William Crapo Durant developed a profitable carriage business in
Flint, Michigan, before starting in the automobile business in 1904. In
1908, he founded General Motors, with a conglomeration of 13 car
companies, including Buick and Olds, and 10 parts-and-accessories
manufacturers. The Crapo family controlled the Genesee County Savings
General Motors was incorporated in New Jersey in 1910. Its officers were William M. Eaton, Vice President William C. Durant, First Vice President; William J. Mead, Second Vice President; Edwin O. Wood, Third Vice President; Curtis R. Hathaway, Secretary and Treasurer; and Thomas R. Merrill, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer. Directors: Eaton, Durant, Mead, Hathaway, John T. Smith, Henry Henderson, E.R. Campbell, W.C. Leland, A.M. Bentley, Schuyler B. Knox, and R.S. McLaughlin. (General Motors to Cut Big Melon. New York Times, Jul. 29, 1910.) Curtis R. Hathaway was an associate of the law firm of Ward, Hayden & Satterlee of New York. (General Motors Co. Starts Rumor Anew. New York Times, Dec. 28, 1908.)
The Company announced that Lee, Higginson & Co. of Boston had
purchased $15,000,000 of a $20,000,000 issue of First lien five-year 6
percent notes. Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were also interested. (General
Motors Financed. New York Times, Oct. 6, 1910.) Five voting Trustees
were elected to control the voting of the
company's stock for five years. They were J.N. Wallace, Frederick
Strauss, J.J. Storrow,
Brady, and W.C. Durant. (Voting
Trustees for General Motors. New York Times, Oct. 23, 1910.) J. &
W. Seligman was also involved. Only William C. Durant was re-elected to
the new board, "who represent the banking interests which floated the
recent note issue." The Central Trust Company of New York was trustee.
Besides Durant, the directors elected were Anthony N. Brady, James J.
Storrow, Albert Strauss, J.H. McClennent, Nicholas L. Tilney, Richard
Lukenan Jr., Benjamin F. McGuckin, H.L. Carlebach, and R.P. Bush Jr.
(General Motors New Board. New York Times, Nov. 16, 1910.)
John Thomas Smith was vice president, general counsel, and a
director of General Motors from 1910 until 1947. He was born in New
Haven, Conn. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased
during the Year 1947-1948, p. 218.) His son, Gerard Coad Smith, Yale
1935, was a founder of the Trilateral Commission. (Gerard Coad Smith,
80, Is Dead. By Wolfgang Saxon. New York Times, Jul. 6, 1994.)
General Motors directors were increased from 14 to 17 members. The new directors elected were Albert H. Wiggin, L.G. Kaufman, Charles H. Sabin, S.F. Prior, A.G. Bishop, J.J. Raskob, Pierre S. du Pont, Lammot Belin, and J.A. Haskell, the last three of whom were connected with the du Pont de Nemours Powder Company. The directors who were not re-elected were Jacob Wertheim, M.J. Murphy, Joseph Boyer, E.D. Metcalf, N.L. Tilney, and Robert F. Herrick. Charles W. Nash was President. (General Motors Changes. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1915.)
L.G. Kaufman was President of the First National Bank of Marquette, Mich. He came to New York in 1910 and became President of the Chatham National Bank as well, which he consolidated with the Phoenix National Bank. "One year later he became heavily interested in the Century Bank and was made Chairman of its Executive Committee. Six months later he took a prominent part in the consolidation of the Jefferson Bank and its brances with the Century;" then got control of the Mutual Alliance Trust and consolidated its uptown branches with the Century Bank and its downtown branches with the Chatham and Phenix. (National Bank Gets City Branch Rights. New York Times, Sep. 20, 1915.) Kaufman and his family controlled the two other banks in Marquette as well. When the Marquette National Bank's corporate charter expired, the other wealthy citizens of Marquette formed a new bank and left him out. (L.G. Kaufman Sues Banks. New York Times, Nov. 5, 1921.)(Louis G. Kaufman. Biographical Sketches of Leading Citizens of Houghton, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan. Biographical publishing company, Chicago, 1903, p. 317.)Houghton, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan / Google Books
Durant was still the largest interest in General Motors. Eight of
14 directors opposed selling GM to Chevrolet, which was controlled by
him. Those who signed a statement in opposition were Samuel F. Pryor,
Albert H. Wiggin, Thomas Neal, Charles H. Sabin, James J. Storrow, C.S.
