The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences

The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University was established in 1954 by the Ford Foundation. It has received recent significant grants from the Carnegie Corporation, Citicorp Foundation, Ford Foundation, William T. Grant Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and National Institutes of Mental Health. Past trustees include: Frank Stanton, the president of CBS from 1946 to 1971, was a founding member and the Chairman of CASBS from 1953 to 1960, and a trustee from 1953 to 1971; Rockefeller University president Joshua Lederberg was a director of the CASBS in 1978; Hanna Holborn Gray, former president of the University of Chicago, and a director of Cummins Engine Co. from 1977 to 2001, was trustee and a Fellow of the CASBS; John S. Reed, director of Philip Morris, trustee of the Rand Corp., etc., was a trustee of the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences between 1986 and 2006; and Paul A. Marks, President of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

CASBS / Stanford University
Past trustees / CASBS

Trustees of the Ford Foundation in 1953 included James F. Brownlee, a partner of J.H. Whitney & Co.; John Cowles, President of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company; H. Rowan Gaither, Jr., a founder of the RAND Corporation in 1948; and John J. McCloy.

David A. Hamburg, president of the Carnegie Corp. of New York from 1982 to 1997, was affiliated with CASBS from 1957-58 and 1967-68.

J. Quigg Newton Jr., Skull & Bones 1933, and Honorary Trustee of the Webb-Waring Lung Institute, was a fellow of the CASBS.

Paul Lazarsfeld

"Last summer the Ford Foundation established, on Stanford land near the University, the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences (the grant was $3,500,000). Thirty-six of the finest social science scholars in the land were made Fellows of the Center and are now carrying on scientific study and research there. They have been drawn from many colleges and universities throughout the nation. Three of them - DR. LAZARSFELD, specialist in public opinion analysis and measurement, especially the voting habits of people; DR. KLUCKHOHN, specialist in anthropological studies of societies and community communications; DR. BAVELAS, specialist in group dynamics and employee communications -- with DR. YODER, specialist in industrial communications, were engaged to serve on the panel for the seminar. Sitting with them will be the Messrs. DAY, NEWHALL, DUNDES, and TENNEY, specialists in radio, television, and the press. Presiding over the panels will be management executives BIGGS and HORNBY." (From an invitation to the Second Annual Social Science Seminar, March 2, 1955, sent by Rex F. Harlow, the editor and publisher of The Social Science Reporter, to Tom Hoyt of the TIRC. It was part of a series of letters in February and March, 1955, between Harlow and Hoyt proposing funding for social science research by the TIRC.)

2nd Annual Social Science Seminar, 1955 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

July 17, 1954, Harlow solicited funding for social science research to EA Darr, President of RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co., on such topics as "The psychological value to individuals, of smoking;" "The sociological value to individuals and groups, of smoking;" "The economic value to the individual and society, of smoking," and listed clients including General Electric, Farm Bureau Insurance Companies, and Pacific Telephone and Telegraph.

Harlow to Darr, 1954 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

Letter from Burns W. Roper of Elmo Roper and Associates to George Weissman, Vice President and Assistant to the President of Philip Morris, Sep. 11, 1957: "I had lunch with Dad and Paul Lazarsfeld the other day. Dad raised with Paul the idea of possibly getting the American Statistical Association to make an independent analysis of the American Cancer Society's statistical study on the alleged relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Paul said that the Association itself was not set up to conduct such a study, but that he thought it would be possible to put together a committee of fellows in the American Statistical Association, and that they could make such an analysis providing the American Cancer Society cooperated and someone would pay the necessary fees to the committee members for their time..." [Elmo Roper was on the board of directors of the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic from 1952 to 1961 -cast]

Roper to Weissman, 1957 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

Lazarsfeld published "Personal Influence" in the Journal of Health Education with Elihu Katz in 1958, p. 64.

Journal of Health Education, 1958 / UCSF (pdf, 68 pp)

"Pre-Product Market Research," from W. Geiger and WH Danker to RB Seligman (later Vice President of Research & Development at Philip Morris), Oct. 4, 1960: "Phase II - Supplementation of Check List by Free Association Interview Professional consultants such as Burleigh Gardner (Social Research, Inc.), Dr. Paul Lazarsfeld (Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University)... and others will be used in this phase to supplement the check list and eliminate, if necessary. First impressions of the weighted importance of each item will be obtained during this phase of the study."

