From an oral history interview with Douglas M. Costle, a member of the Ash Council which created the EPA, and EPA Administrator from March 1977 to January 1981: "After the 1977 battle over the Clean Air Act, it was clear that, if you couldn't get a friendly set of facts [? -cast] in front of the Congress, you couldn't ever get a healthy resolution of the debate. The '77 Amendments called for the auto industry to perform a ton of research, and the industry geared up to do defensive research. At the same time, funds for public-health-oriented research were diminishing. I worried about that trend and said, 'What if we created a non-profit, independent institute to do emissions research? Then the next time we come around to reauthorizing the Act, there will be an independent, third-party source of facts.
"Senator Muskie was not happy with that idea; he believed in his gut that the research ought to be government-funded. I was more worried that government was losing credibility in peoples' minds, so that its research wouldn't have the same clout as in the past. In the end, Muskie agreed, and we created the Health Effects Institute, with Archibald Cox as its first director. As the victim of the Watergate Saturday Night Massacre, Cox was probably the one name in the country that everybody knew who was considered to have integrity.
"The Institute was created as a non-profit corporation, with the auto industry putting up half the money and us the other half. This approach has provided an effective arbiter of facts, and today you don't hear as much debate about that area. Everybody can argue about the policy options, and this is where the debate really ought to take place."
On the contrary. The fraud of particulates research consists of using a slight increase in deaths among persons with preexisting heart and lung disease to pretend that the particulates are the cause of the disease, and that by reducing the particulates, the deaths would be eliminated. All supposedly "proven" by pseudo-scientific multiple regression to bamboozle the suckers, when in fact, those deaths are just a tiny ripple on a deep pool of illness caused by infection. They want to rationalize massive expenditures for expensive fixes that don't fix anything and vast bureaucracies to suck the people dry, because they are totalitarian control freaks. And the officers of the automotive companies must either be corrupt health fascists themselves, or else abjectly stupid and credulous to fall for this scam.Costle interview / EPA
Another version of the creation of HEI from Sebago Associates says that Costle and Henry B. Schacht of Cummins Engine Company came up with the scheme. And, "Within the EPA David Hawkins, the Assistant Administrator for Air, and Michael Walsh, who ran the agency's Ann Arbor mobile source research laboratories, played key roles in designing the new entity's structure and selling EPA staff on the idea. Within the industry Schacht found a powerful external ally in Tom Murphy, the President and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors. And inside his own organization Charles Powers, who had been a vice-president in charge of ethical issues, was to play a leading role in designing the new organization and serving as its first president." Costle and Schacht then persuaded Archibald Cox to become the chairman, and William O. Baker joined them to incorporate the institute. (III. Experts in the Administrative Policy Process: Advice to the Agency. The Health Effects Institute: A New Kind of Institution. In: Listening to Experts, by Donald Kennedy and Peter Orszag. Sebago Associates, policy consulting firm.) (Note that Kennedy was one of HEI's founding directors -cast.)The Health Effects Institute / Sebago Associates (doc)
Transcript of US EPA - HEI press conference, Dec. 12, 1980. Participants: Archibald Cox, Carl M. Loeb Harvard Law School University Professor; Douglas M. Costle, Administrator Environmental Protection Agency; Thomas A. Murphy, Chairman of Chief Executive Officer, General Motors Corporation; Dr. William O. Baker, Chairman of the of Rockefeller University; Henry B. Schacht, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cummins Engine Company; Alfred W. Pelletier, Chairman and and President Mack Trucks, Inc.; Roger Smith, Chairman-elect, General Motors Corporation; William Baker, Chairman of the Board, Rockefeller University; Donald Kennedy, President, Stanford University; Dale Compton, Vice President, Research, Ford Motor Company. (By Acme Reporting Company.) Baker and also happen to have been the founders and first members of the Board of Trustees of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, which also included Mary Lasker's cancer crusade cronies Benno Schmidt, Laurance S. Rockefeller, and Jonathan Rhoads.Transcript of US EPA - HEI press conference, Dec. 12, 1980 / UCSF (pdf, 37 pp)
HEI was incorporated in May 1980, with former Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox as the first chairman. Board members were William O. Baker, chairman emeritus of Bell Laboratories, and Donald Kennedy, then president of Stanford University. Charles W. Powers, then vice-president for governmental affairs at Cummins Engine Company and now a professor at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, was the first executive director.2000-2001 Annual Report / Health Effects Institute (pdf)
