Clarence Cook Little was the first director of the Tobacco Industry Research Council, the predecessor of the CTR. He and Mary Lasker had worked together in the late 1930s and early 1940s as directors of the Birth Control Federation of American, the predecessor of Planned Parenthood. Like the cancer treatment charities, this movement was underwritten by the New York financial oligarchy, and it was CC Little's American Society for the Control of Cancer which spearheaded their move into the federal government in the late 1930s by establishing the National Cancer Institute. The Lasker faction deposed Little and renamed the ASCC the American Cancer Society. There was no fundamental difference of scientific ideology between the two factions; Little's preoccupations with genetics and the minutiae of cell biology are mainstays of National Institutes of Health spending to this very day. The primary distinction is that the Lasker crowd was and is aggressively invasive, like a malignancy itself, whereas CC Little was comparatively indolent.
CC Little ran the show from March 1954 until his death in 1971. The research funding program was little but shoveling out smokers' money to various and sundry cronies and mentees, while Little spouted empty rhetoric. It was an ideal situation for the anti-smokers. Their propaganda machine used it to concoct the accusation of "Maintaining a False Controversy" about smoking and health, and the SAB was surely not going to admit that they were misusing the money.The American Society for the Control of Cancer (Clarence Cook Little)
"The appointment of a seven-member scientific advisory board was announced yesterday by O. Parker McComas, chairman of the Tobacco Industry Research Committee. The group was organized early this year to foster research into 'all phases of tobacco use and health.'" Members of the board were Dr. McKeen Cattell, proessor and head of the department of pharmacology, Cornell University; Dr. Paul Kotin, assistant professor of pathology, University of Southern California Medical School; Dr. Clarence Cook Little, director of the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory; Dr. Kenneth Merrill Lynch, president, dean of faculty, and Professor of Pathology, Medical College of South Carolina; Dr. Stanley P. Reimann, scientific director of the Institute for Cancer Research and director of the Lankenau Hospital Research Institute in Philadelphia; Dr. William F. Rienhoff Jr., associate professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (To Aid Tobacco Study. New York Times, Apr. 27, 1954.) Little stated that the TIRC research agenda "to concentrate on the smoker, tobacco and tissue changes... was made by the seven-member advisory board of the tobacco industry research committee." (Why People Smoke Is Topic For Study. New York Times, July 28, 1954.)
Stanton Glantz's list of the members of the TIRC/CTR Scientific Advisory Board, from "The Cigarette Papers." This list is incorrect that Peter M. Howley, who left in 1986, Sheldon Sommers, who left in 1989, and Richard Bing, who left in 1991, continued as members until December 1994. Also, Leon O. Jacobson died in 1992 and presumably no longer served on the board after that date. It is also incomplete for those members who joined after 1987, on whose watch the worst betrayal of smokers occurred.Members of TIRC/CTR Scientific Advisory Board / Glantz - UCSF
"Scientific Advisory Board Members 1954-" Sommers-2 Exhibit, 7/15/97, Arch v. American Tobacco Company.SAB Members 1954- (7/15/97) / tobacco document
"Dear Bob: We have had letters from Dr. J. W. Brandt of the
Research Foundation of Pittsburgh regarding the research of this
Foundation that an infectious agent may be the cause of cancer. Dr.
Brandt indicates that he has approached the tobacco Industry Research
Committee for funds to carry on this research. He further states that
this request has been denied and is asking Philip Morris to contribute.
I do not doubt that he is making similar requests to all companies in
the industry. I assume that the Scientific Advisory Board has
investigated this research and has satisfied itself that the TIRC
should not sponsor this work. My only reason for writing to you is to
ask whether you think the work of the Cancer Research Foundation has
any merit at all. Dr. Brandt takes the position that his work clears
the cigarette industry of any implications that cigarette smoke may be
related to cancer. Can you enlighten me on the merits, if any, on the
infectious agent research approach in relation to the canaer problem?
Sincerely, Robert N. DuPuis Vice President - Research." (Letter, DuPuis
to Robert C. Hockett, Associate Scientific Directot, Tobacco Industry
Research Committee, June 13, 1957.)
Andervont was a member of the SAB from 1964 to 1966, and from
to 1974. He was Chief of the Laboratory of Biology at the National
Cancer Institute from 1947-60, and Scientific Editor of the Journal of
Cancer Institute from 1961-67.
The Office of Cancer Investigations of the US Public Health Service was originally established at Harvard University in 1922, and was subsequently merged into the National Cancer Institute. Assistant Surgeon General Dr. J.W. Scherachewsky [sic - Schereschewsky] was in charge of setting it up. (Federal Cancer Inquiry. Washington Post, Aug. 11, 1922.) The Surgeon General at this time was Hugh S. Cumming. Joseph Williams Schereschewsky had been director general of the International Congress of Hygiene and Demography in 1912, of which William Howard Taft, Skull & Bones 1878, was honorary president. Andervont's work at Harvard included growing cancers on the tails of mice, then amputating them to "inoculate" them against developing cancer. (Immunity seen in cancer test. Washington Post, Sep. 20, 1932 p. 3.) Andervont was one of the speakers at a scientific conference on cancer control at the University of Wisconsin in 1932. Other speakers included James Ewing on "Cancer, a Public Health Problem;" C.C. Little, James B. Murphy, and Leiv Kreyberg. (500 Scientists Open Madison Conference on Cancer Control. Chicago Daily Tribune, Sep. 8, 1936.) National Cancer Institute photo of H. Andervont, M. Shimkin and others at the Office of Cancer Investigations, 1939.NCI Visuals Online / NCI.gov
"Heredity, Age and Hormone Influences in Viral Cancer," 1957 review by Andervont of animals.Andervont, 1957 / tobacco document
Andervont and fellow SAB member Edwin B. Wilson were directors and scientific directors of CC Little's Jackson Laboratory during 1953-59. Hugh Knowlton was the President.Jackson Laboratory, 1953 / tobacco document
Andervont and fellow SAB member Paul Kotin were made available to the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health by the National Cancer Institute. (Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, Nov. 8-9, 1963. "Source unknown document is from notebook assembled by unknown person.")3rd meeting of SG Advisory Committee / tobacco document
Circa 1927, Andervont accepted an
instructorship with Milton Rosenau, Professor of Preventive Medicine
at Harvard University. When Rosenau retired in 1930,
Andervont became the first professional staff member of Joseph W.
Schereschewsky's Office of Cancer Investigations. CTR SAB member Edwin
B. Wilson was also a member of that group, and wrote the
Schereschewsky's paper on rising cancer rates. Although Andervont had a
background in virology, the group at Harvard focused on chemical
carcinogenesis. "Another line of Andervont's investigations had its
origin in the early studies by the Harvard group of the induction of
cancer in animals by chemical agents, particularly polycyclic
hydrocarbons. Andervont pioneered the development of biological methods
of studying experimental inductiotxn of cancer with chemicals. He
continued his interest in the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis and
was among the first to make a systematic investigation of tumors
induced in different inbred mouse strains by chemical carcinogens, the
inheritance of cancer susceptibility to various agents, and the
possible correlation of spontaneous and induced tumors." After joining
the National Cancer Institute, he was
administrator of "the largest group of investigators in the National
Cancer Institute, whose work encompassed tissue culture, electron
microscopy, genetics, radiation biology, cell physiology, cell biology,
tumor virology, and etiology of spontaneous leukemia." (Howard B.
Andervont: An Appreciation. By Michael B. Shimkin. J Natl
Cancer Inst 1968 Jun;40(6):XIII-XXV. ) That issue
of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute was dedicated to
Andervont by NCI Director Kenneth
"Dr. Andervont is best known for his studies linking viruses with development of animal cancers decades before research in the field became popular. He began his career in 1927 at the Harvard School of Public Health and Medicine. As an instructor in epidemiology and preventive medicine, Dr. Andervont and his colleagues were instrumental in convincing the U.S. Public Health Service that cancer was a public health problem. He became the first professional staff member of the U.S. Public Health Service's Office of Cancer Investigations which became part of the NCI when the Institute was created in 1937." He was the first chief of the NCI biology laboratory in the 1940s. In 1961, he resigned to become editor of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute until retiring in 1968. (Dr. Howard Andervont, Distinguished Cancer Researcher and One of NCI's Original Staff Members, Dies. NIH Record, March 31, 1981.)Andervont obituary, NIH Record 1981 / tobacco document
Bing was a member of the SAB from 1958 to the 1980s. He was an invited contributor to the ACS/NYAM inquisition on "Tobacco and Health," 1961 (The effect of cigarette smoking on coronary blood flow and cardiac work in normal subjects and patients with coronary disease), along with fellow CTR members Comroe, Kotin, and Reimann.Tobacco and Health, 1962 / tobacco document
CV of Richard J. Bing, circa 1984.Richard John Bing CV / tobacco document
Bing was Director of Experimental Cardiology and a director of the Huntington Medical Research Institute of Pasadena, California in 1991.Huntington Medical Research Institute, 1991 / tobacco document
Bing reminisces about his career, in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (An Investigator's Journey in Cardiology. Richard J. Bing, MD. JAMA 1992 Feb 19; 267(7):969-972.)Bing, JAMA 1992 / tobacco document
Bing is the Honorary Life President of the International Society for Heart Research, founded in 1968. He still holds forth on various subjects, such as his old days at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in the 1930s, in the ISHR's news bulletin, Heart News and Views.ISHR 2001-2004 Executive Committee / ISHR
Richard J. Bing's obituary in the New York Times makes no
his service on the SAB. (Richard Bing, Pioneering Heart Researcher,
Dies at 101. By William Grimes. New York Times, Nov. 13, 2010.)