Geiger & Danker to Seligman, 1960 / UCSF (pdf, 6 pp)

An undated, anonymous background evaluation from approximately this time says: "Biog. data unavailable within time limits. Carefully selected headlines from 15 years of the TRIB give following impression: At least a neutral intellectual concerning political views -- Possibly even slightly pro-free enterprise... CONCLUSION: Probably a safe bet." With a handwritten note, "Has done much pub. opin. res. for private profit groups thru Bur. of Apl. Soc. Res. - EDSEL Study. ACS - high school student research."

Background Evaluations / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

The ACS's New York City Cancer Committee 1962 propaganda campaign in the schools (Students urged to stop smoking, New York Times, Nov. 10, 1962: No-Smoke Drive Pushed for Teens, New York Journal-American, Nov. 10, 1962). It was also scheduled at New York University and Columbia University.

NYC Cancer Committee, 1962 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)

"Dr. Paul Lazarsfeld Columbia Social and Behavioral Sciences. Head man at Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Columbia U.; now engaged on project for A.C.S. seeking ways to discourage smoking among high school students." (Comments on Scientists Suggested for Appointment to Surgeon General's Advisory Group by Organizations Other Than T.I.R.C.," author unknown, circa 1963 (?). Lazarsfeld was suggested by Public Health Service Staff, along with William Gardner and Philippe Shubik, while W. Clark Wescoe was suggested by the ACS.)

Comments on Scientists / UCSF (pdf, 8 pp)

Lazarsfeld's bio at the National Academies Press says that "Socialism was integral to the familial, social, intellectual, and political environment of Lazarsfeld's early years. He once said that he had become a socialist the way he had become a Viennese: by birth and without much reflection. But he was a socialist all right. When his mother's friend, the socialist leader Friedrich Adler, was arrested for assassinating the prime minister, Count Karl Sturghk, in August 1916, Lazarsfeld attended the trial. He was arrested for taking part in a courtroom demonstration when Adler was convicted. He was active as a leader in socialist student organizations; he created a monthly newspaper for socialist students; and he helped found a political cabaret that was to play a seminal role in both the political and theatrical history of Vienna. Lazarsfeld's first publication, coauthored with Ludwig Wagner and published when he was twenty-three, is a report on a children's summer camp they had established according to socialist principles. Although Lazarsfeld often stressed the importance of his early immersion in the socialist movement, his political activism did not survive his move to the United States. In later life he used to say that he was still a socialist 'in my heart,' and once he remarked that his intense interest in the organization of social research is 'a kind of sublimation of my frustrated political instincts - as I can't run for office, I run institutes.'" (Pages 254-255) So much for tobacco industry evaluations.

Paul F. Lazarsfeld, by David L. Sills. In: Biographical Memoirs V. 56, National Academy Press, 1987. Lazarsfeld came to the US as a Fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1933. He was director of the Rockefeller Foundation's Office of Radio Research at Princeton University, which in 1939 moved to Columbia University and was renamed the Bureau of Applied Social Research. He developed the Program Analyzer with Frank Stanton, and co-authored "Radio Research 1942-1943" with him. Page 259, "In 1983 the directors of social research of the nation's three largest networks - CBS, ABC, and NBC - were all former students of Lazarsfeld." Page 261, "[H]is major study of higher education came about because in the early 1950s Robert M. Hutchins, the president of the Fund For the Republic, asked him to do a study of how college and university leaders reacted to McCarthyism." Page 273, "He was one of the founders of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, in Stanford, California."

Lazarsfeld bio / National Academies Press

Lazardfeld contributed "The Social Sciences and the Smoking Problem" to the book, "Smoking Behavior: Motives and Incentives" (William L. Dunn Jr. of the Philip Morris Research Center, editor; VH Winston & Sons, 1973.) Other participants included Hans J. Eysenck, Murray E. Jarvik, and Hans Selye.