Mott, Albert Strauss, and Emory W. Clark. (Move to Halt Sale of General
Motors. New York Times, Jan. 1, 1916.) Shareholders opposed included
S.G. Bayne, R. Fulton Cutting, James Byrne and G.B. Collings of N.Y.;
Albert J. Hart of Cleveland; James H. Flinn and William P. Harris of
Detroit. (Urge Voting Trust in General Motors. New York Times, Mar. 13,
1916.) The notes were paid off and the voting trust dissolved on Oct.
15, 1915. President Charles W. Nash announced his resignation when the
voting trust was not renewed. (President Nash Resigns. New York Times,
Jun. 1, 1916.) Albert Strauss of J. & W. Seligman also resigned.
(Durant Succeeds Nash. New York Times, Jun. 2, 1916.) James J. Storrow
resigned as well. Then, GM bought control of the Willys-Overland
Company from John N. Willys and Lewis G. Kaufman. (Overland Control
Sold for $90,000,000. New York Times, Jun. 4, 1916.) The would-be
merger failed. ($223,000,000 Merger of Motor Cos. Fails. New York
Times, Jun. 15, 1916.) "The stockholders re-elected Mr. Durant
President, and made Pierre S. du Pont Chairman of the board. A.A.
Bishop and C.S. Mott were made Vice Presidents; H.H. Rice, Treasurer;
T.S. Merrill, Secretary; M.L. Prensky, controller; Standish Backus,
general counsel; L.G. Kaufman, Charles H. Sabin, and J.J. Raskob
members of the General Financial Committee; W.C. Durant, C.S. Mott,
W.E. Chrysler of the Buick Company, W.L. Leland, Vice President of the
Cadillac; S.W. Warner of the Oakland, W.L. Day of the General Motors
Truck Company of Detroit, members of the Finance Committee." (Motors
Now Earns $2,250,000 A Month. New York Times, Nov. 22, 1916.)
Pierre S. du Pont was elected Chairman of the Board; W.C. Durant
continued as President, succeeding Benoni Lockwood. The directors
elected were A.G. Bishop, W.P. Chrysler, R.H. Collins, W.L. Day, Pierre
S. du Pont, W.C. Durant, J.H. Haskell, L.G. Kaufman, J.H. McClement,
C.S. Mott, J.J. Raskob, E. Ver Linden and F.W. Warner. (New Motors
Board. New York Times, Aug. 24, 1917.)
Durant was the largest single stockholder, and with du Pont held a majority. "E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. are now represented on the Board of Directors of General Motors Corporation by J.A. Haskell, J.J. Raskob, P.S. du Pont, Irenee du Pont, and Henry F. du Pont, the last two named having been elected Directors yesterday. H.N. Barksdale, Vice President of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., is a Director of Chevrolet Motor Company." (Chevrolet Company to Wind Up Affairs. New York Times, Feb. 22, 1918.) Directors elected were P.D. du Pont, A.G. Bishop, W.P. Chrysler, R.H. Collins, W.L. Day, H.F. du Pont, Irenee du Pont, W.C. Durant, J.A. Haskell, L.G. Kaufman, J.H. McClement, C.S. Mott, J.J. Raskob, F.W. Warner, and E.Ver Linden. (General Motors Meeting. New York Times, Mar. 21, 1918.)
H.H. Bassett was made a director and a member of the Executive Committee. (General Motors Aims At Billion. New York Times, May 2, 1919.)
Three new directors were elected: Sir Harry McGowan and Arthur
Chamberlain of General Explosives Ltd. of London; and William McMaster
of Canadian Explosives Ltd. Others were W.C. Durant, J.A. Haskell, F.W.
