William J. Donovan married Ruth Rumsey in 1914. She was the daughter
of Susan Fiske, the third wife of Dexter Phelps Rumsey (1827-1906).
(The Rumsey Family
of Buffalo, N Y. History of Buffalo; Their Gilded Cage: The Jekyll
Island Club Members. By Richard Jay Hutto, 2006, p. 132.) Her father,
Frank W. Fiske, and her grandfather, George S. Hazard, were president
and vice president of the Buffalo Board of Trade. (The Hazard family of
Rhode Island, 1635-1894. By Caroline E. Robinson, 1894, p. 216;
Delegates of New York and Missouri in Council at the Iron Mountain. New
Haven Daily Palladium, Jun. 9, 1863; Erie's Triumph. Inter Ocean, Dec.
Dexter P. Rumsey's second wife died in 1886. She was the sister of
Warren [sic - Wilson] S. Bissell, President Cleveland's law partner who
was to be best man at his wedding. (The Wedding May be Postponed.
Milwaukee Daily Journal, May 25, 1886.) Wilson Shannon Bissell and his
brother, Arthur Douglas Bissell, were both members of Skull &
Bones, 1869 and 1867 respectively. (Obituary Record of Graduates of
Yale, 1900-1910, p. 357; Obituary Record of Yale Graduates, 1926-1927,
"When Washington Seligman, the young New York broker who shot
himself in Florida, gets well he should turn the fool-killer loose on
the track of his friend Dexter P. Rumsey of Buffalo. Mr. Rumsey didn't
know enough to keep quiet, and leave the public in ignorance of the
attempted suicide. He telegraphed to the editor of the Jacksonville
paper to suppress everything relating to the matter both in his paper
and the Associated Press, and he should have $25 for his silence."
(People and Events. Inter Ocean, Mar. 26, 1887.) Dexter P. Rumsey's
daughters, Cornelia Coburn and Mary Grace Rumsey, successively married
Ansley Wilcox, Yale 1874, a lawyer in Buffalo. He was a member of the
Charity Organization Society in Buffalo since 1877, the first one
founded in the United States; a member of the executive committee of
the Buffalo chapter of the American Red Cross since 1916; and was a
personal friend of President Theodore Roosevelt, who took the oath of
office at the Wilcox home and held the first cabinet meeting there.
(Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the
Year 1929-1930, p. 46.) He and his brother, Marrion Wilcox, Scroll
& Key 1878, senior editor of Encyclopedia
of Latin America, both studied at Oxford University. (Obituary
Record of Yale Graduates, 1926-1927, p. 87.)
Aaron Rumsey was born in Vermont in 1797, moved to Warsaw, N.Y. in
1817, and to Buffalo in 1834, "where he was a prosperous leather
manufacturer and dealer and where his descendants are leading citizens.
He died in 1864. His wife [Eleanor Phelps], born in Vermont in 1796,
moved to Warsaw in 1817, married in 1818, and died in 1870." His
daughter, Eleanor S. Rumsey, married William Wirt Crocker, son of John
Crocker, who was also born in Vermont in 1797, moved to Warsaw in 1818
and was a merchant there. Their son, William Douglas Crocker, graduated
from Yale in 1873. He was a lawyer in Williamsport, Penn. (History of
the Yale Class of 1873. Compiled by Frederick J. Shepard, Class
Secretary, 1901, p. 90; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University
Deceased during the Year 1930-31, p. 36.) Their son, Dana Rumsey
Crocker (Princeton 1916), was an assistant trust officer at the
Guaranty Trust Company of New York. (Financial Notes. New York Times,
Dec. 21, 1926; The Dart. Dickinson Seminary and Junior College, 1931,
Dexter Phelps Rumsey's sister, Evelyn, married Dr. Charles Cary in
1879. He was the son of Dr. Walter Cary and Julia Love Cary of Buffalo.
He graduated from the University of Buffalo in 1875, and studied in
France and Belgium, and travelled in Europe for several years before
returning to the U.S. He was appointed attending physician at Buffalo
General Hospital, and was elected a member of the faculty of the
medical department of the University of Buffalo, where he served 32
years. He was chairman of the board of trustees of the New York State
Institute for Research in Malignant Diseases. (Sr. Charles Cary Dead in
Buffalo. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1931.)
Bronson Case Rumsey (1823-1902) was Dexter P. Rumsey's brother.
Mr. and Mrs. Rumsey, Mr. and Mrs. L.D. Rumsey, Mr. Bronson Rumsey,
Dr. and Mrs. Cary, Miss Cary and Miss Love of Buffalo were among the
notable guests at the wedding of Stephen
Van Rensselaer Thayer to Julia Porter at Niagara Falls. "Mr. George
Howard, son of Henry Howard
of England" was also a guest. (Thayer-Porter. New York Times, Jun. 6,
"While it is still largely unknown, William J. Donovan (1883–1959)
and Franklin Delano Roosevelt formed a
close relationship during their
time at the law school together. At the time, Donovan was a star of the
Columbia football team and simultaneously attended both the college (BA
1905) and law school (LLD 1907). Roosevelt, an avid sports fan, became
even more admiring of Donovan after he won the Distinguished Service
Cross, Distinguished Service Medal and Medal of Honor as a battalion
commander in the "Fighting 69th" Regiment in World War I. Promoted
regimental commander, Donovan led his unit in the New York City victory
parade in 1919. In considerable secret, Roosevelt—then assistant
secretary of the navy—made Donovan a member of the Office of Naval
Intelligence after Donovan returned from Europe. Roosevelt sent Donovan
to Siberia in 1920 to observe and report on anti-Bolshevik operations
and Japanese activities. This began Donovan's career as a presidential
intelligence agent. Despite being members of different parties (as
Republican candidate, Donovan ran unsuccessfully for governor of New
York against Herbert Lehman in 1932) and Donovan's outspoken opposition
to the New Deal, the two men remained close friends. For example,
Donovan was one of a small number of guests at FDR's birthday party in
Warm Springs, Georgia, in early 1933.... Officially, Donovan was a Wall
Street lawyer deeply involved in Republican party politics in the 1920s
and 1930s. But he led a secret, double life. FDR sent Donovan to
Ethiopia in 1935–36, to Spain during the Civil War, to Britain in 1940
and to a large swathe of Europe and the Middle East in 1941 to observe
events and report back to the president.... These missions led to
Donovan's appointment as civilian coordinator of information (COI) in
1941, followed by his recall to active duty as a colonel and
appointment to head the military Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in
1942." In 1947, President Truman created the CIA, which was "built
largely on the framework of the OSS and staffed overwhelmingly by COI
and OSS veterans. Anticipating a Republican presidential victory in
1948, then in 1952, Donovan campaigned quietly but intensively to head
the CIA in the late 1940s and early 1950s. He was gravely disappointed
by Eisenhower's refusal to do so. Instead, Donovan was appointed
ambassador to Thailand, where he carried activities related to
containing the expansion of the PRC. Poor health forced him to resign,
and he died shortly afterwards. But, for better or worse, his legacy as
the founding figure of the CIA has had enormous influence over the
conduct of U.S. foreign and national-security policy over the past
fifty years. His statue in the main entrance to the CIA building
attests to his perpetual presence as the guiding spirit of the
organization." (William J. Donovan (1883-1959). By Brian Sullivan. C250
Celebrates Your Columbians.)
