do I will swap of course."

Cullman to Pope, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

Junius A. Richards

Junius Alexander Richards (1893-1964), director of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, graduated from Harvard in 1915, despite crashing his car into a milk wagon at 35 mph and injuring its driver and two horses as well as himself. (Richards' Chances of Life Improving. Boston Daily Globe, Apr. 30, 1914.) Junius A. Richards and fellow 1915 Harvard graduates C.A. Herter and Devereux Josephs were ushers at the wedding of Henry S. Sturgis, Harvard '16, to Gertrude Lovett, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Lovett. (Marriage Announcement 2. Boston Daily Globe, Jun. 20, 1916.) Herter's uncle was a student of William H. Welch, Skull & Bones 1870, and organizer of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Junius A. Richards married Marie R. Thayer, a daughter of Benjamin B. Thayer (Rush of Weddings Mark Early June. New York Times, Jun. 3, 1923.) His father-in-law, Benjamin Bowditch Thayer, was president of the Anaconda Mining Company, and was a member of the executive committee of the fund committee of the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital. ($6,000,000 Sought By Cancer Hospital. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1929; B.B. Thayer Dies, Anaconda Official. New York Times, Feb. 23, 1933.) They were divorced in 1942, after three children. (Mrs. Richards Freed. New York Times, Feb. 25, 1942.) In 1957, he married Monawee Allen. (Richards - Allen. New York Times, Jan. 1, 1957.) He died in 1964. (Junius Richards Sr., Retired Broker, 71. New York Times, Mar. 6, 1964.)

Richards began his career at the Guaranty Trust Company, and became associated with the bond department of Edward B. Smith & Co. in 1920, when the Guaranty Trust formed the Guaranty Company to handle its bond business. (Financial Notes. New York Times, Aug. 6, 1920; Junius A. Richards; and: Development of Guaranty Bond Department. Bankers' Magazine 1920 Aug;101(2):317.) He became a partner of Edward B. Smith & Co. when it was merged with the Guaranty Company, the Guaranty Trust Company's securities division, as a result of the Banking Act of 1933. The president of the Guaranty Company, Joseph R. Swan, Skull & Bones 1902, also became a partner. (Guaranty Trust Ends Subsidiary. New York Times, Jun. 7, 1934.) He and J.R. Swan were members of the advisory committee Beekman Street Hospital, of which Howard Cullman was president, and Richards was later a director. (Seeks Better Care For Injured Workers. New York Times, Sep. 22, 1932; Beekman Hospital In Plea For Funds. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1937.) Richards and J. Taylor Foster were in the Stock Exchange's fund drive for Beekman Hospital. (First Aid Program At Stock Exchange. New York Times, Mar. 4, 1942.) In 1938, several former members of C.D. Barney & Co. (John P. Grier, Edwin A. Fish, and Jay Cooke) contributed big capital and joined E.B. Smith & Co. as special limited partners, forming Smith Barney & Co. (Legal Notices. Washington Post, Jan. 19, 1938.)

In 1939, Junius A. Richards had the distinction of being the first broker suspended by the Securities and Exchange Commission for stock manipulation. The commission said that, "between Aug. 1 and Nov. 30, 1938, Mr. Richards effected transactions on the New York Curb Exchange on behalf of [Robert] Benson & Co. Ltd, of London, the purpose of which was to manipulate the quotations of stock of the Simplicity Pattern Co., Inc." Benson & Co. and its subsidiary, the British Financial Union, Ltd., "bought or sold substantially the same amounts of the pattern company's stock at substantially the same times 'for the purpose of creating a false and misleading appearance of active trading' in the stock," with Rex Benson as his accomplice. Richards was suspended from seven national securities exchanges for ten days. (Broker Is Cited On 'Rigging' Charge. New York Times, Mar. 3, 1939; Broker Suspended On Rigging Charge. New York Times, Mar. 28, 1939.) The "mysterious Rex Benson" later gave $135,000 to the British polo team. The US team was backed by Jock Whitney. (On the Line With Considine. Washington Post, Jun. 2, 1939.) The chairman of the US Polo Association, Robert E. Strawbridge Jr., was later on the Board of Managers of Memorial Hospital. Benson: was a "cousin and life-long friend of former MI6 Chief Sir Stuart Menzies. Benson had been Military Attache to Washington from 1941-4 - a critical post - and became a leading, though rarely mentioned, member of MI6. A measure of Benson's centrality to the British Establishment was the memorial service for him in St Paul's Cathedral when he died in 1968, (Anthony Cave Brown 'The Secret Servant' 1989, p34-6 and 629)." (In: Smear!: Wilson and the Secret State, 1991, pp. 224-228.) Lieut. Col. Sir Rex Benson was chairman of Robert Benson & Co., the merchant bank founded by his grandfather, for more than 20 years. He retired in 1959. "In 1922 he was sent to Russia by Prime Minister Lloyd George in an attempt to re-establish trade with the new Bolshevik regime. The story goes that he had a cargo of tea worth $300,000." He fled back to Britain with $50,000 after a Russian-speaking colleague was imprisoned. He joined Robert Benson & Co. two years later and became chairman in the 1930s. His widow was the former Leslie Foster of Lake Forest, Illinois, who was formerly married to Condé Nast. (Sir Rex Benson, Banker, 79, Dies. New York Times, Sep. 28, 1968.) Sir Rex "first came to Jamaica at the end of the 1914-1918 war and soon became well known in sporting, commercial and social circles." He was one of the first to build cottages at Round Hill. He later founded the Carib Cement Company with Sir William Stevenson. (Personal Mention. By Kitty Kingston. Kingston, The Gleaner, Apr. 11, 1969.) Robert Henry Benson, previous chairman of Robert Benson & Co., was noted for his "extensive American connections," and was "one of England's most prominent art collectors and benefactors." He was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. He was 80 years old. (Robert Benson Dies; Noted Art Patron. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1929.) Robert H. Benson was one of a group of British financiers planning to attend the opening of the Northern Pacific Railroad in Seattle. (The Northern Pacific Guests. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1883.)