Hohonse, L.G. Kaufman, R.S. McLaughlin, C.E. Mott, J.J. Raskob, Alfred
P. Sloan Jr., John Thomas Smith, E. Ver Linden, H.H. Bassett, A.G.
Bishop, R.H. Collins, W.L. Day, Harry F. du Pont, Pierre S. du Pont,
Irenee du Pont, Lammot du Pont, and F.W. Warner. (New General Motors
Directors. New York Times, Apr. 30, 1920.) McGowan was Chairman of
Explosives, Ltd. of England and Managing Director of the Nobel Company.
He reportedly purchased $5 million of GM stock. Chamberlain was
Chairman of Kynocks, Ltd., and a nephew of the Chancellor of the
Exchequer. They were interested in "a big experiment in mass production
of motor cars in England" with GM. (British Buy Stock in General
Motors. New York Times, May 13, 1920.) J.P. Morgan & Co. acquired a
large block of shares for the British and Canadian interests. (Morgan
Buys Block of General Motors. New York Times, Jun. 3, 1920.) Du Pont
combined with J.P. Morgan & Co. to take majority control, and E.R.
Stettinius joined the board. Durant resigned as President, but
continued as a director. The du Pont Securities Company took over his
shares of GM stock. Pierre S. du Pont was elected to replace him.
(Durant Again Out of General Motors. New York Times, Dec. 1, 1920.)
Directors: George F. Baker Jr., Arthur G. Bishop, Donaldson Brown,
Walter S. Carpenter Jr., Henry F. duPont, Irenee duPont, Pierre duPont,
Charles T. Fisher, Fred J. Fisher, Lawrence P. Fisher, William A.
Fisher, Louis G. Kaufman, Charles F. Kettering, William H. Knudsen, Sir
Harry McGowan, Samuel McLaughlin, James D. Mooney, Junius S. Morgan
Jr., Charles S. Mott, Fritz Opel, Dewitt Page, John L. Pratt, Seward
Prosser, Arthur B. Purvis, John J. Raskob, Alfred P. Sloan Jr., John
Thomas Smith, Alfred H. Swayne, George
Whitney, Clarence M. Woolley,
and Owen D. Young. (Chester Times, May 6, 1931.)
Directors included George F. Baker, member of finance committee;
Albert Bradley, vice president; Donaldson Brown, vice president; Lammot
de Pont, chairman; Pierre S. du Pont; Charles T. Fisher, vice president
(resigned); Lawrence P. Fisher, vice president; William A. Fisher, vice
president; Richard H. Grant, vice president; Charles F. Kettering, vice
president; William S. Knudsen, executive vice president and member of
executive committee; Sir Harry McGowan; R. Samuel McLaughlin, vice
president, and president of General Motors of Canada; Junius S. Morgan;
John L. Pratt; John J. Raskob; John J. Schurmann Jr., president of
GMAC; Alfred P. Sloan Jr., president; John Thomas Smith, vice president
and general counsel; Alfred P. Swayne, vice president of GMC and
chairman of GMAC; George Whitney; and Charles E. Wilson, vice
president. (General Motors Lists Its Salaries. New York Times, Dec. 4,
Armstrong was also a director of Boise Cascade (1975-76 and 1978-2000), American Express, Glaxo Holdings, and Halliburton, and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Former Honeywell CEO Edson W. Spencer was also a director of Boise Cascade until 1999.Boise Cascade 1999 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Bryan was also Chairman and CEO of Sara Lee Corporation, and also a
director of Amoco, First Chicago Corp. and First National Bank of
Chicago, and a trustee of the University of Chicago, and
Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center.
President and Professor of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics at California Institute of Technology; also a director of Hewlett-Packard.
Retired Chairman and President of NBD Bank, Detroit, and a director of AMR and American Airlines, and Detroit Medical Center.
Hoglund joined GM in 1958; also a director of Standard Federal Bank, Detroit Diesel, and Mead Corporation.