Donovan was one of the early tenants at 1 Beekman Place (Colonel Donovan Buys Cooperative. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1930.) It was was built for John D. Rockefeller Jr. by Webster B. Todd Sr.'s construction firm while his father, John R. Todd, was designing Rockefeller Center. [The Todds were the father and grandfather of E.P.A. Administrator Christine Todd Whitman.] Its other early tenants besides the Todds and Miltons included former N.Y.C. Police Commissioner Arthur Woods (Arthur Woods Buys Miassonette. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1930); David K.E. Bruce, who headed the O.S.S. in London; and John D. Rockefeller III. (A Rockefeller Co-op and Its 460-Foot-Long Garage. New York Times, Oct. 1, 2000; Acquire Beekman Place Suites. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1930; Colonel Donovan Buys Cooperative. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1930.) Other tenants included Edith M.K. and Maude A.K. Wetmore, daughters of the late U.S. Sen. George Peabody Wetmore, Skull & Bones 1867, whose fortune came from the "China trade" (3 Large Apartments Sold. New York Times, May 13, 1930); Mrs. Joseph E. Willard, daughter of the Confederate spy and mother-in-law of Kermit Roosevelt of C.I.A. fame, also Charles A. Blackwell of Redmond & Co., Herbert Satterlee, and Howard P. Homans (Mrs. Joseph E. Willard Buys 31 Rooms in 1 Beekman Place. New York Times, May 28, 1930); Archibald B. Roosevelt (Cooperatives Sold. New York Times, Jun. 5, 1930); and George de Cuevas (Buys Suite in 1 Beekman Place. New York Times, Jun. 11, 1930).
Albert D. Lasker's relationship with Donovan dates back at least to the 1936 presidential campaign of Roosevelt-Wallace versus Landon-Knox. Lasker and Donovan "played a considerable role in getting Knox the vice presidential nomination," and then Lasker managed Knox's campaign. At about 1:55 pm on April 5, 1939, in the New York restaurant "Twenty-One," Albert Lasker was having lunch with then-Col. William J. Donovan, soon to be head of the Office of Strategic Services in World War II. At a nearby table, divorcee Mary Woodard Reinhardt was having lunch with Rosita Winston, and Donovan introduced Albert to Mary. Mary felt that she had not been noticed sufficiently, and they were subsequently introduced again by Lewis Strauss (an old friend of Albert Lasker's from his Shipping Board days, later the head of the Atomic Energy Commission), and again by Max Epstein, Illinois industrialist and art collector. Lasker finally reacted and got Mrs. Bernard Gimbel (of the department stores) to invite Mary to lunch at the Gimbel's country house. And Max Epstein invited the couple for drinks at the Ritz. (From: Taken at the Flood. The Story of Albert D. Lasker. By John Gunther. Harper & Brothers, 1960.) Lasker and Max Epstein of the General American Tank Car Co. were benefactors of the University of Chicago.
The Mary Lasker Papers Collection at Columbia University includes 6
folders of correspondence between her and Donovan, dating from 1941 to
1959, and 3 folders with his law firm, Donovan, Leisure, Newton &
During World War II, John Hay Whitney was temporarily detailed to William J. Donovan in the OSS. (Freeport Sulphur's Early Years with John Hay Whitney. In: David Atlee Phillips, Clay Shaw, and Freeport Sulphur, by Lisa Pease. Probe magazine 1996 March-April;3(3).)Pease, Freeport Sulphur / Real History Archives
Donovan was a member of the advisory committee of the New York City Cancer Committee in 1946. The general campaign chairman was Gen. John Reed Kilpatrick, and James S. Adams of the Lasker ASCC takeover group directed solicitation by the commerce and industry committee. Other members of the advisory committee were Sidney J. Weinberg, president of Goldman, Sachs & Co.; Eugene W. Stetson, chairman of the board of the Guaranty Trust Company; and Stanton Griffis, chairman of the executive committee of Paramount Pictures. (Named to Head Division in Cancer Fund Campaign. New York Times, Mar. 11, 1946.) Brig. Gen. Julius Ochs Adler, vice president and General manager of The New York Times, headed solicitations in the advertising, entertainment, and professional fields; and Douglass B. Simonson, vice president of the National City Bank, was appointed treasurer. (Group Head Named in Cancer Drive. New York Times, Mar. 21, 1946.) Kilpatrick, Donovan, Adams, and Weinberg were elected to the board of directors. (Cancer Unit Elects Directors. New York Times, May 27, 1946.) Donovan's old friend from OSS days, Grayson M.-P. Murphy, joined the Guaranty Trust in 1916, the same year as Stetson.
Donovan was a director of the New York City Cancer Committee of the American Cancer Society in 1952. Other directors included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres, W. Alton Jones, Paul U. Kellogg, and Alfred P. Sloan Jr. Mrs. Edward F. Hutton was Vice President, and S. Sloan Colt, president of the Bankers Trust Company, was treasurer. (Letter, Robert A. Loberfeld of N.Y.C. Cancer Committee to Dr. Willard F. Greenwald, Medical Director of Philip Morris Co., Feb. 18, 1952.)New York City Cancer Committee, 1952 / tobacco document
Gen. William J. Donovan was Board Chairman of the ACS from 1950-52,
and Chairman of the Executive Committee in 1953. He was an Honorary
Life Member of the
American Cancer Society in 1956, along with Anna
M. Rosenberg, Eric A.
Johnston, and Alfred P. Sloan Jr. The Board of Directors includes James
Adams of Lazard Freres; Lane W. Adams; Elmer H.