Wilson and the Secret State / Paul Cox homepage

Richards retired from Smith, Barney on Jan. 31, 1940. (Copartnership Notice. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1940 p. 42.) In 1941, H.N. Whitney, Goadby & Co. was formed when H.N. Whitney & Sons merged with W.H. Goadby & Co., with Junius A. Richards as a partner (2 Firms To Be Merged. New York Times, Mar. 21, 1941.) Richards and Howard S. Cullman were directors of the Equitable Office Building Corporation, under reorganization since 1941. (Court Approves Equitable Plan. New York Times, Sep. 13, 1947.) Mrs. Junius A. Richards, Margaret Behn, Mrs. Thomas J. Watson, and Mrs. Albert D. Lasker helped in a fund-raiser for the New York Botanical Gardens (Theatre Party Tomorrow Will Assist Botanical Garden Research Program. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1949.)

Joe Cullman's letter to Richards requesting exchange of Benson & Hedges and Tobacco and Allied Stocks for Philip Morris stock, Jan. 18, 1954, and Richards' reply, Jan. 25, 1954: "As neither I nor any of my family now own any Benson & Hedges stock, my signature to this document is meaningless." Richards was at H.N. Whitney, Goadby & Co.

Cullman to Richards, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

Junius Richards' son, Reuben Francis Richards, married Elizabeth Hamilton Brady, the daughter of James Cox Brady Jr. of Far Hills. His brother, Junius Richards Jr., was best man, and the ushers included his brother Benjamin of Goliad, Texas, and cousin Thayer Ivison of Charlotte, W.V.; his wife's brothers, Nicholas F. Brady and James C. Brady Jr., and her cousin, Lt. Frederick S. Moseley Jr. (Elizabeth Brady Bride in Peapack. New York Times, Dec. 13, 1953.) Reuben Richards was an usher at the wedding of Kate Todd, the sister of former EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman. (Charles O. Thompson Marries Kate P. Todd in Oldwick, N.J. New York Times, Oct. 14, 1956.) Reuben F. Richards was appointed vice president of the National City Bank. (First National City Names Officers. New York Times, Apr. 24, 1963.) "John S. Reed, Reuben F. Richards, and Thomas C. Theobald have been promoted to executive vice presidents at First National City Bank." (Executive Changes. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1970.) In 1977, Richards replaced Theobald as head of the world corporation group. (People and Business. New York Times, Aug. 3, 1977.)