Chairman, President and CEO of Marriott Corp./Marriott International
since 1985; also a director of Outboard Marine and a trustee of the
Mayo Foundation. Marriott spun off Caterair International Inc. to an
investment group organized by The Carlyle Group and headed by President
George HW Bush's crony, Frederic V. Malek, who
was President of
Marriott from 1981 to 1988. Malek arranged for Bush's support of the
domestic airline smoking ban as a favor for putting George W. Bush on
its board of directors, and was on the board of directors of the
corrupt EPA contractor that handled the pass-through contracts for the
EPA ETS report.
Marriott is an Emeritus Public Trustee of the Mayo Clinic Foundation, along with former Cummins directors Hanna H. Gray and J. Irwin Miller; former Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee; anti-smoker arch-conspirator Newton N. Minow; former Scientific American publisher Gerard Piel; and former Honeywell CEO Edson W. Spencer.Trustees / Mayo Clinic Foundation
Former US Secretary of Labor, 1978-89; also a director of AMR & American Airlines, Kellogg Co., Nordstrom Inc., Union Camp Corp., Host Marriott, Potomac Electric Power, and Vulcan Materials; Vice Chairman of The Aspen Institute and a trustee of The Public Agenda Foundation.
Paul H. O'Neill was Chairman and CEO of Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA); also a trustee of the RAND Corporation.
Pratt was CEO from 1972-91 and Chairman of the Board of Pfizer; and a director of Pfizer since
1969; also a
director of Chase Manhattan Corp and Chase Manhattan Bank,
International Paper Company [with which O'Niell was affiliated from
1977 to 1987], Minerals Technologies Corp., and Celgene Corp. He
retired from the both the GM and Pfizer boards in 1996.
Chairman of GM since 1992, retired Chairman and CEO of Procter & Gamble, Chairman of the Board of Berol Corp., and also a director of P&G, and JP Morgan and Morgan Guaranty Trust.
Smith joined GM in 1961 and was its President and CEO since 1992; also a member of the Board of Overseers of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Sullivan was US Secretary of Health and Human Services from 1989 to 1993; also a director of Georgia Pacific, 3M, Household International, CIGNA Corp., and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Chairman of JP Morgan and Morgan Guaranty Trust; also a director of Merck & Co., and President of the Royal College of Surgeons Foundation.
Wyman was Chairman of SG Warburg & Co.and a former chairman of CBS; also a director of AT&T, ZENECA PLC., United Biscuits plc, and a trustee of the Ford Foundation and The Aspen Institute. Wyman's fellow directors at AT&T included his former cronies from CBS, longtime Cummins Engine Company directors Henry B. Schacht and Franklin A. Thomas.
In 1979, the Detroit News spread hysteria about supposed clustering of 40 deaths and 25 nonfatal cancer cases among an unspecified number of workers over a 12-year period, in the woodworking shops at the General Motors Technical Center and at the Chrysler Corporation. "The Michigan Cancer Foundation, in a statistical assessment of the cases cited in the newspaper reports, evaluated a group of 22 cancers among approximately 630 woodworkers and found that this incidence was 'not significantly higher' than would be expected in the general population... Each of the Big Three automakers, G.M., Chrysler and the Ford Motor Company, have begun inquiries of their own, in addition to the investigation being conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health... Thomas A. Murphy, chairman of General Motors, said that the company considered the need to explore the 'serious.'" These cancers were a general assortment including lung, colon, testes, stomach, spleen and bone marrow, several of which are now known to be caused by infection. (Auto Woodworkers' Cancer Rate Is Subject of an Inquiry in Detroit. By Reginald Stuart.New York Times, Nov 26, 1979.) The pinheads of the United Auto Workers union bought into the charade. Douglas A. Fraser claimed that studies had shown increased cancer deaths among "workers in machining operations, foundry workers and workers in vehicle assembly plants" as well. "The chairman of the General Motors Corporation, Thomas A. Murphy, speaking at the same program, said he had no objections to the union program and said company medical officials would help." (U.A.W. to Check Data On Cancer in Factories. New York Times, Apr 23, 1980.) Fraser was subsequently elected to the board of Chrysler. (The Labor Leader As Company Director. By A.H. Raskin. New York Times, Apr 27, 1980.) However, their idea for a cancer foundation had already been conceived in 1978, so this was nothing but a charade, perpetrated with media collusion, to steamroll the shareholders into acquiescence.