Cattell was a member of the SAB from 1954 to 1973. Statement by the Chairman of the TIRC, Oct. 9, 1956: "Dr. McKeen Cattell, who is a valued member of the Scientific Advisory Board and who is affiliated with the Cornell University Medical College, has taken a year's leave of absence to serve as the Administrator of Grants for Fellowships and Development of Scientific Personnel at the American Cancer Society." It was decided that Cattell would continue to serve on the SAB, "and the additional liaison which will result from this new responsibility should be mutually worthwhile."TIRC, Oct. 9, 1956 / tobacco document
Attending 1957 TIRC Scientific Advisory Board meeting: C.C. Little (Chairman); McKeen Cattell; Leon O. Jacobson; Paul Kotin; Kenneth M. Lynch; Stanley P. Reimann; William F. Rienhoff Jr; Edwin B. Wilson. Timothy V. Hartnett was Chairman of the TIRC, and Robert C. Hockett was Associate Scientific Director. "It was hoped that the Board could ultimately present a report on the status of tobacco and health, based upon Dr. Cattell's review." CC Little would meanwhile speak for the Board.1957 TIRC SAB / tobacco document
Pulmonary research; served on the Scientific Advisory Board
8-12-54 to 3-16-60. Judging by his writeup at the National Academy
Press, he was clearly a member in good standing of the health
establishment. "He was instrumental in forming the Institute of
Medicine and served on its first executive committee," and received the
Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award. (Julius H. Comroe. By
Seymour S. Kety and Robert E. Forster. National Academy Press, 2001
Comroe was an invited contributor (Environmental factors and lung cancer) to the 1961 ACS/NYAM inquisition on "Tobacco and Health" (Charles C. Thomas, 1962), along with fellow CTR members Bing, Kotin, and Reimann.Tobacco and Health, 1962 / tobacco document
Comroe was a member of the National Academy of Sciences 1975 Committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. The committee was chaired by Robert J. Glaser, now a director of the Lasker Foundation, and included James B. Wyngaarden, another current director of the Lasker Foundation, and John J. Burns, a Trustee of the Naylor Dana Institute of the American Health Foundation between 1975 and 1981. The Panel on Basic Biomedical Sciences included current Lasker Foundation director Daniel E. Koshland.National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel / National Academy Press 1975
One might think that anti-smoker Stanton Glantz would have a little more to say about him, considering that Glantz served on the Julius H. Comroe, Jr. Research Fellowship Committee at the University of California - San Francisco in 1985, a year after Comroe's death.
Julius H. Comroe Sr. was a social friend of President William Howard
Taft, Skull & Bones Class of 1878. (Physicians in
Taft's Life. Apneos [sleep apnea website - Taft seems to be their
On the SAB from 4-5-54 to 9-20-92. Professor and Chairman,
Medicine, Dean of the Division of Biological Sciences of the University
of Chicago; Director of the Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, now the
Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute. According to his biography
at the National Academy Press, during World War II, "Jake was involved
in two secret projects: the Toxicity Laboratory, where he served as
consulting physician working with chemical warfare agents and
protection against them, and the Metallurgical Laboratory. The latter
was the local code name for the nationwide Manhattan Project, work that
resulted in the first chain-reacting atomic pile, which was designed
and built by Enrico Fermi and his colleagues in a squash court under
the stands of Staggs Field. In short order Jake became associate
director and then director of the Biology and Medicine Branch of the
Metallurgical Laboratory." He was involved in unauthorized radiation
research on humans. Daniel E.
a director of the Lasker
Foundation, was also involved with the Manhattan Project at the
University of Chicago (where Albert Lasker
had been a
and trustee, and had been involved in funding nuclear research).
Jacobson's appointment as Chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago, Nov. 9, 1961, was announced by H. Stanley Bennett, Dean of the Division of the Biological Sciences. In 1964, Bennett was a trustee of the University's National Opinion Research Center, a prime contractor for anti-smoking opinion poll propaganda.
Jacobson served on the National Cancer Institute's Board of Scientific Counselors from 1963 to at least 1965, overlapping the end of William U. Gardner's term.NCI Announcement Re SAB Membership / tobacco document
Jacobson was a member of the advisory committee for planning for the Illinois Regional Medical Program in 1967.Regional Medical Program, Illionois / National Library of Medicine (pdf, 9pp)
Jacobson was a member of the National Advisory Cancer Council from 1968 to 1971. ([Members of the President's Cancer Panel, 1976, and National Advisory Cancer Council, 1957-71] J Natl Cancer Inst 1977 Aug;59(2suppl):763.)President's Cancer Panel - J Natl Cancer Inst 1977 / tobacco document
Jacobson was appointed to the National Cancer Advisory Board of the National Cancer Institute, along with Mary Lasker, Elmer Bobst, and Laurance S. Rockefeller, et al. (White House Press Release, March 7, 1972.)NCAB Appointments, 1972 / tobacco document
"From Atom to Eve," by Leon O. Jacobson. Persepectives in Biology and Medicine Winter 1981;34(2). Autographed "To Bob Hockett from 'Jake.'" Hockett was Scientific Director of the CTR from 1972 to 1974.From Atom to Eve, 1981 / tobacco document
On the SAB from 4-12-54 to 11-26-65. Another member in very good standing with the health establishment who was chief of the Carcinogenesis Studies Branch and Associate Director of Field Studies of the National Cancer Institute while on the SAB; and later, the first director of the NIH Division of Environmental Health Sciences, the predecessor of the NIEHS. He was Chairman of the Interdepartmental Cancer Research Committee of the University of Southern California, and active on air pollution groups in Los Angeles County.Kotin bio / tobacco document
Kotin was an invited contributor (Environmental factors and lung cancer) to the 1961 ACS/NYAM inquisition on "Tobacco and Health" (Charles C. Thomas, 1962), along with fellow CTR members Bing, Comroe, and Reimann.Tobacco and Health, 1962 / tobacco document
Kotin and fellow SAB member Howard Andervont were made available to the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health by the National Cancer Institute. (Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, Nov. 8-9, 1963. "Source unknown document is from notebook assembled by unknown person.")3rd meeting of SG Advisory Committee / tobacco document
"Senator Neuberger (who has now remarried) has been written off by some of our informants as no longer a factor in the situation but Dr. Kotin, who is close to Sen. Neuberger, told us that she may well introduce a bill requiring specification of substances in cigarette smoke, since Carleton and Montclair have shown that this can be done.... (We also learned confidentially that Senator Neuberger had not written a line of her book: it had been written by Drs. Shubik, Kotin and another whose name we did not catch.)" (1964 Memo by Sir Philip J. Rogers and Geoffrey F. Todd, of the Tobacco Research Council.)Rogers & Todd, 1964 / Northeastern University
Forty scientists were invited to a previously unscheduled Airlie House session on the National Cancer Plan, Nov. 19, 1971. Clustered in the section on "Identification of external agents, carcinogens; focusing on preventing the agents from reaching the body or blocking them after ingestion" were Joseph Melnick, a sponsor of anti-smoker lawyer John Banzhaf's group, ASH; Ernst Wynder, head of the American Health Foundation; Paul Kotin; and two from the University of Wisconsin's McArdle Lab, Harold Rusch and James Miller, whose interest was in diet and cancer. Arthur Upton, future Director of the National Cancer Institute, was in the section on "Modification of the individual; alteration of host functions, possibly by vaccines." Plus: "EDITORS' NOTE: Three of the nation's foremost politicians, the President, Sen. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and Rep. Rogers (D-Fla.) have personal, vested interests in the outcome of current cancer research legislation. Top ranking NIH and Assn. of American Medical Colleges execs have opposed the powerful Mary Lasker biomedical research lobby in a struggle which could irreversibly alter the structure of NIH. See story on p. 11 for latest developments." (Drug Research Reports 1971 Nov. 10;14(45):18-20.)National Cancer Plan, 1971 / tobacco document
In 1972, Kotin was Vice President of the Health Sciences Center of Temple University, and a member of the Carcinogenesis Advisory Panel of the NCI. (Carcinogenesis Program Conference, Oct. 2-4, 1972.)Carcinogenesis Program, 1972 / tobacco document
"Paul Kotin, MD, Johns Manville's Senior Vice President for
Safety and Environment, believes the adverse effects of smoking must be
addressed to completely comply with the Occupational Safety and Health
Act of 1970 that states in Section 5(a): 'Each employer shall furnish
to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are
free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause
death or serious physical harm to his employees.'" (Kotin, Paul, MD,
Lois Anne Gual, "Smoking in the Workplace: A Hazard Ignored," American
Journal of Public Health 1980 Jun1;70(6). Cited in "Smoking: A
Challenge to Worksite Health Management," by Anne Kiefhaber and Willis
Business Group on Health, 1981.)
