The Blackstone Zionists

Timothy Beach Blackstone (1829-1900), who was president of the Chicago & Alton Railroad from 1864 to 1899, had been a surveyor for the New York and New Haven Railroad under Col. Roswell B. Mason, who brought Blackstone after him to the Illinois Central Railroad in 1851. (Biography of Timothy B. Blackstone. By Ida Hinsman, 1917.) He paid for a memorial window to John Crerar, who was one of his close friends, at the Second Presbyterian Church in Chicago. (Crerar Memorial Window. Chicago Inter Ocean, Oct. 1, 1893.) T.B. Blackstone was one of the financial supporters of his cousin, William Eugene Blackstone (1841-), of Blackstone Memorial fame. Marvin Hughitt, President of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, Milton Stewart and his brother, Lyman Stewart, of the Union Oil Company of California, were other financial supporters of W.E. Blackstone. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis administered his funding for evangelizing to Jews. ("God's Little Errand Boy." American Messianic Fellowship.) Mrs. William E. Blackstone was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Philander Smith, who were among the earliest settlers of Oak Park. (Mrs. Adeline M. Smith. Daily Inter Ocean, July 6, 1895.)

Biography of Timothy B. Blackstone / Jim Dangel Home Page

Roswell B. Mason was Mayor of Chicago from 1869-71. The Chicago Fire occurred near the end of his term. He had ten sons, all Yale graduates, and two daughters. His sons, Henry Burrall Mason and Alfred Bishop Mason (1851-1933), were members of Skull & Bones, 1870 and 1871. (Lawrence Mason, B.A. 1904, [Elihu]. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1939-1940, pp. 113-114 [special correspondent Toronto Globe & Mail); (Henry Burrall Mason, B.A. 1870. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1931-1932, pp. 19-20 [Chicago attorney]); (Alfred Bishop Mason, B.A. 1871. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1932-1933, pp. 18-19.)

Obituary Record 1939-1940 / Yale University Library
Obituary Record 1931-1932 / Yale University Library
Obituary Record 1932-1933 / Yale University Library

Blackstone offered a free pamphlet titled "Jesus Is Coming," which gave "seven arguments in favor of the pre-millenial coming -- states the difference between the rapture and the revelation, and between the church and the kingdom, and contains a diagram with explanations, similar to the one used by the author, Rev. W.E. Blackstone, in presenting this subject before the Methodist ministers' meeting in Chicago." (Pastor and People. Chicago Inter Ocean, Sep. 28, 1878.) He incorporated the Chicago Training School for City, Home and Foreign Missions, not for profit, with Matthew H. Parkhurst, Charles E. Simmons, James B. Hobbs, Isaac N. Danforth, George D. Elderkin, Joseph L. Whitlock, William Deering, Samuel A. Kean, Amos W. Patton, George W. Bray, T.P. Marsh, J.S. Meyer, and Hiram J. Thompson. (New Corporations. Chicago Daily Inter Ocean, June 25, 1886.)

The signatories of the Blackstone Memorial included such powerful Wall Street figures as Chauncey M. Depew, John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller, J. Pierpont Morgan, William E. Dodge, Frank Loomis, Cyrus W. Field, Russell Sage, and John A. Stewart, as well as Rev. Edward W. Gilman, brother of the president of Johns Hopkins University, and George Jones, owner of The New York Times. Their Brown Brothers, Harriman, Vanderbilt, Guaranty Trust, Skull & Bones, and Standard Oil money and connections have created two world wars to drive the Jews out of Europe and into Palestine; and today, the resulting strife is the pretext for America's invasion of the Middle East. And E.H. Harriman's sons elevated the Bush family into the U.S. power elite. G.B. Wilcox [sic] of Chicago Theological Seminary, was actually Giles Buckingham Willcox (1826-1922), Skull & Bones 1848, who was professor of pastoral theology and church history at Chicago Theological Seminary since 1879. His great-granddaughter was married to A.J. Wells, the the main author of the so-called "EPA" report on passive smoking that was actually written by anti-smoking activists.

The Blackstone Memorial / American Messianic Fellowship

Professor Charles A.L. Totten, military instructor at Yale University, proclaimed the Blackstone manifesto to be a mystical fulfillment of biblical prophesy, and claimed that Armageddon was to occur in 1899 (Palestine For the Jews. New York Times, Mar. 8, 1891; The World's Approaching End. Lieut. Totten Says It Will Occur In Less Than Eight Years. New York Times, Apr. 12, 1891, which made Page 1.) Totten began his rise in the world when he was assigned to be master of military science and tactics in St. Paul's School at Garden City, Long Island, by Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln, the first son of Pres. Abraham Lincoln. (A.T. Stewart's Church and School. New York Times, Aug. 30, 1883.) Totten died in Milford, Conn. in 1908. (New York Times, Apr. 13, 1908 p. 7.)