Junius A. Richards' great-grandfather was John Richards of Gouldsborough, who married a daughter of Judge Stephen Jones of Maine. He was "an agent with General Cobb, of the Bingham estate for some years; then moved to Boston where he was a merchant in company with his brother-in-law, Stephen Jones." Richards & Jones were merchants of a wide assortment of things, including currency (Copartnership formed. New England Palladium, Mar. 21, 1806; Exchange. New England Palladium, Mar. 4, 1808 - "Exchange on London in sets to accommodate purchasers, for sale at No. 5 India-wharf, by RICHARDS & JONES. Wanted - 3 or 4000 dollars on New York or Philadelphia, at short sight.") His grandfather, Francis Richards, married a daughter of Robert Hallowell Gardiner of Gardiner, Maine. His uncles were George H. Richards, a Boston lawyer; Gen. John T. Richards; Henry Richards; and Robert H. Richards. "The wife of Henry Richards is Laura E. Richards, the authoress, and a daughter of Julia Ward Howe." (Stephen Jones, the First Justice of Peace East of the Penobscot. Sprague's Journal of Maine History, April 1916.) George H. Richards was president of the Richards Paper Company of Gardiner, Maine, and Harry Richards was its manager. (Seventy-Five Hands Out. Boston Daily Globe, Jun. 24, 1891.) His father, Frank Richards, was associated with the family firm as well. (Ellen Swallows Richards bio, Readseries.com). Around 1857, the family moved to the south of England, where the boys attended Canterbury College, presided over by Dr. [Edward White] Benson, later the archbishop of Canterbury, where the sons of army officers and notable British familes went to school. (Senior Alumnus of M.I.T. Boston Daily Globe, Feb. 7, 1909.) William Barton Rogers, the first president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was an old friend of the Richards family (Richards of Tech. New York Times, Nov. 8, 1936) where his uncle, Robert Hallowell Richards (1844-1945), was one of the first graduates of M.I.T. in 1868, and professor of mining engineering there from 1871 to 1914. (Prof. R. Richards, Oldest M.I.T. Man. New York Times, Mar. 28, 1945.) William C. Potter of the Guaranty Trust was presumably one of his students.

Stephen Jones / Rootsweb
Laura E. Richards / Readseries.com
Alexander Family / Rootsweb

Prof. Robert H. Richards' wife was Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911), professor of air and water analysis at M.I.T. She was the first president of the American Home Economics Association in 1908. (Mrs. Richards of Tech Dead. Boston Daily Globe, Mar. 31, 1911.) In 1908 or 1909, her pamphlet on "Tonics and Stimulants" was published by the Health-Education League of Boston. She and C.E.A. Winslow were directors, and its Vice President, Dr. H.S. Pomeroy, was the author of an anti-smoking screed published in 1906.

Tonics and Stimulants / Harvard University Library

1917, Apr. 6 Professor Irving Fisher of Yale University spoke on "Life Extension" under the auspices of the Ellen S. Richards Memorial Fund. His talk was published as the first Ellen S. Richards monograph." (Vassar History 1915-1922. Last updated: 10 November, 1999, by Jeremy R. Linden, '00.) Anti-smoker Irving Fisher was the father of corporate health fascism, and his vehicle, the Life Extension Institute, was literally founded in the boardroom of the Guaranty Trust - where Junius Richards was employed until 1920. Ellen Swallows Richards founded the smoke-abatement movement, whose 19th century pseudo-science continues to enslave the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and its sycophant, the Health Effects Institute.

Vassar History 1915-1922 / Vassar College

"To this day, Richards’ legacy or research in human ecology and management principles empowers individual, family and community well being. The Lake Placid conferences of 1899 lead to the 1909 founding of the American Home Economics Association renamed the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences in 1955." (Washington Association of Family and Consumer Sciences, 3-25-06.) The reason Americans have been turned into a nation of fat, stupid, cowardly, disenfranchised eunuchs, with nannies running their lives - it's because we've been EMPOWERED! The AAFCS lobbied for the1997 Children's Health Insurance and Lower Deficits Bill, a scheme introduced by Sens. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass) and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) to fund additional children's health insurance with a tax increase on tobacco products of 43 cents. (AAFCS Press Release, no date.)

Ellen Swallows Richards / Chemheritage
Ellen Swallow Marries Robert Hallowell Richards / Mass Moments
About Us / Washington Association of Family and Consumer Sciences
Health Curriculum Framework / Massachusetts Department of Education
AAFCS Press Release, 1997 / tobacco document

His father was R. Francis Richards. (Table Gossip. Boston Daily Globe, Dec. 24, 1922.) He died in 1899, and his mother married Charles Frost Aldrich, the son of Thomas Bailey Aldrich, editor of the Atlantic Monthly 1881-90 and the twin brother of Talbot Bailey Aldrich. He stepfather also died four years later, of tuberculosis. (What Is Doing In Society. New York Times, Dec. 28, 1900; At Saranac Lake. Boston Daily Globe, Mar. 7, 1904.) Charles F. Aldrich and Talbot B. Aldrich were associate members of Harvard Class of 1892. At the end of his first year at Harvard, Charles F. Aldrich "left college to accept a position in the office of the Walter Baker chocolate mills at Milton. When the business was later made into a stock company under the name of Walter Baker & Company, Limited, he had a part in the organization and was a director of the company." His brother was with Walter Baker & Co. until before 1907, when he retired to be a trustee of several estates. (Harvard College Class of 1892. Secretary's Report, 1907, p. 168.) James H. Perkins and Robert F. Herrick was also connected with Walter Baker & Co.