Bobst; William U.
Gardner, later the director of the Council for Tobacco Research;
Stanton, the president of CBS; and Mrs. Albert D. Lasker. Donovan was
an honorary director of the ACS in 1957.
"FDR: Pacific Warlord," by Tom Mayock, 2000, describes Donovan as Knox's mentor, whom FDR had sent to Britain "to gauge its chances of holding out. On Donovan's return from England, newspaperman Knox had arranged for him to publish a series of articles on the Fifth Column's part in the German victories in Europe, echoing warnings the president had sounded in a speech in late May."Pacific Warlord / Tom Mayock
"The President on 11 July 1941 appointed William J. Donovan of New
York to sort the mess as the Coordinator of Information (COI), the head of a new, civilian
office attached to the White House.... When Frank
Knox bcame FDR's new Secretary
of the Navy in 1940, he
brought William Donovan to Roosevelt's attention (FDR and Donovan had
been classmates - although not companions - at Columbia Law
School)[sic]." (COI Came First. CIA Website.) Clifton R. Read, who had been
Publicity Director of the American Cancer Society's predecessor, the
American Society for the Control of Cancer since 1936, joined the OWI
"The years immediately before the United States entered World War II saw American interest in developments in Europe and the Pacific intensify dramatically, prompting both formal and informal efforts to gather and analyze information. President Franklin Roosevelt relied heavily on American and British friends traveling abroad to provide him with intelligence on the intentions of other leaders. One such friend was William J. Donovan, an aficionado of intelligence and a veteran of World War I, whom Roosevelt sent to Europe in 1940 to gather information on the stability of Britain and again in the spring of 1941 to gather information on Italian Dictator Mussolini, among other matters. Upon his return, Donovan lobbied hard for the creation of a centralized, civilian intelligence apparatus to complement that of the military.
"In July 1941, in response to Donovan's urging, Roosevelt appointed Donovan as Coordinator of Information to form a non-military intelligence organization. The Coordinator of Information was to 'collect and analyze all information and data which may bear upon the national security' for the President and those he designated. The Coordinator was given the authority, 'with the approval of the President,' to request data from other agencies and departments, but was specifically admonished not to interfere with the duties and responsibilities of the President's military and naval advisors. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, faring a loss of authority to the new Coordinator, secured the President's commitment that the Bureau's primacy in South America would not change.
"Borrowing heavily from the British intelligence model, Donovan created a special staff to pull together and analyze all national security information and empaneled an eight-member review board, drawn from academia, to review analysis and test its conclusions. In concert with the Librarian of Congress [Archibald MacLeish, Skull & Bones 1915], COI Donovan organized the Division of Special Information at the Library, to work with Donovan's analytical staff and to coordinate scholarship within the Library and in academia. In theory, the Division was to provide unclassified information to Donovan's staff, who would combine it with classified information to produce an analysis that would be reviewed by the special board before presentation to the President. Although in practice the process did not operate precisely as planned, the concept of centralized analysis was established.
"The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, brought America into the war and revealed a significant failure on the part of the U.S. intelligence apparatus. As subsequent investigations found, intelligence had been handled in a casual, uncoordinated manner, and there had been insufficient attention to certain collection requirements. The lack of coordination among agencies, principally the Army and the Navy, resulted in a failure to provide timely dissemination of relevant information to key decisionmakers. Moreover, intelligence analysts had grossly underestimated Japanese capabilities and intentions, revealing a tendency to misunderstand Japanese actions by looking at them with American cultural biases. After the war, the resolve of America's leaders 'never again' to permit another Pearl Harbor largely prompted the establishment of a centralized intelligence structure." (From the 1996 report of the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community, which was created under the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, "Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence," in "The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence Community - An Historical Overview." The Chairman of this commission was Harold Brown, member of the board of directors of Philip Morris since 1983; Warburg Pincus partner since 1990; trustee of the Trilateral Commission and member of the CFR; and trustee of the Center for Strategic and International Studies at The Johns Hopkins University.)Historical Overview - Report of the Commision on the Roles and Capabilities of the US Intelligence Community / US GPO
"In the historical library at York University [England], the diary of Lord Halifax, British Ambassador to America in 1941, shows that on May 2, 1941, Halifax lunched with Roosevelt and that FDR expressed the hope that U.S. patrols in the Atlantic would provoke Germany into war. The British Public Record Office in London has evidence that in both July and August, 1941, Roosevelt told the British that he intended to provoke a war... William Donovan, Roosevelt's coordinator of information, received warning from the British that the Japanese were about to attack Pearl Harbor." (The Great Deceivers. FDR and the "infamy" behind Pearl Harbor. The John Birch Society, 1996).The Great Deceivers / Reformed-Theology.org
"The head of British intelligence in the United States was William S. Stephenson, a Canadian businessman, better known today by his New York cable address, Intrepid. Arriving in the United States on April 2, 1940, Stephenson was, by January 1941, operating under the name of British Security Coordination (BSC), which administered all the varied secret British intelligence and propaganda organizations in the United States. Those organizations included British Secret Intelligence (SIS or MI-6), which was responsible for intelligence outside of Britain and the Commonwealths; Britain's Internal Security Service, MI-5, which, much like the FBI in this country, dealt with internal British security, and also a number of lesser-known security agencies.
"BSC made use of any means, legal or illegal, to fight those it deemed enemies of Britain, a classification that consisted mainly of non-interventionist Americans who wanted to keep the United States out of the war, rather than actual German agents. In essence, BSC sought to override the democratic will of the American people in the interests of the British government; and, most significantly, in this effort it was aided and abetted by the Roosevelt administration.