Dwight Lyman Moody

D.L. Moody, one of the signers of the Blackstone Memorial, was the founder of Northfield Schools, Moody Church and Moody Bible Institute in Chicago. His son, William Revell Moody, graduated from Yale in 1891. His brother, Rev. Paul D. Moody graduated from Yale in 1901, and two first cousins also attended Yale, Charles R. Holden graduated in 1892 and Fleming H. Revell was in the class of 1907. William R. Moody was director of the Northfield General Conference for Christian Workers since 1900. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1933-1934, pp. 75-76; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1947-1948, p. 63.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1933-1934 / Yale University Library (pdf, 285 pp)
Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1947-1948 / Yale University Library (pdf, 254 pp)

Marvin Hughitt

Marvin Hughitt was one of the organizers of the most recent of Chicago's six medical colleges, the Chicago Homeopathic College. (Medical. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jul. 23, 1876.)

"The annual meeting of stockholders of the Chicago and Northwestern railway company held here yesterday differed radically from that of the Illinois Central the day previous. While at the latter's meeting several hundred small stockholders from cities and towns along the line of the road 'rubbed elbows' and fraternized with Cornelius Vanderbilt, John Jacob Astor, and the other millionaire directors, the Northwestern was exclusive. The meeting was held in President Marvin Hughitt's private office and the only persons permitted to participate in the proceedings were the following directors and stockholders: Oliver Ames and David P. Kimball, Boston; Zenas Crane, Dalton, Mass.; James C. Fargo, New York; Marshall Field, Cyrus H. McCormick, Byron L. Smith, Albert Keep, and Marvin Hughitt, Chicago." Chauncey M. Depew and the Vanderbilts were not present, allegedly because only routine business was on the agenda. Everyone was duly re-elected. (News of the Railways. Chicago Daily Tribune, Oct. 21, 1904.)

When E.H. Harriman died in 1909, Marvin Hughitt replaced him on the directorates of the New York Central, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Central Railroads. (Hughitt Given Three Offices. Chicago Daily Tribune, Oct. 14, 1909.)

Marvin Hughitt was elected to the board of trustees of the Sunday Evening Club, whose fellow trustees included Franklin MacVeagh, S&B 1862, and John T. Pirie Jr. of Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. as treasurer. (Heads Sunday Evening Club. Chicago Daily Tribune, May 28, 1909.)

The Northern Trust Company of Chicago

Marvin Hughitt's daughter, Martha, married Hiram Randolph McCullough, the freight agent-general manager-vice president of the Chicago & Northwestern. He was the son of U.S. Rep. Hiram McCullough of Maryland. (The Obituary Record. New York Times, Apr. 13, 1895; News of the Railways. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jan. 5, 1898; $240,000 McCullough Estate Goes to Daughter. Chicago Daily Tribune, Apr. 17, 1923.) Their daughter, Florence McCullough, married Walter Byron Smith [Yale 1899], the son of Byron L. Smith, who founded the Northern Trust Company of Chicago. His brother, Bruce Donald Smith, Skull & Bones 1906, was his best man. (News of the Society World. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jun. 7, 1905; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1944-1945, pp. 88-89.) William McCormick Blair, S&B 1907, started work at the Northern Trust right after his graduation.

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1944-1945 / Yale University Library (pdf, 442 pp)

Byron L. Smith was one of the Trustees of an entity registered in the Cook County Recorder's Office in 1890, in a voluminous document called the "Chicago Real Estate Agreement and Declaration of Trust," whose other Trustees were Owen F. Aldis, Henry Field, and Bryan Lathrop of Chicago, and J. Kennedy Tod, the son of John S. Kennedy of the Central Trust, of New York. It was a million-dollar real estate investment fund to be distributed after 20 years among the sons of Smith and Aldis, and of other investors, including the son of Guaranty Trust director Norman B. Ream; Stafford Harry Northcote, son of the Earl of Iddelsleigh, of England; the son of Joseph N. Field of Manchester, England; Marshall Field's son; the son of Hugh Oliver Northcote of New York; and the sons of Henry G. Reynolds of the Agricultural College, Michigan. Several charitable institutions were subscribers. (To Buy Chicago Land. New York Times, Nov. 20, 1890; A Valuable Box Stolen. New York Times, Nov. 21, 1890; Wife of Banker Found Dead In Lake. New York Times, Sep. 9, 1913.)