Conceived in 1978 by Roger B. Smith, chairman and CEO of General Motors from 1981 to 1990 (and director of Johnson & Johnson from 1985 to 1998), and Thomas A. Murphy, who was then GM's chairman. Its first Board of Directors included Drs. Joseph G. Fortner and Jonathan Rhoads of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Laurance S. Rockefeller; Thomas A. Murphy, who helped Henry Schacht of Cummins Engine Company found the Health Effects Institute to loot the automotive industry to fund its enemies, just like the tobacco industry; William O. Baker of AT&T Bell Laboratories, who joined the HEI board; and Benno Schmidt. The foundation gives three prizes, the Kettering Prize for diagnosis or treatment; the Mott Prize, for cause or prevention; and the Sloan Prize, for basic science. GM's Kettering and Sloan established the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in 1945. The GM Cancer Research Scholars Program review panel, consisting of previous winners of these prizes, awards ten $100,000, two-year grants per year (and a free car to the sponsoring Comprehensive Cancer Center). Deborah I. Dingell, President of the General Motors Foundation, is on the Prevention Research Advisory Council of the Lasker Foundation's Research!America.History / GM Cancer Research Foundation
Sir Richard Doll's award from the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation: "Some 'old friends' on the committee which picked Doll, by the way, include: Jonathan Rhoads, Benno Schmidt, Lauren Ackerman, LaSalle Leffall, Brian MacMahon, Lewis Thomas, and Arthur Upton." (Memo from Knopick to William Kloepfer Jr., Tobacco Institute SVP of Public Relations, May 2, 1979.)Knopick to Kloepfer, 1979 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Board of Trustees of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation,
1981: Roger B. Smith, Chairman; Howard H. Kobel, Vice Chairman; Joseph
G. Fortner, MD, President; William O. Baker, PhD; Jonathan E. Rhoads,
MD; Laurance S. Rockefeller; Benno C. Schmidt; Charles H. Townes, PhD.
Various former members of the Council for Tobacco Research, that Lasker loot-a-thon which the media misrepresent as an attempt to "corrupt science" on behalf of the tobacco industry, are on the Advisory Committee of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, and have received its prizes, including Carlo M. Croce, Raymond L. Erikson, Alfred G. Knudson, Peter M. Howley, and Peter K. Vogt. Anti-smoking old-timers such as Sir Richard Peto and Dimitrios Trichopoulos are also advisors.Advisory Committee / GM Cancer Research Foundation
Jonathan M. Samet of The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, the anti-smokers' star perjuror in the Minnesota trial against the tobacco industry, and Barbara K. Rimer of the National Cancer Institute's hate-mongering and manipulating Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, are co-chairs of the Mott Selection Committee. The winners of the 2001 Charles S. Mott Prize were anti-smoker Frank E. Speizer and food fascist Walter C. Willett, who contrary to their accolades have contributed nothing but quackery with their "lifestyle questionnaire" studies that ignore any role for infection. Samet and Speizer happen to both be on the Research Committee of the Health Effects Institute.Selection Committees / GM Cancer Research Foundation
Thomas Aquinas Murphy graduated from the University of Illinois in
1938 with a degree in accounting and joined General Motors later that
year. He was assistant treasurer since 1959, Controller since 1967, and
Treasurer since 1968. (General Motors Corp. Names New Controller. New
York Times, Apr 4, 1967; General Motors Elects New Vice President. New
York Times, Nov 7, 1968.) He was elected a vice president of the car
and truck group in 1970, and director, vice chairman of the board and
member of the finance and executive committees in 1971. (Murphy to Be
Vice Chairman-Cole Is Still President. By William Smith. New York
Times, Dec 7, 1971.) In 1970, GM created its so-called Corporate
Responsibility project, aka Campaign GM, "which this year has extended
its efforts also to Ford and Chrysler." In 1972, it set a six-member
committee of outside businessmen to "help" the board choose directors.