On the SAB from 3-31-1954 to 11-29-74. President, Dean of
Professor of Pathology, and Chancellor, Medical College of South
Carolina. He was a member of the board of directors of the parent
society of the American Cancer Society, which was the American Society
for the Control of Cancer - from which CC Little was deposed by the
Lasker group - from 1939 to 1943.
"U. of T. Honors Dr. 'Dale' Lynch" (The Hamilton Herald-News, Hamilton, TX, June 15, 1967.Hamilton Herald-News, 1967 / tobacco document
Lynch was the first full-time faculty member of the Medical
of South Carolina when it became a state institution in 1913. He sent a
letter of resignation to the CTR in 1973. (Kenneth Merrill Lynch CV,
Merrill Lynch CV, 1970 / tobacco document
Lynch was possibly an agent for Wall
Street investment banker Bernard Baruch, a native of South Carolina and
a major benefactor of the University of South Carolina's medical
school. Baruch was an unofficial policymaker during the administrations
of Presidents Wilson, Harding, Hoover, and Roosevelt, and with Kentucky
publisher Robert W. Bingham developed the cooperative marketing plan
and system of price supports and production quotas for burley tobacco
that was later expanded to other crops. Bernard M. Baruch's father, Dr.
Simon Baruch, was born in Germany in1840. He graduated from the Medical
College of Virginia in 1862, and was a surgeon in Gen. Robert E. Lee's
army. He practiced medicine in South Carolina and was President of the
South Carolina Medical Association and Chairman of the State Board of
Health. In 1881 he moved to New York City. (Dr. Simon Baruch, Long Ill,
Dies At 80. New York Times, Jun. 4, 1921.) Mrs. Baruch disapproved of
women smoking and numerous other things. Among the "melancholy sights"
she deplored was "that of a lovely young woman whom I know smoking a
cigarette in a room filled with strange men" at an afternoon dance in a
large New York hotel. (Modern Womanhood Sadly Shirks Its Holy Duty. By
Edward Marshall. New York Times, Jul. 12, 1914.)
Reimann was on the SAB from 1954 to 1968. He became the director of the Lankenau Hospital Research Institute in Philadelphia in 1927. When Mary Anderson Pew of the Sun Oil fortune died of cancer in 1935, the Pew heirs established the Institute for Cancer Research at LHRI. Reimann was a director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer from at least 1936-39. J. Howard Pew was later involved in the Lasker takeover of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, and Mary Ethyl Pew established The Medical Trust of the Pew Charitable Trusts. A later director of the ICR, Alfred Knudson, also became a member of the CTR.The Pew Charitable Trusts (Stanley P. Reimann)
Rienhoff was a member of the SAB from 1954 to 1972. He was Professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he spent over 50 years. In 1950 and 1954, he caused uproars for saying that he did not believe in the smoking-cancer link.William Francis Rienhoff bio / tobacco document
In a 1959 letter to W.T. Hoyt, Rienhoff wrote concerning the 1918 flu epidemic: "Dr. Milton Winternitz was then professsor of Pathology here and later at Yale, and Dean of Yale Medical School, a very prominent and well-known man. He is still alive. A year ago he postulated the same theory that virus infected lungs and that epidemic was a probable cause of a high percentage of cancer of the lung in later years. My father wrote a book on virus infections producing cancer, and as you know there is a great deal of work on this avenue of approach today.
"I personally feel that this probable cause of cancer of the lung whether directly due to the virus or to the cell damage caused by it becoming a target for some carcinogenic materials which otherwise would not affect a normal cell, may be found to play a very important role in the cause of cancer of the lung, particularly since it seems to me in the last four or five years the instance of cancer of the lung has reached a plateau, which has remained constant, and in spite of more cigarette smoking, is not now in the ascendancy." (Rienhoff quoted in W.T. Hoyt letter to Kenneth M. Lynch, March 13, 1959.)Hoyt to Lynch, 1959 / tobacco document
Wilson was a member of the SAB from 1954 to 1964. He was born
Hartford, Conn., "the son of a former Yale teacher and school
superintendent." He graduated from
Harvard in 1899 and got his PhD at Yale in 1901. "He began his teaching
career in mathematics at Yale. In 1910-1911 he held a post at Harvard
as Lecturer in Mathematics. However, his deepening interest in applied
mathematics led him to move to M.I.T. where he held various positions,
including the chairmanship of the Department of Physics.... For two
years, 1920-22, while M.I.T. was without a president, he was secretary
of the administrative committee which ran the institution." He was the
Professor and Head of the Department of Vital Statistics when the
School of Public Health was created at Harvard University in 1922,
which fellow SAB member Howard
joined in 1927. He
was President of the Social Science Research Council from 1929 to 1931,
a long-time member of the Advisory Board and of the Committee of
Selection of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation; Chairman of
the American Society for the Control of Cancer from 1937 to
1942, and an honorary life member of its successor, the American Cancer
Society. He was Emeritus Professor of Vital Statistics at Harvard
University, and consultant to the Office of Naval Research since 1946.
He was a correspondent of Dr. William H. Welch,
& Bones 1870, from 1919-32.
E. Cuyler Hammond congratulated Wilson on the selection of Earl Green as C.C. Little's successor as director of the Jackson Laboratory. Green had been Hammond's chosen successor as head of the statistics department of the School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Field during the Second World War. (Hammond to Wilson, July 27, 1956.)Hammond to Wilson, July 27, 1956 / tobacco document
The Office of Cancer Investigations was established at Harvard
1922 by Assistant Surgeon General Joseph Williams Schereschewsky. The
Surgeon General was Hugh
B. Wilson transferred there from MIT, and wrote the appendix to
Schereschewsky's paper on rising cancer
rates. (The Cigarette - Lung Cancer Enigma. "Talk presented before
small group in Boston," by Edwin B. Wilson, Jan. 4, 1960.)
Wilson was a member of the Board of Directors of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1936. Clarence Cook Little was the Managing Director, and James Ewing, who accompanied Little to testify for the National Cancer Act of 1937, was Chairman. Winthrop W. Aldrich (Nelson A. Rockefeller's uncle); Haven Emerson, Professor of Public Health at Columbia University and member of the advisory board of Yale's Institute of Human Relations; Samuel Clark Harvey, Chairman of Surgery at Yale and a longtime crony of Harvey Cushing; Frederick L. Hoffman, Prudential Life Insurance statistician; Thomas Parran, who became Surgeon General from 1936 to 1948; H. Gideon Wells, an advisor to the original Lasker Foundation of 1928, and fellow TIRC member Stanley P. Reimann were also directors.ASCC, 1936 / tobacco document
Wilson was a member of Vannevar Bush's Bowman Committee in 1945.The Franklin Roosevelt Era
Wilson was an honorary director of the American Cancer Society
Wilson and fellow SAB member Howard Andervont were directors and scientific directors of CC Little's Jackson Laboratory during 1953-59. Hugh Knowlton was the President.Jackson Laboratory, 1953 / tobacco document
"New Tobacco-Health Grants Announced, One Helps Revive Framingham Heart Study." (Press Release, Leonard Zahn & Associates, Nov. 9, 1971.) The CTR grant was to Thomas R. Dawber, one of the original principal investigators of the study. Naturally, the anti-smokers were indignant that the tobacco industry would try to "corrupt" them by supporting their deliberate scientific fraud of ignoring infection. The CTR also funded Gary D. Friedman of the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute.CTR Supports Framingham, 1971 / tobacco document
Craighead was a member of the SAB from 1976 to 1977. He was
Professor and Chairman, Department of Pathology, and Director of
Laboratories, University of Vermont College of Medicine and Medical
Center Hospital of Vermont. His work was largely in the
encephalomyocarditis virus, including the observation that it induced
diabetes in mice; also cytomegalovirus in renal transplant patients.
Feldman was a member of the SAB from 1974 to 1985. He
Yale University in 1937, and was Head of
the Department of Immunopathology at Scripps Clinic and Research
Foundation since 1974, also Editor of the Journal of Immunology.
He was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha.