Contents, Smoking Behavior: Motives and Incentives / UCSF (pdf, 9 pp)

The "Proposed Letter of Invitation" by Dunn indicates that Lazarsfeld and certain others were influential: "We have gotten a strong endorsement of the topic and agreement to participate in the conference from a number of key researchers, including Paul Lazarsfeld of Columbia University, Hans Selye from the University of Montreal, Larry Stein from Wyeth Laboratories, and Murray Jarvik from the Albert Einstein School of Medicine and Surgery." It would seem that the social science researchers were merely ripping off smokers just as their colleagues in biomedical research were so industriously doing.

Proposed Letter / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)

Ralph W. Tyler - the first Director of the CASBS, 1953 to 1967

Tyler is the bane of foes of "progressive education." He "first became visible nationally in 1938, when he carried his work with the Eight-Year Study from Ohio State University to the University of Chicago at the invitation of Robert Hutchins." He died in 1994.

Tyler bio / IT Theory

O. Meredith Wilson - the second Director of the CASBS, 1967 to 1975

Wilson was president of the University of Oregon from 1954 to 1960, and president of the University of Minnesota until leaving to head the CASBS. He retired there in 1975, and died in 1998 in Eugene, Oregon. He was a Mormon. "Wilson worked as a secretary for the Fund for the Advancement of Education at the Ford Foundation before his appointment as the ninth UO president... Wilson was a director of numerous organizations and institutions. He served as chairman of the board and federal reserve agent of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 12th district, and as chair of the American Council on Education. In addition, he was a director of the Northrup Corp. and a trustee of the University of Notre Dame, Northern States Power Co. and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He was also a member of President Lyndon Johnson's Advisory Committee on Labor Management Policy." He was also a member of the national committee of UNESCO. (Former UO President Owen Meredith Wilson Passes Away At 89. University of Oregon News Release Nov. 7, 1998.) [The Fund For the Advancement of Education was one of Paul Hoffman's pet projects at the Ford Foundation. Lazarsfeld's crony Robert K. Merton was also involved with it -cast]

Wilson obituary / University of Oregon

Robert K. Merton

Merton's Feb. 2003 obituary in the New York Times called him "the father of the focus group." He was on the Research Advisory Board on the Behavioral Sciences at the University of Chicago School of Law from 1959 to 1964. He was a member of the Advisory Council to the Program on Science, Technology and Society of the CASBS from 1971 to 1975, and a fellow of CASBS in 1973. He was also on the Advisory Board of Britannica International Encyclopedia, and on the Editorial Advisory Board of Eugene Garfield's publication, The Scientist, since at least 1995, along with Joshua Lederberg.

Merton CV / Garfield Library (pdf, 5pp)
Robert K. Merton Page / Garfield Library

"A Proposal for a Long Term Community Research in the Epidemiology of Hypertension," by Robert K. Merton, John A. Morsell and E. Gurney Clark (1951), is cited in Clark's application for a Tobacco Industry Research Council grant in 1954. Clark was Professor of Epidemiology at Columbia University School of Public Health, and a consultant to the Health Information Foundation, for which Mary Lasker's crony Victor Weingarten was a radio program producer. Co-applicant Charles Y. Glock, PhD, was Director of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia.

Clark application, 1954 / UCSF (pdf, 5 pp)

In 1958, Merton was a member of New York City Mayor Wagner's new Health Research Council. Other members included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres & Co.; Dr. Leona Baumgartner, Commissioner, Department of Health; Devereux C. Josephs, chairman of the board of the New York Life Insurance Company and a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust; Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, president of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Mrs. Mary Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American; Anna M. Rosenberg, public and industrial relations consultant, Anna M. Rosenberg Associates (who married Paul G. Hoffman a few years later); Dr. Warren Weaver, vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation; and Bethuel M. Webster, counsel to the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. (New City Research Agency To Finance Health Studies. By Peter Kihss. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 1; Members of Health Council. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 22.)

The Mertons' daughter, Stephanie Carhart Carhart Merton, married Dr. William L. Russell, an alumnus of Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard University. His mother was a staff scientist at the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory, founded by C.C. Little, and his father was principle geneticist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Merton was chairman of the Department of Sociology and associate director of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University. (Richard Russell Becomes Fiance of Miss Merton. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1962.)