Members of this committee were Eugene N. Beesley, chairman of Eli Lily
& Co.; Lloyd D. Brace, former chairman of the First National Bank
of Boston; John T. Connor, chairman of Allied Chemical Corp.; John A.
Mayer, chairman of the Mellon National Bank and Trust Co.; Howard J.
Morgens, chairman of Proctor & Gamble Co.; and Thomas L. Perkins, chairman
of the trustees of the Duke Endowment. (G.M. Sets Up a
Committee To Help Name Directors. By Agis Salpukas. New York Times, Apr
14, 1972.) In 1974, members were Beesley, Morgens, Stephen D. Bechtel
Jr., chairman of the Bechtel Group; and former GM chairmen James M.
Roche and Frederick G. Donner. (Committees With Clout. New York Times,
Mar 24, 1974.) Murphy was born in Hornell, N.Y. and spent his early
youth in Buffalo, but attended high school in Chicago. He married
Catherine Maguire of New York. (At the Pinnacle of G.M. By Robert
Irvin. New York Times, Sep 8, 1974; An Irish Heir Apparent At G.M. By
Jerry M. Flint. New York Times, Dec 12, 1971.)
Eckhard Pfeiffer, retired President and CEO of Compaq Computer
Corporation, was a member of the Advisory Board of Deutsche Bank, and
the Board of Visitors of M.D. Anderson Cancer Center.
Karen Katen, retired Vice Chairman of Pfizer Inc., and President,
the global Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Group since April 1, 2001, joined the
board of GM in 1997. She was a member of the International Council of
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., the American Bureau for Medical
Advancement in China, and the National Board of Trustees for the
American Cancer Society Research Foundation until resigning in 2006. In
2006, she was on the RAND Corporation’s Health Board of Advisors, and
was a Trustee for the University of Chicago and Council Member of the
Graduate School of Business.
E. Stanley O'Neal, executive officer
of Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. since 1998 and Chairman since 2003,
joined the board of GM in 2001. He was a member of the Board of
Directors of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Erskine B. Bowles, President of the
University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill since 2006. He has been senior advisor of Carousel Capital,
a private investment firm, since 2002; and Chairman of Erskine Bowles
& Co., LLC, 2003-2005. He is also a director of Cousins Properties
Incorporated, Morgan Stanley, and North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance
Company; and Member of the Board of Chancellors of the Juvenile
Diabetes Research Foundation International. (GM bio.) He graduated from
the University of North Carolina in 1967, and Columbia University
Graduate School of Business in 1969. He was an associate in the
corporate finance group at Morgan Stanley in New York. "In 1993, Bowles
was appointed by President Bill Clinton to serve as director of the
Small Business Administration, and later was tapped to serve as deputy
White House chief of staff (1994-95) and White House chief of staff
(1996-98)... After he left the White House, he also served from 1999
to 2001 as a general partner of Forstmann Little, a New York-based
private equity firm. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 2002 and 2004, and
currently serves on the boards of Morgan Stanley and Cousins
Properties... Bowles also has served as vice chair of Carolinas Medical
Center in Charlotte and as a trustee of the Duke Endowment," and the
Golden LEAF Foundation. (Erskine B. Bowles. University of North
Bowles was the boss of John D.
Podesta, and "during this period of time, Mr. Bowles, the Chief of
Staff, would convene regular meetings to discuss our overall
legislative agenda, and I'm certain that tobacco would have come up in
those meetings." (Deposition of John David Podesta, August 1, 2003,
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. PHILIP MORRIS USA INC. 01 Aug 2003, pp.
EO, and Chairman of Alliant Energy Corporation
between 2000 and 2006. He is also a director of BP plc and Union