Harvard College Class of 1892, p. 168 / Google Books

Junius A. Richards' half-sister, Lillian Aldrich, married John Gordon Winchester. Her matron of honor was his sister Margaret, Mrs. Robert Porter Patterson, whose husband became the Secretary of War and president of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Miss Lillian Aldrich Weds John Gordon Winchester. Boston Daily Globe, Jun. 4, 1922.) The Winchesters were divorced in 1932, and she married his best man, Vinton Chapin, later a Foreign Service Officer and Ambassador to Luxembourg. Winchester then married the ex-wife of Chester Bliss Bowles. (John G. Winchester Weds Mrs. Bowles. New York Times, Nov. 11, 1933.) The latters' son, John Fisk Winchester, married Susan Leay Lawrence. Her sister, Mrs. Louis S. Auchincloss, was matron of honor. (Miss Lawrence, John Winchester Are Wed Here. New York Times, Apr. 1, 1959.)

Godfrey S. Rockefeller

Godfrey Rockefeller, the grandson of William Rockefeller, was elected to the board of directors of Benson & Hedges and served until the merger; he was also a director of John Hay Whitney's Freeport McMoran. W. Arthur Cullman was elected executive vice president, and he was succeeded as assistant to the president and assistant treasurer by Joseph F. Cullman 3d. (Other Company Meetings. New York Times, Apr. 12, 1946.) Joseph F. Cullman 3d was elected an executive vice president of Benson & Hedges in April 1950, and Mrs. Pauline Wagner, the longtime secretary and treasurer of B&H, was promoted to vice president. (Benson & Hedges Advances Two Officers; Company Considering Capital Recasting. New York Times, April 13, 1950.) Rockefeller's wife and Prescott S. Bush's wife were old friends from St. Louis.

John F. Wharton

Wharton was among the original organizers of Tobacco & Allied Stocks in 1929. (To Hold Tobacco Shares. New York Times, Jan. 8, 1929.) He and Joseph F. Cullman Jr. were directors of the Tobacco Products Export Corporation prior to Aug. 1947. (Join Export Concern's Board. New York Times, Aug. 27, 1947.) His wife, Carolin Bunmiller, divorced him in Reno. "Although Mr. Wharton has served as counsel to many large corporations, it has been through activities in the entertainment world that he has come to the public notice. Besides his connection with The Playwrights, he is one of the founders of the Ballet-Theatre Foundation, Inc., and a director of the American National Theatre and Academy. Mr. Wharton served in the Navy in World War I and as a consultant to the Board of Economic Warfare during the recent conflict. He is a director and one of the organizers of the Council for Democracy and a member of the Wall Street Club. His law offices are at 61 Broadway." (Mrs. John F. Wharton Wins A Reno Divorce. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1949.) He was an executor of the estate of Dwight Deere Wiman, heir of the Deere & Co. of Moline, Ill. ($3,000,000 Estate Is Left By Wiman. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1951; $50,000,000 Loan For Utility Here. New York Times, Apr. 6, 1951.) He was an executor for Marshall Field 3d, the grandson of the Chicago department store magnate, who inherited an estimated $175 million in 1943. He owned the Chicago Sun-Times. (Field Fund Gets $30 Million in Will. New York Times, Nov. 21, 1956.) John Franklin Wharton was born in Newark, New Jersey, and graduated from Williams College, then New York Law School and Columbia. (John Wharton Dies, Theater Aficionado. By Max H. Seigel. New York Times, Nov. 25, 1977.)

Cullman to Wharton, Jan. 18, 1954 / tobacco document

"Paul, Weiss, Rifkin, Wharton & Garrison... Partners from the Chicago office, which is no longer in existence, were the following: Adlai Stevenson, U.N., Willard Wirtz, Labor Department; Newton Minow, chairman of the FCC; and William McCormick Blair, ambassador to Denmark. After Paul's death and Stevenson's departure, what was left of the Washington office was merged into the Washington firm of Arnold, Fortas and Porter...." Clients included Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. and Young & Rubicam International, Inc. The source given for this is the book, Lions in the Street; the Inside Story of the Great Law Firms, by Paul Hoffman (1973). In 1960, partner Simon H. Rifkind was a director of Loew's Theatres, which acquired Lorillard Tobacco; and in 1977, partner Morris B. Abram was a member of the Citizens' Committee of the Citizens' Campaign Against Bootleg Cigarettes.

Report to the NCSPP, ca. 1977, p10 / tobacco document

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cast 01-22-12