Directors of the Northern Trust in 1913 included Byron L. Smith, President; Solomon A. Smith, Vice President; and Marvin Hughitt, Chairman of the Board of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company. Marvin Hughitt Jr., Frieght Manager of the C&NW, was a director of the Union Trust Co., and William A. Gardner, President of the C&NW, was a director of the Merchants Loan and Trust Co. (Display Ad 15. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jun. 10, 1913 p. 18; Display Ad 17. Chicago Daily Tribune, Apr. 9, 1914 p. 20.)

Edward Johnson Phelps, Skull & Bones 1886, was secretary, treasurer, and general manager of the Northern Trust Safe Deposit Company of Chicago from 1895 to 1929, and president and a director from 1923 to 1929. He represented the Yale Club of Chicago on the Alumni Board from 1910 to 1916, and was a member of the Board of Education of New Trier Township High School from 1918-1923. His grandmother, Mary Ann Johnson, was a sister of the grandfather of Edward C. Johnson 2d who founded FMR Corporation. (Genealogical and Personal Memoirs Relating to the Families of the State of Massachusetts. By William Richard Cutter, William Frederick Adams. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1910; Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1938-1939, pp. 53-54.)

Genealogical and Personal Memoirs / Google Books
Yale Obituary Record, 1938-1939 / Yale University Library

The Northern Trust Company was a depository of an account known as Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Louisville House. (Brown & Williamson Minutes No. 1975-9, May 28, 1975, page 33.)

Brown & Williamson Minutes No. 1975-9 / UCSF (pdf, 152 pp)

The American Tobacco Company had large deposits of cash at the Northern Trust Company in 1972. The Northern Trust Company was the Trustee of the American Brands, Inc. Master Defined Contribution Plan Trust. (American Brands Inc. Mar. 11, 1994, page 44.)

American Brands Inc. Mar. 11, 1994 / UCSF (pdf, 77 pp)

Marvin Hughitt's granddaughter through his daughter, Belle, was Mrs. Arthur Krock of Washington, D.C. He was her second husband. (Major Granger, 72, A Noted Architect. New York Times, Dec. 4, 1939; Mary Elizabeth Sherman Reese. Visit Fairfield County Arthur Krock reported for the New York Times from 1927 to 1966, was head of its Washington bureau fom 1932, and wrote the column 'In the Nation' column for 32 years. President Nixon gave him the Medal of Freedom in 1970. (Arthur Krock. Medal of Freedom.) "An association of Burley growers had already been formed before the bottom dropped out of the auction market in 1920. The growers' association was developed into a practical cooperative chiefly through the hard work and influence of Judge Robert N. Bingham, editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal, Samuel Halley of Lexington, a noted tobacco planter and warehouse operator, and Arthur Krock, then editor of the Louisville Times. They had the support of financier Bernard Baruch and they made effective use of the legal talent of Aaron Sapiro, an experienced man in forming cooperatives." (Kentucky & Tobacco A Chapter in America's Industrial Growth. The Tobacco Institute, est. date 1962; 4th edition, 1972; and 5th edition, revised, 1976.)

Mary Elizabeth Sherman Reese / Visit Fairfield County (pdf, 6pp)
Arthur Krock / Medal of Freedom
Kentucky & Tobacco, 1962? / UCSF (pdf, 63 pp)
Kentucky & Tobacco, 1976 / UCSF (pdf, 52 pp)
Kentucky & Tobacco, 1976 / UCSF (pdf, 27 pp)

Lyman Stewart

"Christian businessman Milton Stewart (1838-1923), along with his generous brother Lyman (1840-1923), owned the Union Oil Company in California. The Stewarts were Presbyterians but gave freely of their wealth to other church and interdenominational ministries. Lyman Stewart was himself quite active in Christian work throughout his life. He served as president of the Los Angeles YMCA for three years, helped organize the Immanuel Presbyterian Church and the Pacific Gospel Union Mission, gave thousands to mission work in China, and helped in the founding of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles (BIOLA). Lyman Stewart also contributed toward the publication of major fundamentalist works. He financed the most popular premillennial monograph of its day, 'Jesus Is Coming' (1908) by William E. Blackstone, and gave one thousand dollars toward the printing of the Scofield Reference Bible (1909), the 'textbook' of Fundamentalism. Stewart was one of the most devoted and self-sacrificing fundamentalist laymen in the history of the movement." (A.C. Dixon, Chicago Liberals, and the Fundamentals, by Gerald L. Priest. DBSJ 1 (Spring 1996):113-134.)