"Of such great influence was BSC's influence in the Roosevelt administration that in 1941 it was able to design an American intelligence counterpart, the United States Coordinator of Information, which became the Office of Strategic Services the next year. The COI/OSS was created in the 'image and likeness of British Security Coordination.' Although officially headed by William Donovan, Stephenson's assistant, Dick Ellis, did much of the day-to-day running of the security agency, which was staffed by many other British agents. Moreover, 'BSC passed on an attitude as much as it passed on specific technical skills. It passed on a way of looking at problems and an opnenness to possible solutions - no matter their legality or morality."
Opponents of US intervention were smeared as pro-Nazis. (Nazi persecution of the Jews was ignored, however.) "Among the many luminaries who consciously cooperated with British intelligence were publisher Henry Luce, noted columnist Walter Lippmann, New York Times publisher Arthur Sulzberger, and many of the foremost Hollywood producers. Robert Sherwood, Roosevelt's speechwriter, went so far as to clear the president's speeches with Stephenson before they were delivered." Lippmann's brother-in-law created a map to promote bogus claims of a planned German invasion of South America.
"Mahl evaluates British intelligence activities in the United States as 'one of the most important and successful covert operations of history.' What is most astounding, however, is not the British activity but the collaboration by the Roosevelt administration.... For such an egregious violation of the democratic will and the laws of the country, Franklin Roosevelt deserved not simply impeachment but imprisonment." [The Lasker Syndicate conspirators were Roosevelt's manipulators, and they have continued their "egregious violation of the democratic will and the laws of the country" in their anti-smoking activities, with impunity, ever since. -cast] (The Conquest of the United States by Britain... with a little help from her friends. Sniegoski on Desperate Deception by Thomas Mahl. By Dr. Stephen J. Sniegoski.)Sniegoski / The Last Ditch
Colonel William Quinn "was a rarity among regular army officers
because he had worked closely with OSS during the war and had admired
the job it had done for him. Quinn had been G-2 of the Seventh Army
during the invasion of southern France and had made good use of the OSS
agents (mostly German prisoners of war) whom OSS had infiltrated behind
the German lines to pick up order of battle information. 'Preserve the
assets and eliminate the liabilities,' Assistant Secretary of War
Howard C. Petersen had told Quinn when Quinn took over SSU from
retiring Brigadier General John Magruder; and among the assets Quinn
counted intelligence networks in eastern Europe, Austria, the Balkans,
and China. To preserve these networks, he had to hold on to the men who
ran them. There was James Angleton; there was Hugh Cunningham; there
was Frank Wisner; there was Richard Helms; there was Harry Rossitzke.
These were the men who over the next fifteen years were to conceive and
manage the major U.S. intelligence operations against the Soviet
Union... Whenever Quinn felt sorely threatened, he would call David Bruce, Donovan’s
wartime deputy for Europe, and Bruce would invite members of the old
OSS hierarchy to dinner at his Washington home. Charles Cheston would
arrive from Philadelphia, Donovan and Russell Forgan from New
York, and they
would discuss strategy for keeping the unit intact. 'Without
Quinn,' Allen Dulles would later remark, 'our profession would have
lost many of its pros.'" ... "On a late winter’s day in 1954, United
States Ambassador to Thailand William J. Donovan paid his last official
visit to the CIA. By that time the agency was almost precisely what
Donovan had envisaged that his peacetime OSS would become. If the
relatively overt intelligence and analysis side of the house was not
performing as Donovan had intended, if there was still duplication in
reporting and overlapping with the armed services and State, the secret
side of the house had more than compensated. All over the world there
were networks and agents in place, and both at home and abroad 'other
functions and duties' were being carried out. Paratroopers were in
training; newspapers, radio stations, magazines, airlines, ships,
businesses, and voluntary organizations had been bought, subsidized,
penetrated, or invented as assets for the cold war. In terms of
manpower alone, the agency was already bigger than Donovan’s wartime
OSS had been, and it was spending more money than General Donovan, an
imaginative man, may have imagined." (The Birth of the CIA. By Tom
Braden. American Heritage Magazine, Feb. 1977.)
Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) was born in Watertown, NY, and
graduated from Princeton in 1914, MA in 1916. He was a nephew of Robert
Lansing, President Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State. He studied law
at George Washington University, and in 1926 joined Sullivan and
Cromwell, where his brother John
Foster Dulles was a managing partner.
He was chief of the OSS office in Berne, Switzerland, during World War
II. "In 1948, Dulles's reputation led to his being named chairman of an
intelligence review committee that faulted the organization of the then
fledgling Central Intelligence Agency. In 1950, he was named Deputy
Director of Plans of the CIA, the covert operations arm of the agency;
in 1951 he became the number two person in the organization. After
Eisenhower's election in Nov 1952, Dulles was appointed to the CIA's
directorship. His brother, John Foster Dulles, served as Eisenhower's
Secretary of State, and the two men would work closely during their
joint service." He was a correspondent of William J. Casey (founder of
Capital Cities/ABC and CIA Director 1981-87) from 1948 to 1968. (Allen
W. Dulles Papers, 1845-1971 (bulk 1918-1969):
Finding Aid. Princeton University Library, Mudd Manuscript Library.)
Allen W. Dulles had been a member of the American Commission to
Negotiate Peace in 1919, some of whom, including Dulles, Frank L. Polk, Bernard M.
Baruch, Edward L. Bernays,
Herter, later organized "a permanent but informal alumni group."
(Organize Alumni of 1919 Peace Group. New York Times, Apr. 29, 1929.)
As assistant to Robert Lansing, Polk set up the central intelligence
ogranization U-1. John Foster Dulles was a director of the Tobacco Products Corporation, a predecessor
of Philip Morris. (United Cigar Sold to Gold Dust Group In $100,000,000
Deal. New York Times, Aug. 20, 1929.) Allen W. Dulles' cousin, Foster
Rhea Dulles, was an usher at the wedding of Howard C. Taylor Jr., Yale 1920,
son of a
founder of the American Cancer Society's predecessor, the American
Society for the Control of Cancer. Dr. Howard C. Taylor Jr. was later chairman of the American Cancer
Society's ad hoc committee on smoking,
spearheading its anti-smoking persecution. And yheir son, Howard C.
Taylor 3d (Yale 1951), married Foster R. Dulles' daughter.