A member of the SAB from 1971 to 1985, and its Chairman from 1973 to 1981 (between CC Little and Sheldon Sommers). He was vice president of the American Cancer Society's foreign puppet, the International Union for the Control of Cancer (UICC), from 1949-1950; Chairman of the UICC Committee on Fellowships from 1960-66; and President of the UICC from 1970-74. A very bitter letter from an epidemiologist at MD Anderson to Philip Morris describes how he destroyed priceless volumes of letters, pictures and manuscripts of cancer researchers that belonged to her uncle. And as an administrator of Yale University's virology program, "He was a blight."The UICC: ACS's Foreign Puppet (William U. Gardner)
Huebner was a member of the CTR SAB from 1968 to 1981. He was also on the Board of Scientific Advisors of the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research. In 1962, while at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Huebner confirmed Trentin's experiment inducing cancers in hamsters with adenovirus type 12. While on the SAB of the CTR from 1968 to 1981, he was also running the solid tumor section of the National Cancer Institute's Virus Cancer Program. Instead of searching for human tumor viruses among likely suspects such as DNA viruses, he turned to resources of both the CTR and the NCI toward RNA viruses that infected only animals, and pushing his oncogene theory of cancer. Huebner's biggest NCI contractor was Maurice Green at his alma mater, St. Louis University, who failed to discover a role for viruses in human cancer despite vast sums of money over many years.Robert Joseph Huebner CV ca. 1975 / tobacco document
Nov. 4, 1971 memo to "The committee comprising Dr. Huebner, Chm., Dr. Andervont, Dr. Loosli and Dr. Lynch," from Dorothea B. Cohen, concerning an application for a research grant renewal from Dr. John E. Craighead (who joined the SAB from 1976-77). The work was originally intended to investigate the biology and cytopathic effects of adenoviruses, but was redirected to RNA viruses instead. "Toward the end of 1969, Dr. Craighead submitted an application for continuation of his work along similar lines. This was denied without prejudice and conferences instituted to see whether his studies could be targeted more specifically toward the Board's interest in "C" type RNA virus problems and particularly toward the problem of carcinoma production by such viruses. A modified research plan was proposed after a three-month extension of Grant #550 and approved for activation on April 1, 1970."Memo from Dorothea Cohen / tobacco document
The CTR also funded RNA tumor virus work by Microbiological Associates. CTR SAB member Vincent Lisanti testified in the Butler trial that it was Huebner who steered funding to them. MA was later bought by Sidney R. Knafel, and a story was concocted about the CTR supposedly suppressing research on a (meaningless) mouse inhalation study.
Liebow was a member of the CTR SAB from 1973 to 1977. He was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Diego.
Lisanti was Scientific Director of the CTR in 1967. From Lisanti's affidavit in the Butler trial, Feb. 24, 1997, page 24: "I personally knew Dr. Wakeham and heard him express his views on the 'relevance' of CTR research many times during the 1970s. Dr. Wakeham and his colleague at Philip Morris, Dr. Thomas Osdene, repeatedly expressed the opinion that CTR-funded research work was not sufficiently relevant to tobacco, based on their view that research which did not involve experiments using tobacco smoke was not 'relevant' to CTR's mission. The CTR staff disagreed with, and never adopted, the views of Drs. Wakeham and Osdene. Based on my familiarity with Dr. Wakeham and his views about scientific 'relevance,' I believe that Dr. Wakeham's rating of '1' meant he considered the research to be most relevant to tobacco per se and that his rating of '5' meant he considered the research to be least relevant. I do not believe that he meant to give a grant application a low score based on its potential for research findings connecting smoking with disease causation." In other words, Wakeham and Osdene were loyal disciples of the Lasker Syndicate's trashy "science," and presumably shared their obsession with blaming tobacco. Also, on page 24 he speaks of SAB member RJ Heubner steering funding for mouse inhalation studies to Microbiological Associates, which in the 1970s became the NCI's biggest outside contractor. Other funding went to Mary Lasker's and Florence Mahoney's longtime associate Freddie Homberger's Bio-Research Consultants (page 22). Homberger's correspondence with Lasker dates from 1948 to 1959, and with Mahoney from 1960 to 1976. The anti-smokers claim that Freddie Homburger was denied funding from the CTR, and that a press conference he called was cancelled because his results were adverse to the tobacco industry. But Homburger's testimony in the Broin airline ETS trial reveals a different story, and he voluntarily told of his links to Mary Lasker's lobbying group.Lisanti affidavit in Butler, 1997 / tobacco document
Loosli was a member of the SAB from 1966 to 1973. He was Dean
Professor of Medicine from 1956-64, and Hastings
Professor of Medicine and Pathology since 1964, at the University of
California School of Medicine. Most of his papers were on
Meier was a member of the CTR SAB from 1971 to 1981. He was born in Zurich, Switzerland in 1929. He held staff scientist positions at the Jackson Memorial Laboratory since 1962, and was a member of the Solid Tumor-Virus Working Group, 1971-73, the Breast Cancer Virus Segment of the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program since 1973, and was on the NCI Virus Cancer Program Review Committee A in 1974. In 1974, he suffered a stroke, and in 1981 died of complications from an aneurysm.Hans Meier CV, 1972 / tobacco document
"Ramm, a native of Chicago, received his undergraduate education at the University of Minnesota and was graduated from Harvard Law School in 1929. He practiced law in New York City until 1946 and then joined the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in Winston-Salem as solicitor and assistant to the chairman of the board. He was elected a director of the company in 1946, became general counsel in 1955, and a vice president in 1959. In 1970, when R.J. Reynolds Industries was formed, he became chairman of the executive committee, general counsel, and a director," until his retirement at the end of 1970. He was elected chairman and president of the CTR in January 1971 after serving as its acting chairman for two years. (Ramm assumes leadership of Council for Tobacco Research. Press release, Leonard Zahn & Associates, Jan. 26, 1971.)Ramm, 1971 / tobacco document
Sato was a member of the CTR SAB from 1980 to 1994. He was
of Biology at the University of California - San Diego.
Sommers was a member of the CTR SAB from 1966 to 1989, and its Chairman from 1981 to 1987. He was Director of Laboratories at Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City, from 1968 to 1981.Sheldon C. Sommers CV / tobacco document
Between 1969 and 1972, John J. McCloy was an Honorary Life Trustee of Lenox Hill Hospital, whose Chairman expressed the Board of Trustees' gratitude to the Council for Tobacco Research for funding the work of Sheldon Sommers. McCloy was also the Chairman of the Salk Institute, whose trustees engaged in assorted anti-smoking activism.
Carol Henry, former investigator for Microbiological Associates and now Vice President of Toxicology at corrupt EPA contractor ICF Inc., wrote to Sommers summarizing speakers' major points at the public meeting for the Committee on Passive Smoking of the National Academy of Sciences on Jan.29, 1986, and enclosing various handouts and materials.Henry to Sommers, 1986 / tobacco document
(Smoking and Health: Many Unanswered Questions. By Sheldon C. Sommers. American Druggist, Sep. 1970.)American Druggist, Sep. 1970 / tobacco document
Wattenberg was a member of the CTR SAB from 1975 to 1979. He
Professor of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and
Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School since 1966, and a
member of Alpha Omega Alpha.
Wyatt was a member of the CTR SAB from 1972 to 1980. He was
Professor and Head of the Department of Pathology, University of
Manitoba Faculty of Medicine; and Director of the Tobacco and Health
Research Institute at the University of Kentucky. He was a
consultant to the Smoking and Health Committee of the National
Institutes of Health in 1964.
There was some worthwhile work supporting papillomavirus research by A. Bennett Jenson and also by Kari Syrjanen and the Kuopio Papillomavirus Research Group in the 1980s. But these dealt only with the molecular aspects and not epidemiology.
Frequency and distribution of papillomavirus structural antigens in verrucae, multiple papillomas, and condylomata of the oral cavity. AB Jenson, WD Lancaster, D-P Hartmann, EL Shaffer. Am J Pathol 1982;107:212-218. Funded by the Public Health Service and the CTR.Jenson - Am J Pathol 1982 / tobacco document
AB Jenson, RJ Kurman, WD Lancaster. In: Textbook of human virology. PSG Publishing Co, 1984. Chapter 34. Human papillomaviruses.Jenson - Textbook of human virology, 1984 / tobacco document
"Dr. Jenson's current work in this area is focused on the identification of antigens of the human papillomaviruses (HPV) using peroxidase-antiperoxidase techniques. He has reported positive reactions or the presence of HPV antigens in lesions from the oral cavity and respiratory tract. However, not all lesions are associated with HPV express viral antigens [sic], according to Dr. Jenson, and he is interested in investigating this association using molecular DNA techniques." (Letter from Patrick M. Sirridge of Shook, Hardy & Bacon, May 8, 1986.)Sirridge re Jenson, 1986 / tobacco document
Reports Published from the Kuopio Papillomavirus Project Since 810000. The Kuopio Papillomavirus Research Group's work was virtually the only investigation of infection as a cause of cancer that was funded by the CTR. (The document dated "1993" is actually earlier than the "1992" document, which covers studies from 1980 to 1992.)"Reports Published from the Papillomavirus Project Since 810000," 1992 / tobacco document
Keerti Shah's form letter seeking corporate donations for the 12th International Papillomavirus Workshop, hosted by The Johns Hopkins, and thank-you for their $2000 contribution, "especially in view of the difficulties of obtaining funds from the NIH and other agencies."12th International Papillomavirus Workshop, 1993 / tobacco document
Richard J. Bing, Roswell K. Boutwell, Michael James Brennan, Joseph Feldman, Peter M Howley, G Barry Pierce, Gordon H. Sato, Drummond H. Bowden, William Gardner, Henry T. Lynch.1983 SAB expertise / tobacco document
There is only one member of the SAB who ever pursued a
research direction. In the words of Stanley Jacobson's background
summary, "Viruses play an important role in many diseases including
cancer. His creative incisive mind has concentrated on the so-called
papovaviruses BK and JC and the papillomavirus." But this research
dealt exclusively with the molecular aspects of viral carcinogenesis,
and not with the possibility that the studies blaming smoking for
numerous illnesses were confounded by infection. They were in highly
technical language, which is the perfect way to conceal them from the
masses. Howley was also employed at the National Cancer Institute at
the time, as several other SAB members had been, including Robert J.