National Opinion Research Center (NORC)

In 1964, both the CASBS's current director, Ralph Tyler, and its future director, O. Meredith Wilson, were Trustees of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago. NORC was a prime contractor for anti-smoking polling propaganda. Former Secretary of State George P. Shultz was a trustee of NORC who became a fellow of CASBS. Dorothy P. Rice, the Mother of the Big Lie that smoking is an economic burden to society, is a current trustee of NORC.

The National Opinion Research Center

Gardner Lindzey - the third Director of the CASBS, 1975 to 1989

Lindzey was a member of the Committee on Substance Abuse and Habitual Behavior of the National Research Council, which in 1982 produced "Reduced Tar and Nicotine Cigarettes: Smoking Behavior and Health." Fellow members of this committee included Louis C. Lasagna (Chairman), Jerome H. Jaffe, Thomas C. Schelling, Frank Stanton, and Judith Rodin, now president of the Rockefeller Foundation. The usual gang from the American Cancer Society and Office on Smoking and Health assisted (Lawrence Garfinkel, E. Cyler Hammond, Daniel Horn, and Marvin Scheiderman), and it amounted to merely an elaborate pretext for a press release screeching, "SMOKERS STILL BEST ADVISED TO QUIT ENTIRELY RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE REPORTS."

Reduced Tar and Nicotine Cigarettes, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 61 pp)
NRC Press Release, 1982 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)

Lindzey was on several other NRC committees, including the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (1985), with Alexander Flax, Philip Leder, Gilbert S. Omenn, and Frank Press (ex officio); and the Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences (1989), with Lester Breslow.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1985 / National Academies Press
Committee on AIDS Research, 1989 / National Academies Press

Lindzey was on the Board of Directors of Annual Reviews in 1999, along with Eugene Garfield, Daniel E. Koshland Jr., and Joshua Lederberg, who are still on the board in 2003. Lederberg was chairman of the board in 1978.

J. Murray Luck "Reminiscences" / Annual Reviews (pdf, 272 pp)

Philip E. Converse, the fourth director of the CASBS, 1989 to 1994

Converse participated in the 1984 NAS "Advanced Research Seminar on Cognitive Aspects of Survey Methodology." Nearly half of the participants had been or were affiliated with the University of Chicago, the CASBS, the Rand Corporation, or NORC. Converse was then professor of political science and sociology at the University of Michigan.

Survey Methodology Seminar, 1984 / National Academy Press

Converse was a member of the Editorial Board of Science in 1989. Fellow Ed Board members included Elizabeth E. Bailey, a director of Philip Morris; David Baltimore, who was involved in the American Cancer Society's National Commission on Smoking and Public Policy; and James D. Watson, of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Directors included Walter E. Massey, of the RAND Gang, the retiring President and Chairman; William T. Golden, Treasurer; and Beatrix A. Hamburg. Lasker Foundation director Daniel E. Koshland Jr. was the Editor. (Science 1989 June 16;244(1440):1229.)

Science, June 16, 1989 / UCSF (pdf, 188 pp)

Abstract of "Assessing the capacity of mass electorates," by Philip E. Converse. Annual Reviews 2000 Jun;3:331-353. Converse is now an emeritus professor in the Dept. of Political Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Converse 2000 / Annual Reviews (abstract)

Neil J. Smelser, the fifth Director of the CASBS, 1994 to 2001

"Smelser, 63, has had a long association with the center, as a member of the board of trustees for two six-year terms from 1981 to 1993 and as chairman of the board during 1986-86. He also has chaired the center's Advisory Committee on Special Projects and served on other center-related committees." (Sociologist Smelser to head behavioral sciences center. Stanford University News Service Feb. 8, 1994.)

Smelser to head CASBS / Stanford University

Smelser was Chairman of the 1998 Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences, which produced the report, "Investing in Research Infrastructure in the Behavioral and Social Sciences" (National Academy Press, 1998). Philip E. Converse was thanked for participating in the review of the report.


cast 09-15-14