Allen W. Dulles was the son of Rev. Dr. Allen Macy Dulles of the
Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Auburn, N.Y., and a grandson of
Rev. Dr. John Welsh Dulles of Philadelphia, and of John W. Foster,
Secretary of State in the administration of President Benjamin
Harrison, and a grandnephew of John Welsh of Philadelphia, Minister to
England in the administration of President Rutherford B. Hayes. He
married Martha Clover Todd, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Henry Alfred Todd
of New York and Norfolk, Conn. She was the granddaughter of Rev. R.K.
Todd, founder of the Todd Seminary, and of John S. Gilman, President of
the Second National Bank of Baltimore. (Miss Martha Todd to Wed A.W.
Dulles. New York Times, Aug. 3, 1920.) Rev. John Welsh Dulles graduated
from Yale in 1844 (and was the class secretary), as did two of his
brothers, Joseph Heatly Dulles (1839, who was a drug importer) and
Andrew Cheves Dulles (1853). Their father, Joseph Heatly Dulles,
graduated from Yale in 1814 (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale,
1870-1880, p. 205.)
Joseph Heatly Dulles 1814's daughter, Anna Welsh Dulles, married
StillÚ, Yale 1839. He was a member of the Sanitary Commission
during the Civil War, and a professor and Provost of the University of
Pennsylvania. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased
during the Academical year ending in June, 1900, p. 12.) His brother,
Dr. Alfred StillÚ, Yale 1832, left Yale in 1830 and graduated
from the University of Pennsylvania, but returned for an MA from Yale
in 1850. He was a founder of
the American Medical Association and its president in 1871.
(Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1890-1900, p. 669.)
The StillÚs' father, John Stille, was "a prosperous East
(Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, Philadelphia, June 19, 1804.)
Former O.S.S. Capt. John Anton Blatnik, serial number 913440 (whose
name is spelled "Blatnick" in the National Archives), was a member of
Congress from Minnesota
from 1946 to 1975.
It was Blatnik who initiated the
Congressional persecution of smokers with hearings held in 1957.
Anti-smoker Rep. James L.
Oberstar, D-MN, is a former administrative assistant to Blatnik.
From "The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men," by Mark Fritz. The Los Angeles Times 2000 Sep. 22: "Newly declassified U.S. intelligence files tell the remarkable story of the ultra-secret Insurance Intelligence Unit, a component of the Office of Strategic Services, a forerunner of the CIA, and its elite counterintelligence branch X-2. Though rarely numbering more than a half dozen agents, the unit gathered intelligence on the enemy's insurance industry, Nazi insurance titans and suspected collaborators in the insurance business. But, more significantly, the unit mined standard insurance records for blueprints of bomb plants, timetables of tide changes and thousands of other details about targets, from a brewery in Bangkok to a candy company in Bergendorf... 'Germany had 45% of the worldwide wholesale insurance industry before the war began and managed to actually expand its business as it conquered continental Europe. As wholesalers, or 'reinsurers,' these companies covered other insurers against a catastrophic loss that could wipe out a single company. In the process, the wholesaler learned everything about the lives and property they were reinsuring...
"The men behind the insurance unit were OSS head William "Wild Bill" Donovan and California-born insurance magnate Cornelius V. Starr. Starr had started out selling insurance to Chinese in Shanghai in 1919 and, over the next 50 years, would build what is now American International Group, one of the largest insurance companies in the world. He was forced to move his operation to New York in 1939, when Japan invaded China... Starr sent insurance agents into Asia and Europe even before the bombs stopped falling and built what eventually became AIG, which today has its world headquarters in the same downtown New York building where the tiny OSS unit toiled in the deepest secrecy. Starr died in 1968, but his empire endures. AIG is the biggest foreign insurance company in Japan. More than a third of its $40 billion in revenue last year came from the Far East theater that Starr helped carpet bomb and liberate."Deconstructing AIG / From the Wilderness
Two directors of AIG have been longtime
trustees of the health fascist Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation, and their sabotage was instrumental in destroying the
Clement James Smith and Helen Bruce Cleveland met in 1919, while
both were in
Siberia working for the Red Cross. She was
the daughter of Mrs. Ralph
Dwinel Cleveland of New York City. After marrying, they planned to
reside in Shanghai,
China. (Red Cross Workers Abroad to Wed. New York Times, Jun. 17, 1920;
Miss Cleveland Weds C.J. Smith. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1920.) He was
the son of Mr. and Mrs. J.J. Smith of Alameda, Cal. (Red Cross Worker
Back From Siberia. Oakland Tribune, Jun. 20, 1920.) They lived in the
Orient for 18 years before returning to San Francisco in 1938. Four
years later they bought a house in the suburb of Hillsborough. Mr.
Smith was president of American International Underwriters. (Chat and
Comment. San Mateo Times, Jul. 14, 1942.) "1920 was a momentous year
for Smith, who that year joined C.V. Starr and the American Asiatic
Underwriters. He worked and traveled in China for seven years, spent a
year in New York, and then returned to Shanghai where he and his wife
decided they wanted to spend the rest of their lives. The couple did
build a home in Shanghai in 1932, but he returned to the United States
four years later to help in the reorganization of the United States
Life Insurance Company as chairman of the AIU Corporation. During World
War II, he was an expert on China with "Wild Bill" Donovan in the
O.S.S. In 1945,
Smith, Merv Griffin Sr. (the father of the TV personality), Kemper
Smith, and Robert Koshland formed the Ascot Tennis Club on Smith's
private courts. He was a co-founder [with C.V. Starr] of the Mount
Mansfield Corporation which developed the ski resort at Stowe, Vt. He
was a member of the "Totem Sun" Camp of the Bohemian Grove. (Ascot
Tennis Club Founder Is Honored on His Birthday.
Talk of the Times, by Mary Jane Clinton. San Mateo Times, Nov. 21,
1971.) He gave $1 million to Mills Hospital in San Mateo, and another
$1 million to the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation at the
Pacific Medical Center. (Magnate Gives Another Million to Medicine.
Modesto Bee and News, Feb. 20, 1973.) He died a few weeks later.
(Peninsula Benefactor Dies at 78. San Mateo Times, Mar. 8, 1973.)