Huebner of the fruitless Virus Cancer Program. In December 1984, the
Executive Committee of the NCI forced Howley to resign from the SAB. It
is noted in an April 15, 1986 letter of protest to Vincent DeVita, the
NCI Director, that he was not present at this meeting. The pretext was
potential conflict of interest, but could just as well be interpreted
as an attempt to obstruct research lest someone realize that smoking
had been falsely blamed for cervical and other cancers.
In November 1984, the National Cancer Institute itself began funding investigation into the role of human papillomaviruses in cervical cancer. (DCE board approves concept for new $850,000 year grant program to study viruses in cervical cancer. The Cancer Letter 1984 Nov 9;10(43):1-2.)Cancer Letter Nov. 9, 1984 / tobacco document
Agenda of the Board of Directors' meeting, June 27, 1985. Item 3, "Report by Dr. Howley," with a handwritten note, "papillomaviruses." The minutes of the meeting note tersely that "Dr. Howley provided a review of his work in the field of virus research."BOD June 27, 1985 Agenda / tobacco document
Howley eventually left the NCI to become the George Fabyan Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. (George Fabyan Sr. was a wealthy textile magnate and business partner of Cornelius N. Bliss of the Central Trust Company. Fabyan's son created Riverbank Laboratories in Geneva, Illinois, one of whose many projects was cryptoanalysis of William Shakespeare's works in search of secret messages, which led to national security work.)Pathology / Harvard Medical School
Howley gave the George Khoury Memorial Lecture on "The Human Papillomaviruses and Human Cancer" on July 7, 1993. His work has always dealt only with molecular aspects and not the epidemiology of papillomaviruses. In 1994, he discussed the possibility of rejoining the CTR Scientific Advisory Board with James F. Glenn.Program of the 1993 George Khoury Memorial Lecture at Harvard / tobacco document
"Viruses in the Etiology of Human Tumors" Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Symposium, May 7-10, 2000; organized by Peter M. Howley and Harald zur Hausen. Howley's presentation: "The multiple functions of the HPV E6 oncoprotein." Former SAB member PK Vogt was there also, with "Signaling endpoints in oncogenesis: targets & effectors" in animal models.DKFZ - Heidelberg Symposium 2000
Howley is on the Advisory Committee of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation.Advisory Comittee / GM Cancer Research Foundation
Howley was the chairman of the 2000 National Cancer Policy Board, which produced the report "State Programs Can Reduce Tobacco Use." It was reviewed by a panel of leading anti-smokers who are notable for their psychopathology, including Frank J. Chaloupka, Stanton A. Glantz, Thomas P. Houston, and Mathew Myers. Other members of the NCPB include John Mendelsohn of Enron Corporation and ImClone Systems infamy, John Seffrin of the American Cancer Society, and Lawrence O. Gostin, main author of the Model Emergency Health Powers Act scheme to eliminate civil liberties under the pretext of ill-defined health emergencies.National Cancer Policy Board / National Academy Press 2000
Howley was a member of the Panel on Infectious Diseases of the NIAID Strategic Planning Task Force in 2000. Other members of this panel included Gail Cassell, a member of the board of directors of Research!America; former Rep. Paul G. Rogers; and Joshua Lederberg.Strategic Planning Task Force, 2000 / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Richard J. Bing, Drummond H. Bowden, Roswell K. Boutwell, Michael J. Brennan, Joseph D. Feldman, James F. Glenn, Jeffrey R. Idle, Leon O. Jacobson, Manfred L. Karnovsky, Alfred G. Knudson, Henry T. Lynch, G Barry Pierce, Gordon H. Sato, Sheldon C. Sommers, Peter K. Vogt; Harmon C. McAllister, Research Director.CTR SAB, 1988 / Guildford tobacco document (pdf)
The first sign of intelligent life on the planet of lawyers: Stella F. Doering's critique of the draft of James Goold's industry position paper on cancer of the larynx: "The one theory of causation which is noticeably absent from Mr. Goold's paper is that of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiologic agent for some squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx..." [emphasis added]. Doering was a research analyst for Shook, Hardy & Bacon. The recipient of her memo, Anthony J. Andrade, was associate general counsel, Philip Morris - Switzerland, and was also "responsible for management and direction of ETS focused department" (TDO). But, despite ironclad proof that the anti-smokers falsely blamed smoking for cervical cancer that was actually caused by HPV, the tobacco lawyers have never uttered so much as a word about this subject, and have permitted the anti-smokers to do likewise, including at the Minnesota tobacco trial. This is the real conspiracy.Doering 1989 / tobacco document
Boutwell was co-author with Harold
P. Rusch of the University of Wisconsin McArdle Laboratory of
Physiological Effects of Chronic
Caloric Restriction" (Am J Physiol 1948 Sep 1;154(3):517-524); also:
The biological aspects of chemical carcinogenesis. RK Boutwell,
Department of Oncology, McArdle Laboratory, University of Wisconsin.
The paper was prepared for the meeting of the Less Hazardous Cigarette
Working Group scheduled for May 1 and 2, 1968.
Boutwell was a member of the American Cancer Society's Advisory Committee on Institutional Research Grants in 1974. Other top ACS officials included Lasker Foundation director and Washington Advisory Group principal Purnell W. Choppin; WAG principal C. Thomas Caskey; Frank Rauscher Jr. of the NCI; R. Lee Clark of MD Anderson; and fellow CTR members Wolfgang Joklik and Peter K. Vogt.American Cancer Society audit report, 1974 / tobacco document (pdf, 9 pp)
Boutwell was on the ACS Council for Research and Clinical Investigation Awards in 1976.ACS Annual Report, 1976 / tobacco document
Boutwell spoke on "Inhibition of Tumor Promoter-induced Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity by Retinoids" at the NIH Workshop on Chemoprevention of Cancer, Feb. 2 and 3, 1978. Other participants included John H. Weisburger, longtime research director of the American Health Foundation; and future AHF trustees Jerome J. DeCosse and Arthur C. Upton.NIH Workshop on Chemoprevention of Cancer, 1978 / tobacco document
In 1978, Boutwell was an associate editor of the journal Nutrition and Cancer. Gio Batta Gori of the National Cancer Institute tobacco (and other) programs was the Editor. Ernst Wynder of the American Health Foundation; D. Mark Hegsted, professor of nutrition at Harvard; and Takeshi Hirayama, of later ETS study infamy, were members of the Editorial Board.Nutrition and Cancer, 1978 / tobacco document
Boutwell was a member of the National Cancer Advisory Board in the 1980s. "Apparently this round of appointments was not as political as the last one was said to be. Brown has been active in the Democratic party and Strong is the daughter of the late Texas Democratic Sen. Tom Connally." (...Boutwell New NCAB Member. The Cancer Letter 1983 Feb. 18;9(7); and: NCAB Appointments: Boutwell stays on; Brown, Elion, Strong, Korn named; one vacancy remains. The Cancer Letter 1984 May 18;10(20).)Boutwell - The Cancer Letter 1983 / tobacco document
Karnovsky was a member of the CTR SAB from 1985 to 1995. He
Harold T. White Professor of Biological Chemistry, of the Department of
Biological Chemistry at Harvard Medical School. He was born and
educated in South Africa. In 1979-80, he co-authored four studies
on tobacco smoke and alveolar macrophages with G. Huber.
Leslie Karnovsky CV post-1984 / tobacco document
In 1977, Knudson became the director of the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia. The ICR was created by the Sun Oil heirs, one of whom (J. Howard Pew) participated in the Lasker takeover of the American Society for the Control of Cancer. Former TIRC/CTR member Stanley P. Reimann was the first director of the ICR.Institute for Cancer Research History / Fox Chase Cancer Center
Knudson's area of expertise is in hereditary cancers caused by mutations of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. The large-T protein of polyomaviruses, the E7 protein of human papillomaviruses, and the E1A protein of adenoviruses all interfere with the normal action of the Rb protein in the process of their causation of cancer. Therefore he had every professional reason to be expected to comprehend the molecular basis of viral carcinogenesis. But he said nothing. And no doubt as a reward for his silence, the Lasker Syndicate rewarded him handsomely.
Knudson was a member of the National Cancer Advisory Board of
National Cancer Institute in 1996. Fellow board members included
of Frederic V.