Priest, DBSJ Spring 1996 / Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary (pdf, 22pp)

Lyman Stewart was a business partner of Wallace L. and Harvey Hardison in the Hardison & Stewart Oil Co. of Santa Paula, Cal. The partnership of the Hardison and Stewart families began in the latters' hometown area of Titusville, Pennsylvania. The Hardisons were against alcohol and tobacco. (Ventura County Biographies, by Ida Addis Storke, 1891; The Hardison Family From Caribou, Maine. Electronic Notepad of Bruce Graham.)

Harvey Hardison / Ventura County Biographies
Wallace L. Hardison / Ventura County Biographies
The Hardison Family From Caribou, Maine / Electronic Notepad of Bruce Graham

Lyman Stewart was on the board of directors of the Occidental University of East Los Angeles, a Presbyterian institution. (The Occidental. LA Times, Oct. 9, 1888.) He was president and a director of the Los Angeles YMCA, and contributed to its building fund (The St. Elmo Change. LA Times, Feb 3, 1887; The City in Brief. LA Times, Jan. 6, 1889; A Fine Group of Statuary. LA Times, Mar. 9, 1890.)

Lyman Stewart and other prominent members of the YMCA "decided to establish a mission to be known as the Pacific Gospel Union, something like the Central Mission of Washington, DC." They were assisted by Maj. George A. Hilton, one of the founders of the Central Mission. (A New Mission. LA Times, Dec. 6, 1891). Stewart, Hilton, and S.I. Merrill were directors of the Pacific Gospel Union (At the Churches. LA Times, May 9, 1892.)

Lyman Stewart was a ruling elder of Immanuel Presbyterian Church (Immanuel Church. LA Times, Jan. 13, 1891; At the Churches. LA Times, Apr. 4, 1892), founded ca. 1888, which was noted for its "unusual prosperity" and "magnificent $50,000 church edifice." (Immanuel Church. LA Times, Sep. 20, 1892.)

In 1912, Lyman Stewart was president of the board of directors of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, whose board also included the Secretary of Union Oil, Giles Kellogg; the Treasurer of Union Oil, Robert Watchern; W.E. Blackstone; R.A. Torrey, the former head of the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago; and S.I. Merrill. (Bible Institute Will Be Splendid Structure. LA Times, Jun. 9, 1912.) A copy of the Scofield Reference Bible was one of the items placed inside its cornerstone. (Bible School's Corner Stone. LA Times, Jun. 1, 1913.) In that year, Charles M. Stimson deeded property valued at $100,000 as a permanent endowment fund for the Bible Institute. (Hundred Thousand to the Bible Institute. LA Times, Oct. 22, 1913.) The Board of Directors in 1914 included Lyman Stewart, President; H.A. Getz, J.M. Irvine, T.C. Horton, Rev. A.B. Pritchard, R.A. Torrey, W.E. Blackstone, S.I. Merrill, Giles Kellogg, and Robert Watchorn. (Final Work On Bible Edifice. LA Times, Dec. 13, 1914.)

The Union Oil Company of Delaware was formed in 1919 "to absorb a large interest recently acquired in the Union Oil Company of California. the Columbia Oil Company of California, and similar concerns..." A syndicate headed by Montgomery & Co., Dominick & Dominick, and Hayden, Stone & Co. was to purchase 1,008,000 out of 5,000,000 shares. Directors included Frederick W. Allen [S&B 1900] of Lee, Higginson & Co.; E.W. Clark, Vice President and General Manager of the Union Oil Co. of California; Bayard Dominick and John S. Drum of San Francisco, W.E.S. Griswold [S&B 1899], Charles Hayden, Henry Lockhart Jr., Vice President of the Goodrich-Lockhart Co.; Gates W. McGarrah, President of the Mechanics and Metals National Bank; James H. Perkins, E.W. Phillips of Pittsburgh, Samuel F. Pryor, Charles H. Sabin, C.H. Schlacks, President of the Commonwealth Petroleum Corp.; W.L. Stewart, Francis H. Swift of Boston, S.M. Vauclain, and E.P. Whitcomb of Pittsburgh. (To Buy Union Oil Stock. New York Times, Sep. 10, 1919.)