Helen C. Smith died in 1957. (Deaths. San Mateo Times, Jul. 20, 1957.) Her
father, Raph Dwinel Cleveland (b. 1851) was traveling auditor of
for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad until 1885. He
married Aurora Eustis of Milton, Mass., the daughter of Alexander
Brooks Eustis and Aurora Grelaud. They lived in Burlington, Iowa until
1885, then Minneapolis, and Chicago in the 1890s. His brother, Henry
Russell Cleveland, was a submarine engineer in Colombia in 1880. After
Henry's wife, Carmen Sanchez, died in 1894, their children lived in
Chicago with their grandfather, Horace William Shaler Cleveland. (The
Genealogy of the Cleveland and Cleaveland Families, Vol. 2. By Edward
James Cleveland. The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., 1899, p. 1770.)
Ralph D. Cleveland's grandfather was the China sea captain and
capitalist, Richard Jeffry Cleveland (1773-1860), of Salem, Mass., who
worked for Elias H. Derby
and made his first voyage in 1792. He knew Thomas H. Perkins from those
days, and met James Perkins [Jr.] in 1806. Later, William Shaler was
his business partner. He founded a prep school at Lancaster, Mass.
whose first teacher was Jared Sparks, later President of Harvard. He
reportedly "never used tobacco in any form." He lived in Burlington,
N.J. until 1854, when he moved to Danvers, Mass. to live with his son.
(Voyages of a Merchant Navigator of the Days that are Past. By Richard
Jeffry Cleveland and Horace William Shaler Cleveland. Harper, 1886, p.
Ralph D. Cleveland's uncle, Henry Russell Cleveland, married James Perkins Jr.'s daughter,
Sarah Paine Perkins, in 1838. (Marriages. Boston Atlas, Feb. 3, 1838;
Cleveland - Perkins Family Papers. From Eliza Callahan Cleveland. New
York Public Library.) Henry and his older brother, Richard J.
Cleveland, both graduated from Harvard in 1827. Richard was a
pioneering settler in Olin, Iowa. (Commencement. New York Spectator,
Sep. 7, 1827; Obituary. Boston Daily Advertiser, Sep. 12, 1877.)
The FBI investigated Donovan's background when President Eisenhower considered appointing him as US Ambassador to Thailand, part of the Golden Triangle for opium, in 1953. He had already been under surveillance by the FBI for a number of years. From the FBI's background report: William Joseph Donovan was born Jan. 1, 1883 in Buffalo, NY. Parents Timothy P. and Anna Lennon Donovan. Admitted to NY bar "probably" 1907. US District Attorney for the Western District of NY, 1922-24. Counsel for NY State Fuel Administration 1924 and for the Commission for Revision of NY State Public Service Commission laws in 1929. Republican candidate for lieutenant governor 1922, and candidate for governor in 1932 [defeated by Herbert H. Lehman]. Director of OSS during WWII as Major General, US Army. Unofficial observer for the Secretary of the Navy in Great Britain and SE Europe, 1940-41. [The Secretary of the Navy, Col. Frank Knox, previously of the Chicago Daily News, was one of Albert Lasker's friends. Edward Lasker and future presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson seved as Knox's assistants. -cast]William J. Donovan / FBI FOIA file 1a (pdf, 107pp)
"On 1/29/41 the NYC PD advised that an investigation had been conducted concerning Count John Perdicari (believed to be a German spy) who had been in the US allegedly since 1934 as a representative of Piccioli (a tobacco firm in Italy). During a personal interview with the investigator Pericardi said the purpose of Col. William Donovan's journey to Europe was to 'feel out' various nations as to a United States of Europe. He said that Col. Donovan was sent by Secretary Knox and that the State Dept. was receptive toward sponsoring such a movement" (FBI report dated 9/9/41, page 10). Allen Dulles, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, said that he was closely associated with Donovan during World War II. "On 9/29/41 Mr. Berle [Assistant Secretary of State] advised that the matter of distributing pro-American propaganda had been divided between Col. Donovan's organization and the Nelson Rockefeller organization, with Col. Donovan to cover everything outside of the Western Hemisphere and Rockefeller to cover Central and South America (Memo to the Director, 10-2-41).William J. Donovan / FBI FOIA file 1b (pdf)
"[Name blacked out] advised a Bureau Agent (date not given) in the strictest of confidence that Gen. Eisenhower had demanded that Col. Donovan's men be withdrawn from Africa, and that Gen. MacArthur had made the same demand with reference to Col. Donovan's men in Australia. Donovan contacted Secretary of War Stimson with reference to having men landed in the Philippines but Mr. Stimson did not want Donovan fooling around in that country. Apparently the reason for the move on the part of Col. Donovan was that the Signal Corps of the Army had made contact with three different groups of American soldiers which were left on the Philippines and had apparently taken to the hills. [Name blacked out] summed this matter up from the standpoint of the War Department by saying, 'Donovan's past sins are at last catching up with him'" (Memo for the Director, 1/15/43). "A letter to the Director, attention Mr. Ladd, dated 6/10/45 from Donald L. Daughters in Paris made reference to counter-intelligence operations of X-2, OSS. This letter stated that Gen. William Donovan of OSS was responsible for insisting upon absolute and exclusive operation for X-2 in the apprehension of one of the managing directors of the I.G. Farben Company who was held in custody by X-2. Representatives in Paris refused to make the above official of the I.G. Farben Company available to any Allied Gov't Agency. Col. H. Gordon Sheen was obliged to intervene and overrule the order of Gen. Donovan" (Letter from the Legal Attache in Paris, 6/10/45). "The 'Daily Worker' for 7/23/45, pg. 9, carried an article entitled, 'Reveals Big Business Domination of OSS.' This article stated that almost every key man in the OSS had direct connections with large international industrial and banking interests. Among those listed as having been key OSS executives were Julius Spencer Morgan and Henry Sturgis Morgan, sons of the late J.P. Morgan, who were special assistants to Maj. Gen. William J. Donovan, head of OSS." "This reference is a resume of information contained in Bureau files, in March 1949, concerning John Foster Dulles. In 1946 [blacked out] MID, advised the Bureau that he was periodically contacted by George Michanowsky, [blacked out] according to Local Board #31 in NYC, who reported that when Gen. William Donovan was director of OSS he made all information available to Allen Dulles, one of his assistants. Dulles in turn made all information available to his brother John Foster Dulles" (Memo for Mr. Nichols from Mr. Jones, 3/28/49).William J. Donovan / FBI FOIA file 1c (pdf)