Malek, who was on the board of directors of the company that handled
the illegal pass-through contracts for the phony EPA ETS report, and
who put George W. Bush on the board of Caterair in return for an
unspecified favor relating to the airline industry which may have been
the airline smoking ban.
From the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation Living Library: "Alfred Knudson, Winner, 1998 Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research. For incisive studies in patient-oriented research that paved the way for identifying genetic alterations that cause cancer in humans and that allow for cancer diagnosis in patients at the molecular level." The Lasker Foundation website has a veritable shrine to him.Knudson 1998 Lasker Award / Lasker Foundation
Needless to say, the Lasker Foundation's biography of Knudson makes no mention of their gilded hero's loyal service on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Tobacco Research Council, during which he also received the 1988 Charles S. Mott Prize of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation; the American Cancer Society's 1989 Medal of Honor; the 1990 Founder's Award of the Chemical Industry Institute for Toxicology; the American Radium Society's 1990 Janeway Medal; the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's 1990 Katherine Berkan Judd Award; and the 1991 William Allen Memorial Award of the American Society of Human Genetics. Since leaving the SAB, he has also received MD Anderson Cancer Center's 1995 Bertner Award; Switzerland's 1995 Charles Rodolphe Brupbacher Foundation Award; the 1996 Robert J. and Claire Pasarow Foundation Award; the 1996 City of Medicine Award; and the 1997 Gairdner Foundation International Award.
"Dr. Alfred G. Knudson Jr. has been a senior member of the scientific research staff at the Fox Chase Cancer Center since 1976... In 1995 Knudson was appointed as special advisor to Dr. Richard Klausner, director of the National Cancer Institute." Knudson is also the principal investigator of a gene study which has received a $2.4 million grant from the National Cancer Institute.Knudson biography / Lasker Foundation
So much for the opprobium which one might expect to be attached to serving as the supposed stooge of a supposed "rogue industry." Undoubtably, Knudson's real role on the SAB was to supervise the research it funded from his position of expertise, to make sure that basic research stayed basic: that it was safely focused on minutiae, and never raised issues about whether viruses were the real culprit behind diseases blamed on smoking. That is, to deliberately use smokers' money in ways that would benefit the health establishment, but without aiding smokers; and gloating serenely as the anti-smoking propaganda factory spread its fog of disinformation.
List of Scientific Advisory Board Members 1954-95 and their periods of service.SAB 1954-95 / tobacco document
(James F. Glenn was the CTR Chairman, who blew an opportunity at Minnesota tobacco trial to make a point about how the anti-smokers falsely blame smoking for diseases that are really caused by infection.)CTR SAB 1996 / tobacco document
Abood was a member of the CTR SAB since 1992. He assisted with the 1988 Surgeon General report on "nicotine addiction" before joining the SAB. He was Professor of Pharmacology and Biochemistry at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. "Dr. Abood served on a large number of national committees and boards. These included several NIH study sections, the NINCDS Board of Scientific Counselors and a number of National Academy of Sciences Committees." He was co-editor of "Diversity of Interacting Receptors," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1995 May 10, Vol. 757, of which the Council for Tobacco Research was a major funder, with contributions from various pharmaceutical companies. Joshua Lederberg was chairman of the board, William T. Golden was honorary life governor, and former Rep. Bill Green was a governor-at-large of the Academy; both Golden and Green were directors of General American Investors. Abood died Feb. 16, 1998, during the Minnesota tobacco trial.Abood obit
Arnason was a member of the SAB since 1992. He is from the Department of Neurology of the University of Chicago. Arnason is particularly interested in multiple sclerosis, and has testified for HHS in vaccine injury compensation lawsuits.
Bowden was a member of the CTR SAB since 1981. He is Professor
Emeritus of Pathology at the University of Manitoba, Canada. Most
of his work was on alveolar macrophages.
Brennan was a member of the CTR SAB since 1981. He was
the Michigan Cancer Foundation from at least 1972-81. During 1968-72,
he was on the National Advisory
Council on Regional Medical Programs, along with Lasker insider Michael
E. DeBakey and Alton Ochsner; and was the first director of the Meyer
L. Prentis Comprehensive Cancer Center. He was in the Breast
Cancer Virus Section of the Special Virus Cancer Program, 1970.
Cancer fighter also aids tobacco-funded unit. By Dolly Katz, Free Press Medical Writer. The Detroit Free Press, Nov. 4, 1985 pp. 3A, 15A. Kenneth Warner at the University of Michigan School of Public Health used Brennan to concoct anti-smoking propaganda falsely pretending that CTR-funded research defended the tobacco industry: "It allows them to support their claim that the relationship between smoking and health is still an open issue." In the same article, Lawrence Garfinkle pooh-poohed the scientific value of mouse inhalation studies, and Sheldon Sommers said, "I'm not a propagandist. I don't give a damn what happens to the tobacco industry."Cancer fighter also aids tobacco-funded unit, 1985 / tobacco document
Croce was a member of the CTR SAB since 1994. He was on the Board of Scientific Counselors, Division of Cancer Treatment of the NCI, 1995; and the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of the NIEHS, 2000. He is Professor and Chair of Microbiology and Immunology at Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia. He believes in genes, not viruses. "Croce and his researchers are working on more than 250 projects funded by more than $53 million in research grants from various sources, including the National Institutes of Health" (Philadelphia Business Journal, March 23, 2001). He is on the Advisory Committee of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, and he received its Charles S. Mott Prize in 1993.Philadelphia Business Journal 2001
Temple University's Fels Institute in Philadelphia ran out of space and resources for Croce's empire, so he moved across town to Jefferson Medical College, which had a new, empty $85 million research building available. (Prominent scientist switches labs, sparking administrative fireworks, by Susan L-J Dickinson. The Scientist 1991 Jun 24;5(13):1.)Dickinson / The Scientist 1991
Erikson was born in Eagle, Wis., and got his BS (1958), MS
and PhD (1963) at the University of Wisconsin. He got the 1982
Lasker Foundation Basic Research Award for oncogenes, He was an
Cancer Society Professor of Cellular and Developmental Biology at
Harvard since 1982, and an American Cancer Society Research Professor
at Harvard since 1983. He was on the Advisory Committee of the General
Cancer Research Foundation, and received its Alfred P. Sloan Prize in
1983. He was a member of the CTR SAB since 1992. He was head of
research team at the University of Colorado, funded by the American
Business Cancer Research Foundation, which received $200,000 in 1982
and $1 million in 1983 from the JM Foundation.
donors included Exxon and Mobil Corporations, Monsanto and Schering
Plough, Union Carbide and Proctor & Gamble, Dow Chemical and
Olin Corporation. (A $1 Million Gift for Cancer Research. By Kathleen
Teltsch. New York Times, Aug. 14, 1983.)
Gill was a member of the CTR SAB since 1991. He is Professor of Medicine and Chair of the Faculty of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of California at San Diego; curently supported by NIH grants from the NIDDK and NCI. On the Scientific Advisory Board of the Charles E. Culpepper Foundation and the Kirsch Foundation, and on the AHA review committee.Gill / University of California - San Diego, Bioeng.