Major George A. Hilton

George A. Hilton ( -1908) was a major in the Twelveth New York Volunteers during the Civil War. He didn't become religious until after the war, while he was an employee of the U.S. Treasury Department. He founded the Central Rescue Mission in Washington, DC.; and in New York City, he was an associate of Dr. C.H. Parkhurst, as well as founding the Pacific Gospel Mission in Los Angeles. Although he was a Presbyterian, he wasn't ordained until 1903, when the Presbyterian Church inaugurated an evangelistic movement. Rev. W.W. Coe, with whom he had worked in New York, delivered an address at his funeral. (Death Hovers Near. LA Times, Mar. 3, 1908; Soldier-Evangelist Gone to His Rest. LA Times, Mar. 4, 1908; Maj. Hilton At Rest. LA Times, Mar. 6, 1908.) Hilton was in the Treasury Department for ten years. He left Washington, DC in 1890 to spend the winter in southern California (Maj. Hilton's Farewell. Washington Post, Aug. 18, 1890). He preached that Christ was to come before the millennium rather than after, at the Y.M.C.A. Hall (Pre-Millennial Advent. LA Times, Apr. 20, 1892.) He served a term as vice president and was a director of the National Gospel Mission Union (Gospel Mission Workers. Washington Post, Oct. 15, 1895; Mission Officers Elected. Washington Post, Sep. 30, 1896). Hilton said that the Wells-Fargo Express Company of San Francisco attempted to enroll employees in the Y.M.C.A. in order to promote temperance; and that the Erie Railway would "discharge a man for smoking or chewing while on duty," ostensibly because "passengers will not ride in cars filled with tobacco smoke and juice." (Rum the Nation's Sin. Washington Post, Oct. 5, 1896.) He was "authoritatively set apart as an evangelist of the Presbyterian Church" by Rev. J.R. Compton and Rev. Dr. W.B. Noble (Ordained Evangelist. LA Times, Sep. 24, 1903.)

Charles M. Stimson

Charles M. Stimson and his brothers, Martin W. Stimson and George W. Stimson, were Los Angeles real estate magnates. Their sister, Abbie M., was the wife of Melville Ezra Ingalls (1842-1914) of Cincinnati, Ohio, who was President of the "Big Four." The Stimson brothers were natives of Gray, Maine, who came to California in the 1880s. Charles M. Stimson was born in 1842, and moved to Washington Courthouse, Ohio, in 1865. He was a wholesale grocer there until 1884. He also built and donated the Occidental College library, and subscribed $50,000 for the Y.M.C.A. at Shanghai, China. (Happiest Man In the Town. LA Times, Dec. 10, 1911; Charles M. Stimson's Life of Good is Ended. LA Times, Feb. 14, 1917.) In 1911, Charles M. Stimson donated $25,000 to the Y.M.C.A. He was a lifelong bachelor and had "a homelike suite of handsome rooms" in the Y.M.C.A. dormitories. (Good Pay For Good Dinner. LA Times, May 23, 1911.) Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the first president of China, was a Christian and "has always been highly in favor" of the Y.M.C.A. Stimson funded the International YMCA building in Shanghai in gold, Miss Helen Gould subscribed to raise $50,000 to erect the building. (China Y.M.C.A. Head Coming. LA Times, Jan. 21, 1912.) He deeded property valued at $100,000 as a permanent endowment fund for the Los Angeles Bible Institute. (Hundred Thousand to the Bible Institute. LA Times, Oct. 22, 1913.) In 1919, the General Permanent Fund of the Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. received $13,500 from the Estate of Charles M. Stimson. (Reports of the Boards. By Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. General Assembly, 1919.)

Reports of the Boards, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1919 / Google Books

Albert S. Ingalls of the New York Central Railroad was the son of the M.E. Ingalls, and his wife, Jane Ellison Taft, was the niece of President William Howard Taft (Skull & Bones 1878) Their son was David Sinton Ingalls (1899-1985), Skull & Bones 1920, who was an usher at the weddings of Time Inc. founder Henry R. Luce and banker Artemus L. Gates.

Laura Ingalls Wilder genealogy / D.A. Houdek
Ingalls, David / National Aviation Hall of Fame

The Scofield Reference Bible

Note that my page shows that this so-called "fundamentalist" text has actually been funded and promoted by well-connected mainstream Presbyterians, and is not the product of Jewish Zionist conspiracy as some websites contend.

The Scofield Reference Bible / Wikipedia


The Untold Story of Christian Zionism’s Rise to Power in the United States. By Whitney Webb. July 12, 2019.

Whitney Webb / Unz Review

cast 09-16-19