"On 1/14/47 Mr. Roach of the Liaison Section called on Mr. George Allen and furnished information concerning Joseph Panuch, Allen Dulles, et al. Mr. Allen was advised that Allen Dulles, the brother of John Foster Dulles, was a friend of Gen. (Wild Bill) Donovan and an individual whom Donovan was sponsoring to become Executive Director of CIG (Central Intelligence Group) and that should Dulles receive the job, he would undoubtably be a 'Charley McCarthy' for Donovan" (Memo to Director from Mr. Ladd, 1/14/47). "On 9/15/47 [blacked out] Intelligence Society of the United States contacted the NY office regarding an applicant for Special Agent in whom he was interested. [Blacked out] of G2, advised that the Intelligence Society of the United States was a group composed of former employees of OSS. [Blacked out] stated that this group was banded together under Gen. William Donovan to keep in touch with each other, and it was his [blacked out] impression that they had some kind of office in Wash., D.C. and more or less utilized Gen. Donovan's office in NYC" (NY Memo, 9/20/47). "On 5/25/48 [blacked out] confidentially advised S.A. DeLoach of the Liaison Section that a reliable ONI informant had advised him that various remnants of OSS personnel who had previously operated in and around Paris, France, were operating in that same locality on a private commercial basis under the leadership of their former director, William Donovan. [Blacked out] stated that former OSS personnel had made arrangements with British SOE (Special Operations Executive Branch) to work strictly for British Intelligence, and that those individuals were being compensated accordingly by the British Gov't. [Blacked out] stated that Donovan had made a trip to Paris for the purpose of surveying and inspecting the activities of the above group." "On 9/11/52 Bureau Agents interviewed [blacked out] at which time [blacked out] stated [blacked out] was trying to develop an invention which would take smoke out of the air, and in this regard, a corporation had been formed called the Electronatom Corporation with offices at 30 Rockefeller Plaza and laboratory at 7 West 45 Street, NYC. This corporation was being promoted by Gen. William Donovan" (NY Rpt, 9/29/52). "On 3/25/54 the WFO submitted an affidavit dated 1/14/53 in which Bernard Joseph Reis explained or denied Communist front associations and specifically denied CP membership. In this statement Reis stated that he was Treasurer of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, Inc., on which Board, among others, was Gen. William J. Donovan" (Bureau memo, 4/2/54).William J. Donovan / FBI FOIA file 1d (pdf)
"'Wild Bill' Donovan, the OSS chieftain, recruited many of the moles
into the OSS. This was not by carelessness. R. Harris Smith, in his
book OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence
Agency, revealed that Donovan worked with Communist Party leader Eugene
Dennis to recruit OSS personnel from communist ranks. When confronted
by the FBI with evidence that some of his men were Communist Party
members, Donovan replied, 'I know they're Communists. That's why I
hired them.' Of course, when the CIA was organized in 1947, many of the
OSS agents became CIA agents." (The C.I.A., skull and bones, and
rewriting history. By Warren Mass. The New American, Feb. 19, 2007.)
Donovan was a trustee of Columbia University, 1921-1927.Columbia Trustees Elected in the Butler Era, 1901-1945 / Barnard College, Columbia University
Euro-federalists financed by US spy chiefs. By Ambrose Evans-Pritchard. The Telegraph 2000 Sep 19. "Declassifed American government documents show that the US intelligence community ran a campaign in the Fifties and Sixties to build momentum for a united Europe. It funded and directed the European federalist movement... One memorandum, dated July 26, 1950, gives instructions for a campaign to promote a fully fledged European parliament. It is signed by Gen. William J. Donovan, head of the American wartime Office of Strategic Services, precursor of the CIA... The vice chairman was Allen Dulles, the CIA director in the Fifties. The board included Walter Bedell Smith, the CIA's first director, and a roster of ex-OSS figures and officials who moved in and out of the CIA. The documents show that ACUE financed the European Movement, the most important federalist organization in the post-war years. In 1958, for example, it provided 53.5 per cent of the movement's funds. The European Youth Campaign, an arm of the European Movement, was wholly funded and controlled by Washington... ACUE's funding came from the Ford and Rockefeller foundations as well as business groups with close ties to the US government. The head of the Ford Foundation, ex-OSS officer Paul Hoffman [an old business crony of Albert Lasker who married Mary Lasker's close friend Anna Rosenberg -cast], doubled as head of ACUE in the late Fifties..."Evans-Pritchard / The Telegraph 2000
"The American Committee on United Europe announced yesterday that Mrs. Albert D. Lasker, Mrs. John J. McCloy and Ernest A. Gross had been elected to the committee's board of directors. Mrs. Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, also is a director of the American Cancer Society and of the Menninger Foundation. Mrs. McCloy, wife of the former United States Commissioner to Germany, is a member of the board of governors of the National Red Cross and of the board of managers of Bellevue Hospital. Mr. Gross, partner in the New York law firm of Gross & Hyde, has served in the Department of State and as deputy representative of the United States to the United Nations." (Plan for United Europe. New York Times, March 28, 1954, pg. 21.)
An Uncommon View of the Birth of an Uncommon Market, by Alfred Mendez, also names George Franklin, Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, as Secretary of ACUE, and Thomas Braden, head of the CIA Division on International Organizations, as Executive Director.
"Kai Bird's account in 'The Chairman, John J. McCloy, The Making of the American Establishment,' states: ...Very reliable information from a former CIA member now reveals that the CIA financed Dr. [Joseph Hieronymus] Retinger's efforts to convince Prince Bernhard to form this group that was later to be called the Bilderbergers. This is confirmed by the fact that General Walter Bedell Smith was the CIA director from 1950 to 1953, so, is it surprising that he would agree to join this group?"History / Bilderberg.org (Not the official Bilderberg website!)