Joklik was a member of the CTR SAB since 1990. He came to the Duke Medical Center in 1968, and applied for it to become a Regional Comprehensive Cancer Center. Chaired the Virology Section of NIH in the early 1970s; founder and first president of the American Society of Virology in 1980; editor-in-chief of Virology for 24 years. But he only cares about acute viral infections such as reoviruses, which cause viral gastroenteritis. (Adventures of a Biochemist in Virology. By Wolfgang Karl (Bill) Joklik. J Biol Chem 2005 Dec 9;280(49):40385-40397.)Joklik / J Biol Chem 2005 full article
Joklik was a member of the American Cancer Society's Advisory Committee on Personnel for Research in 1974. Other top ACS officials included Lasker Foundation director and Washington Advisory Group principal Purnell W. Choppin; WAG principal C. Thomas Caskey; Frank Rauscher Jr. of the NCI; R. Lee Clark of MD Anderson; and fellow CTR members Roswell K. Boutwell and Peter K. Vogt.American Cancer Society audit report, 1974 / tobacco document (pdf, 9 pp)
Mrs. Wolfgang K. Joklik was a member of the Citizens Advisory Committee of Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, circa 1987. Mrs. William M. Blair Jr. of the Lasker Foundation was also a member.Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center / tobacco document
Lynch was a member of the CTR SAB since 1973. He was a member of the NCI Virus Cancer Program Scientific Review Committee B in 1974. The "Lynch Syndrome," Hereditary Non-Polyposis Cancer Syndrome, is named after him. He has a $2.8 million grant to study HNPCC. He is on the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.Henry T. Lynch CV ca. 1974 / tobacco document
Lynch received CTR funding for work on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase genetics, an area which has been a mere pretext for propaganda. "Most of the tobacco industry's research money, what little of it there has been, goes into esoteric basic research that has almost no relationship to the health problems the industry has created," sneered an anonymous "NCI executive" to The Cancer Newsletter. "It's only a token effort, designed to hold up as an answer to the industry's critics." And, "A member of the National Cancer Advisory Board who heads a cancer research institution, when asked what significant findings have been reported through industry-supported through industry-funded research, answered "Not a God damned thing!" Which is exactly how health fascists at the National Cancer Institute wanted it to be, because they funded the same kind of crap as their cronies in the CTR. (Cancer Newsletter 1974 Aug. 2;1(26).)Cancer Newsletter, 1974 / tobacco document
Lynch participated in the Conference on the Primary Prevention of Cancer: Assessment of Risk Factors and Future Directions, at the American Health Foundation, June 7-8, 1979. Besides the contingent from the AHF (Ernst L. Wynder, Dietrich Hoffmann, John H. Weisburger, Charles B. Arnold), participants included Arthur Upton, Director of the National Cancer Institute; LaSalle D. Leffall Jr. (future AHF Trustee), E. Cuyler Hammond, and Lawrence Garfinkel of the ACS; Gio B. Gori and T.C. Tso of the Tobacco Program; Paul D. Stolley and D. Mark Hegsted, food fascists from Harvard University; and a contingent from Deutsche Krebshilfe in Germany, which co-sponsored the event.Conference on the Primary Prevention of Cancer, 1979 / tobacco document
An article Lynch co-authored shows he had long before suspected that infections might cause cancer (Is cancer communicable? HT Lynch, GE Schulke, ME O'Hare. Med Hypoth 1984;14:181-198). But despite the vast increase in evidence by the time of the state tobacco trials, the subject was never broached.Lynch Med Hypoth 1984 / tobacco document
McAllister was a member of the CTR SAB since 1991. From Court TV Online, Widdick v. Brown & Williamson, regarding McAllister's written deposition in 1988: "The essence of his testimony was that the Council for Tobacco Research does not try to control the research it funds. He said as a result of funding from the Council, hundreds of articles have been published that have been damaging to the cigarette industry. The articles appeared in the most respected medical journals and are often cited in Surgeon Generals' reports. McAllister defended the Council for Tobacco Research's decision to support basic research into the diseases, rather than studying the epidemiology. The risk factors of smoking, he claimed, are already widely-known."Court TV Online 1998
From a form letter sent by McAllister, as the Vice President of Research and Scientific Director of the SAB, to the Office of Contract and Grant Administration, University of California, San Diego, July 31, 1997: "Over the past few weeks, the news media has been saturated with stories of the proposed settlement between the tobacco industry and the Attorneys General of several states and members of the plaintiffs' bar. You may have heard that one of the provisions of the agreement is that within 90 days after it is effectuated by an Act of Congress, CTR must be disbanded and dissolved. While this may not happen immediately, under these circumstances, we believe it would be imprudent to commit funds for 1998 and beyond."
"Because of these developments, we regretfully are suspending consideration of all new and competing renewal applications. I and in fact all of our scientific staff know only too well the prodigious effort required in preparing that package, but we at CTR learned of the proposed dissolution only within the last few days. It is therefore my unhappy duty to let you know that we are returning your application with our most profound regrets. It will be sent under separate cover."
"Please be aware we share your frustration that this program must come to so abrupt a close after 43 years of continuous support for scientific research."
"The real loser of course is the research community of which you are a part. Through CTR, the tobacco industry has spent $282 million in support of biomedical investigation; more than a thousand researchers have authored over 6000 original scientific articles that have acknowledged our support. That this must cease is a tragedy." [SIC.]
Now let's see them called to account for their real guilt: That the SAB's research funding was really nothing but a giant loot-a-thon by Lasker Syndicate stooges for the benefit of their cronies and mentees, in flagrant disregard of the interests of not just the tobacco companies, but also smokers (who ultimately were forced to pay for it all, and then to pay even more for the pretended "costs" of bogus "smoking-related diseases"), and the general public as well.OCGA, University of California - San Diego
(News) Tobacco industry funded 'good science,' witness says. V Smith, Associated Press 2001 Nov 6. At the West Virginia class action suit of healthy so-called smokers (actually anti-smokers' pawns), Harmon McAllister "denied accusations the council was an industry shield formed solely for its public relations value and that it funded largely irrelevant research." In fact, the CTR was merely a PR shield to make it look as if the tobacco industry was fighting the anti-smokers when it wasn't. And, the research was largely irrelevant, with the CTR functioning as a mere funding pump from smokers to Lasker Syndicate cronies.McAllister / AP - News Observer 2001
McDevitt was the last member of the CTR SAB, who joined in 1996.
Pierce was a member of the CTR SAB since 1982. He is a pathologist at the New York University School of Medicine.Gordon Barry Pierce CV ca. 1982 / tobacco document
"Barry Pierce, professor of pathology at the Univ. of Colorado and former member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of NCI's Div. of Cancer Cause and Prevention, will be the new Chairman of that Board, replacing Peter Magee, whose term expired with last week's meeting...." (Magee was co-chairman of the American Health Foundation's Science Advisory Board.) (Barry Pierce New DCCP Board Chairman;... The Cancer Letter 1983 June 17;9(24).)Pierce, The Cancer Letter 1983 / tobacco document
"Dr. G. Barry Pierce (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center) Dr. Pierce is one of the major innovators in the field of cancer research. About 20 years ago he proposed that cancer is primarily a disease of so-called stem cells, that is, as yet unspecialized cells which reside in most tissues and which normally mature to the specialized form characteristic of the tissue when they are needed for growth or replacement. He has suggested that a cancer is generated when such stem cells become wayward while on the road to specialization and replicate essentially without limit...." (Review of the Medical Research Program of RJR Nabisco, Inc. (1985-1986). Jan. 1986.)Pierce research summary, RJR Nabisco 1986 / tobacco document
Sabatini was a member of the CTR SAB since 1995. He is the Frederick L. Ehrman
Professor of Cell Biology and Chairman of the Department of Cell
at New York
University. His research is on "protein traffic and membrane and
organelle biogenesis," especially Golgi vesicles. He was elected to the
Institute of Medicine in October 2000. [Frederick L. Ehrman was the
chairman of Lehman Brothers, who financed Philip Morris and attended
their meetings – and a cousin of Lasker Foundation director Daniel E.
Swain was a member of the CTR SAB since 1993. She was Professor of Medicine at Stanford University; Consulting Editor of the journal Circulation; Cardiology Advisory Committee of NHLBI; subcommittee chair of NIH Director's Standing Committee on Clinical Research; National Advisory Research Resources Council of NIH; elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1997.Swain bio / AHA
Vogt was a member of the CTR SAB since 1987. He was born in
Germany in 1932. His curriculum vitae
places him at the scientific core of the conspiracy to falsely blame
smoking for diseases caused by infection. He was on the Leukemia
Etiology Segment Review Panel of the NCI Special Virus Cancer Program
from 1968-71; the Solid Tumor Segment Review Panel of the NCI Special
Virus Cancer Program from 1971-72; the American Cancer Society Advisory
Committee on Virology and Cell Biology from 1971-75, and its Denham
Fellowship Review Committee from 1972-80; the Board of Scientific
Consultants of Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research from
1972-80; the DHEW Virology Task Force from 1976-77; the American Cancer
Society Council for Research and Clinical Investigation from 1979-82;
the National Cancer Institute Cancer Special Program Review Committee
from 1981-85; and he has been on the National Cancer Institute's Board
of Scientific Advisors since 1996. He was a frequent co-author with
Harold E. Varmus, J. Michael Bishop, and Peter H. Duesburg. Since
1993, Vogt has been a
professor at the Scripps Research Institute, upon whose Board of
Trustees sits Deeda Blair
of the Lasker
Vogt is on the Advisory Committee of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, and he received its Charles S. Mott Prize in 1991.Advisory Committee / GM Cancer Research Foundation
Vogt was a member of the American Cancer Society's Advisory Committee on Virology and Cell Biology in 1974. Other top ACS officials included Lasker Foundation director and Washington Advisory Group principal Purnell W. Choppin; WAG principal C. Thomas Caskey; Frank Rauscher Jr. of the NCI; R. Lee Clark of MD Anderson; and fellow CTR members Wolfgang Joklik and Roswell K. Boutwell.American Cancer Society audit report, 1974 / tobacco document (pdf, 9 pp)
By the time of the state tobacco trials in 1997 and 1998, there had been a proliferation of research on HPV, and the lawyers supposedly defending the industry could have done so without recourse to any research funded by the industry. The question of "Cigarette smoking as a cause of cervical cancer: Has confounding been controlled?' had been pointedly raised by Phillips & Smith, and concisely answered "No" by FX Bosch et al. Yet the subject of cervical cancer was not raised at all by either side at the Minnesota tobacco trial. THERE MUST HAVE BEEN A "GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT" NOT TO DO SO!