Donovan was a correspondent of John Foster Dulles in 1936, 1941, and between 1952 and 1959.John Foster Dulles Papers / Princeton University
According to Mae Brussell, "This is a story of how key Nazis, even as the Wehrmacht was still on the offensive, anticipated military disaster and laid plans to transplant nazism, intact but disguised, in havens in the West." Brussell implicates OSS chief William Donovan, along with the Vatican, in the "safe diaspora" of key Nazis, including their intelligence operations, the Gehlen Organization. Gehlen's agent-in-place in the US is said to have been Otto Albrecht von Bolschwing, "who had been a captain in Heinrich Himmler's dreaded SS and Adolph Eichmann's superior in Europe and Palestine.... When he entered the U.S. in 1954, he cleverly concealed his Nazi past.... He became closely associated with the late Elmer Bobst of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical, a godfather of Richard Nixon's political career, which brought him inside Nixon's 1960 campaign for the presidency." ("The Nazi connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination," by Mae Brussell. The Rebel, 1983 Nov 22.)Mae Brussell / Prouty
The story of Project Hammer and stolen Nazi and Japanese gold, and its control by Citicorp President/Philip Morris director/CFR member John S. Reed.
Others implicated in the Lasker Syndicate who served in the OSS in
World War II are Laurence A. Tisch of Loews
Corporation, which owned
Lorillard Tobacco; and anti-smoker researcher Ernst
L. Wynder, who
founded the American Health Foundation.
"*GRANVILLE WHITTLESEY, JR. New York City; ACS Director-at-Large
(1953-62) Member, Law Firm, Donovan, Leisure, Newton and Irvine. ACS
Secretary (1955-60); Chm., Committee of Membership on Constitution,
Bylaws and Organization. Mem., Assn. of the Bar of the City of New
York; Am. Bar Assn. Pres., The Masters Nursery. Dir. Columbia Law
School Alumni Association." (Know Your Board of Directors 1961.
American Cancer Society.)
Horace R. Lamb graduated from Cornell University in 1916 and received his law degree at Cornell Law School. In 1926 and 1927, Horace R. Lamb was a special assistant to William J. Donovan, then Assistant United States Attorney General, after which he became a partner in Donovan, Leisure and Lombard. He was a founding partner in the law firm of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & Macrae at 140 Broadway; also general counsel for the St. Regis Paper Company and a member of its board of directors and its executive committee for more than 25 years. (H.R. Lamb, New York Law Firm Partner. New York Times, Nov. 12, 1977.) He married Beatrice Louise Pitney, daughter of Supreme Court Justice Mahlon Pitney. The ushers at his wedding included U.S. Representative Lewis Williams Douglas, later president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company; Edward S. Pinney; and Bethuel M. Webster, later counsel to Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. Mrs. Herbert Hoover, wife of the U.S. President, attended. (Mrs. Hoover Sees Miss Pitney Wed. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1930; Lamb-Pitney Rite Attended By First Lady. Washington Post, Feb. 9, 1930.) Horace R. Lamb was the attorney for James D. Mooney, CEO of General Motors Overseas Operations; his client was the head of an "influential group" of industrialists which included Col. Sosthenes Behn, CEO of ITT; Ralph B. Strassburger; Pennsylvania financier; Edsel Ford; Eberhard Faber; and representatives of Eastman Kodak, the Underwood Elliott Fisher Cy. and The International Milk Cy., who, according to a wire from Hitler's US representative Dr. Westrick, "agreed to put pressure on FDR to improve relations with Germany by suspending shipments of armaments to Great Britain." (Texaco Cy. Had Forged Bonds With the Nazis. In: Portrait of a Revered Madman. Galveston Publications; The Car Connection. In: Trading With the Enemy. By Charles Higham; James D. Mooney Papers Collection, Georgetown University.) Lamb and Mooney were both natives of Cleveland, Ohio. Three lawyers of LeBoeuf, Lamb & Leiby were officers during the 1960s of the CIA proprietary, Foreign Air Transport Development. (The CIA's Corporate Shell Game. By John Marks. Washington Post, Jul. 11, 1976.)Texaco Cy. Had Forged Bonds With the Nazis / Schikelgruber.net
F. Murphy, Esq., of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae, New
York, was a director and policy advisor of the American Council on
Science and Health from 1978 into the
1980s. Partner Donald J. Wood represented R.J. Reynolds Tobacco in
product liability suits in the 1980s; later, he represented Hartford
Accident and Indemnity Company in securities litigation against R.J.
Reynolds. When R.J. Reynolds filed conflict of interest charges, Judge
John M. Walker Jr. gave
LeBoeuf a pass: "In a judicial sleight-of-hand,
Judge Walker found that R.J. Reynolds was a former client, even though
LeBoeuf was representing it when it filed the lawsuit for Hartford
Accident. He concluded that since Mr. Wood alone possessed confidential
information from R.J. Reynolds and since that information was not
related to the securities litigation, Leboeuf had not violated conflict
rules." (Business and the Law. By Stephen Labaton. New York Times, Oct.
Whiting Willauer, co-founder with Claire Chennault of the American
Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers), later the Civil Air Transport Co.
which was bought by the CIA, was a correspondent of William Donovan
between 1945 and 1954. Willauer also worked for China Defense Supplies
as an assistant to Chinese millionaire TV Soong, and was a
correspondent between 1942 and 1952. (Whiting Willauer Papers,
President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed her to the Federal Trade
Commission in 1964, and she was a Commissioner until 1973. She
graduated from Wellesley in 1943, and got her law degree at Yale in
1948. "During World War II, she worked in Washington as an analyst for
the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor of the Central
Intelligence Agency. After being rejected by 50 law firms because of
her sex, as she later recounted. she joined the New York Law firm of
Donovan, Leisure, Newton & Irvine in 1948... At the Federal Trade
Commission, Ms. Jones was vocal in her opposition to cigarette
advertising on the air, speaking in favor of a ban as early as 1967.
The next year, the commission voted to recommend such a ban; enacted by
Congress in 1970, it took effect in early 1971.... After leaving the
commission in 1973, Ms. Jones taught law at the University of Illinois.
She was later active with consumer and civic organizations, among them
the Consumer Interest Research Institute, of which she was founder and
president." (Mary Gardiner Jones,
Consumer Advocate, Dies at 89. By Margalit Fox. New York Times, Jan. 7,
Personnel Files, compiled 1942 - 1945, documenting the period 1941 -
1945. On this page, click "Search within this Series" to reach the