From notes of the secret meeting of the top tobacco executives in New York City, Nov. 15, 1978, by RR Seligman, Vice President of Research and Development at Philip Morris: "The TIRC was first established at Hill & Nowlton [sic] PR when the government began to take action against the industry; i.e., the Blatnik Committee Hearing." "CTR began to lose their luster in the mid-60s and the tobacco industry looked around for more beneficial ways to spend their research dollars on smoking and health. It was at this time that special projects were instituted at Washington University, Harvard University, and UCLA." "Major problems exist today because of the advanced ages of most members of CTR's Scientific Advisory Board. It is felt that they would be of little use as witnesses today because they could not withstand the rigors of cross-examination."Seligman / Secret meeting in NYC, 1978
While some papillomavirus work by AB Jenson was funded through Special Projects (with the support of SC Sommers and Shook, Hardy & Bacon), this work was never used by the lawyers. The most highly-funded Special Projects produced worthless trash which studiously avoided challenging the key defects of the anti-smokers' worthless trash, and this was what they used at the Minnesota and Engle trials.
Sterling received at least $5,811,802 of the more than $20 million spent on special projects between 1972 and 1991. His specious work had no chance of being accepted by the scientific community, because it relied on a disreputable practice called "over-adjustment," which consists of fishing around for however many variables it takes to reduce an odds ratio to unity. He distracted naive would-be smokers' advocates away from sound science, while providing a prominent target for the anti-smokers to demonize.TD Sterling: The Anti-Smokers' Stooge
This $2 million research grant is "the largest research grant to any single institution in the 17-year history of support from tobacco sources for independent, objective, biological research, and the latest in a long series of such commitments which are approaching the $40 million level" (Horace Kornegay letter to Washington Univ. officials, March 10, 1971). This research was intended "to isolate and characterize specific antigens of cancer and to utilize these for the early detection, treatment and possible prevention of cancer," but failed to pan out. Its rationale was evidently PR to make people 'feel good about the tobacco industry.' TD Sterling happens to have been at the School of Engineering and Computer Science at the time. He was planning to analyze the American Cancer Society's CPS study data, but the ACS refused to make this data public.Kornegay to Washington Univ. officials, March 10, 1971 / tobacco document
Cigarette Smoking Coronary Heart Disease: A Questionable
By Carl C. Seltzer. In: In: The Tobacco Industry In Transition. William
R. Finger, editor. Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Co., Lexington
Framingham Study data and "established wisdom" about cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease. Carl C. Seltzer. J Clin Epidemiol 1989; 42(8):43-50.Seltzer - J. Clin Epidemiol 1989 full article / tobacco document
Carl Seltzer was the leading exponent of the "Constitutional Hypothesis," which slavishly reiterates the Lasker Syndicate orthodoxies that genes and diet and personality are the most important determinants of diseases, and attempts to plead that smokers and nonsmokers differ in them. Because these are not really important, it gave the anti-smokers carte blanche to suppress research on infection and exploit confounding.Affidavit of Carl Seltzer, 1990 / tobacco document
McGeorge Bundy, Skull & Bones 1940, who was Dean of Harvard University from 1953 to 1961, approved Seltzer's research applications in 1958 and 1959. After a stint as presidential advisor from 1961 to 1966, Bundy became President of the Ford Foundation from 1966 to 1979. (Bundy to W.T. Hoyt, Executive Secretary of the TIRC, Feb. 10, 1959.)Bundy to Hoyt, 1959 / tobacco document
The work by Michael Guerin and others at ORNL on exposure to secondhand smoke is excellent, but it is not sufficient to merely argue that the purported effects of ETS are disproportionate to the exposure. Those claims can be refuted conclusively only by identifying their absolute cause, namely confounding by infection."Exposures to secondhand smoke lower than believed" / ORNL
According to Glantz's estimate, Feinstein received at least $768,244 between 1976 and 1990. Feinstein is the role model for those purported defenders of smokers' rights who waste their efforts nitpicking about minor statistical issues in the secondhand smoke studies.Alvan R. Feinstein
MD, University of Pennsylvania, 1948. His expertise is in pharmacology, and his 38-page 1984 curriculum vitae shows extensive consulting for numerous pharmaceutical companies.Aviado c.v. / tobacco document
An example of Aviado's work from Executive Health, 1974. Obviously it didn't do much good, because executive types were quitting in droves. Kenneth H. Cooper, President Bush #2's Lasker-ordained future nominee for Surgeon General, was on the editorial board of Executive Health, along with Leonard Hayflick, RJ Huebner's contractor from the NCI Virus Cancer Program, and Alton Ochsner, author of numerous lung cancer studies.Aviado / Executive Health 1974 / tobacco document
"Pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A review of pathogenesis and clinicl aspects," prepared by Domingo Aviado of Atmospheric Health Sciences for Patrick M. Sirridge of Shook, Hardy & Bacon, March 28, 1985. "Summary Statement I: Infections and abnormal immunologic responses" is on pages 37-39.Aviado / 1985 tobacco document
"Early in 1981, Mr. Archibald Cox, the President of the Health Effects Institute of Harvard University [sic] has expressed his intention of having this consultant [Aviado] participate in research activities at the newly-formulated research institute that will be distributing research funds." (Annual report of Domingo Aviado to William W. Shinn of Shook, Hardy & Bacon, Jan. 20, 1981.) The Health Effects Institute was created to loot the automotive industry to fund its enemies just as they had done to the tobacco industry.Aviado to Shinn of SHB, 1981 / tobacco document
"List of Special Projects funded by the Tobacco Industry Research Committee, The Council for Tobacco Research - USA, and the Council for Tobacco Research - USA, Inc." (1966 to 1988)Special Projects list (1966 to 1988) / tobacco document
Table 8.1 Special Projects and Consultancies, 1972-1991, from The Cigarette Papers [Online], 1996. SA Glantz, J Slade, LA Bero, P Hanauer, DE Barnes.Special Projects and Consultancies, 1972-1991 / Glantz
The CTR supported one of Stanton Glantz's favorite authors, Arthur Penn of the NYU Medical Center, whose studies purported to show transformation of atherosclerotic plaques by chemical carcinogens (Transforming potential is detectable in arteriosclerotic plaques of young animals. A Penn, FC Hubbard Jr, JL Parkes. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 1991;11:1053-1058). This study was also funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the American Heart Association.Penn et al - Aterioscler Thromb 1991 / tobacco document
Other major donors in this class include the American Cancer Society and the American Heart Association. Lasker ally former Rep. Paul G. Rogers (R-FL) and Lasker Foundation Vice President Mrs. William McCormick Blair Jr. are also donors. Rogers, Blair, and John R. Seffrin of the ACS are also directors of Scripps.Donors / Scripps Research Institute
Gibbers Tobacco Documents Online: "For almost four decades, the CTR was the hub of massive effort to cast doubt on the links between smoking and disease." The studies were only a drop in the bucket of all research, were only remotely relevant to the subject, and all were conventionally framed. And what do they have to say about the truly massive effort of the Lasker lobby and its Wall Street henchmen to corrupt every congressman, and the federal bureaucracy as well through their myriad connections; and, through their control of federal research money, every university in the country, plus every local politician with the help of its phalanges, the ACS, AHA, ALA, APHA, and RWJF; while stifling the nation's news and suppressing all criticism of the Surgeon General thanks to their accomplices in the media. With underhanded help from the Ford Foundation and other organizations with ties to the CIA as well! All dedicated to imposing their fraudulent pseudo-science falsely blaming smoking for disease caused by infection. Here's what they have to say about Mary Woodard Lasker's role: NOTHING! (12-14-03)Mary Lasker profile / Tobacco Documents Online
"Impropaganda Review, A Rogues Gallery of Industry Front Groups and Anti-Environmental Think Tanks - Council for Tobacco Research," on the PRWatch website of John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton, attempts to portray the CTR as a powerhouse of contrarianism against the scientific consensus. In fact, all of the examples cited merely demonstrate the CTR's slavish adherence to research topics permitted by the Lasker Syndicate, namely, anything other than the hypothesis that infection is the cause of diseases blamed on smoking. And this is why Judge H. Lee Sarokin's 1988 sneer that the TIRC/CTR was "nothing but a hoax created for public relations purposes with no intention of ever seeking the truth or publishing it," is true ONLY IN EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE SENSE IN WHICH THAT BLITHERING BUFFOON OF A JUDGE UTTERED IT.
Another distortion in that article is the mischaracterization that "Many members of the SAB were actually respected scientists, and privately many of them disagreed with the tobacco industry's party line," as if they were supposed to be renegades, rather than trusted, true-believing stooges of the establishment. A position on the CTR was a real plum, because it involved giving away large amounts of other peoples' money to one's friends - and the establishment controlled it from the very beginning.
And, as for Rampton and Stauber, those two sniveling little chicken-droppings felt so threatened when I posted a link to this page in their forum that they locked me out of it. So much for free duscussion in Anti-Smoker Land. Their movement can survive only through lies and ignorance.Council For Tobacco Research / PR Watch
Their major funding sources include the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund (which also supports Stanton Glantz), and billionaire anti-smoker Ted Turner's Turner Foundation.Finances / PR Watch