"The Institute is the brainchild of a former executive at the Cummins Engine Company, Charles Powers, and EPA officials who wanted to reduce the acrimony in discussions of clear air standards. Powers, the original director of HEI's staff, now has become president of a clone organization, Clean Sites of Alexandria, Virginia. It aims to play a similar role in mediating toxic dump controversies. At HEI, Powers has been succeeded by Thomas Grumbly, a former congressional aide and assistant to Stanford University president Donald Kennedy when Kennedy was commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration." (Health Effects Institute Links Adversaries, by Eliot Marshall. Science 1985 Feb;227:729-730.)HEI, Science 1985 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Cox's great-grandfather, William Maxwell Evarts, Skull & Bones
1837, was one of the invited guests at the funeral of Prussian
legislator Edouard Lasker in
"Cox graduated from Harvard College in 1934 and Harvard Law School in 1937 where he was a member of Phi delta phi legal fraternity, and joined the Boston law firm of Ropes, Gray, Best, Coolidge and Rugg, now known as Ropes & Gray. During World War II, he was appointed to the National Defense Board, and then to the Office of the Solicitor General. After the war ended, Cox joined the faculty at Harvard, where he taught courses in torts and in administrative, constitutional, and labor law. During that time, he also became an adviser and speech-writer for John F. Kennedy, who was at that time U.S. senator from Massachusetts. In 1961, Cox joined the new Kennedy administration as solicitor general." He was Chairman of the advocacy group Common Cause since 1980. (Wikipedia, accessed June 3, 2007.) Cox currently owns the Forbes-Evarts House in Windsor, Vermont, which was formerly owned by his ancestor. (Archibald Cox, Conscience of a Nation. By Ken Gormley. Addison-Wesley, 1997. Denver Post Online.)Gormley / Denver Post Online
"Archibald Cox was a lifelong beneficiary of his social class and personal connections. He didn't apply for his clerkship to Judge Hand, it was offered him. He didn't apply for his Harvard teaching position, it was handed him -- and a year later, was turned into a tenured post before he had proven his worth as a scholar." (Elegy for an American Hero. By Lincoln Caplan. Jurist, June 1998;1(3).)Caplan, 1998 / Pitt University
The first chairman of the Health Effects Institute, Archibald Cox, was succeeded in 2001 by Richard Celeste, former governor of Ohio. After serving as staff liaison for the Peace Corps in 1963, Celeste was appointed executive assistant to Chester Bowles, the US Ambassador to India. After four years in India, he returned to his father's housing business in Cleveland. Later he served as Peace Corps Director for 22 months under President Carter, then returned to Ohio to plan his 1982 campaign for governor. He served two terms from 1983 to Jan. 1991. (Celeste may be envoy to India. By Sandy Theis. Cincinnati Enquirer, May 13, 1997.)Celeste may be envoy to India, 1997 / Cincinnati Enquirer
Celeste's 1997 Healthsouth Corp. Proxy Statement bio: "Richard F. Celeste originally joined the Board of Directors in 1991, took a leave of absence from the Board of Directors in August 1993 to head the Democratic National Committee's healthcare reform campaign, and rejoined the Board in May 1994. He is managing partner of Celeste and Sabaty, Ltd., a business advisory firm located in Columbus, Ohio, which assists United States companies to build strategic alliances in Europe, Africa, South Asia and the Pacific Rim. He served as Governor of Ohio from 1983 to 1991, during which time he chaired the National Governors' Association Committee on Science and Technology, and directed the United States Peace Corps from 1979 to 1981. He is a member of the Advisory Council of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Government, and chairs Carnegie's Task Force on Science, Technology and the States. He is a director of Navistar International, Inc. and Republic Engineered Steels, Inc., both of which are publicly-traded companies."Healthsouth Corp. 1997 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Celeste was a director of Navistar International Inc. from 1993 to July 31, 1996. In 1994, he was on the advisory board of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and chairman of the advisory board of Pacific Northwest Laboratories. He was also on the Board of Directors of one of former President Jimmy Carter's favorite causes, Habitat for Humanity, and was a trustee of the Carnegie Corp. of New York. Retired Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, a former Trustee of the American Health Foundation 1975-81, was a director of Navistar from 1984 until 1996; and Andrew F. Brimmer, Salk Institute trustee circa 1971, was a director of Navistar from 1976 to 1997.Navistar International 1994 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Celeste resigned his directorships to become US Ambassador to India from 1997 to 2001, when he became Chairman of the Health Effects Institute. He is now also co-chair of the Century Foundation's Homeland Security Project. The other co-chair is Thomas Kean, former chairman of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (and anti-smoker former governor of New Jersey and Trustee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). President Bush named Kean to head the September 11 investigation. And, former Carnegie Corporation Chairman David Hamburg's daughter Margaret Hamburg is a member of the Coordinating Committee of the Homeland Security Project.Committee / Homeland Security Project
Leon Gordis is Jonathan Samet's crony at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, and author of the Reference Manual on Federal Evidence of the Federal Justice Center, which falsely claims that "Multivariate analysis controls the confounding factor through mathematical modeling," when it does not.
Director of Research at the late Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation (the darling of the health fascist front group FORCES), and winner of the 2001 Alton Ochsner Award for his anti-smoking propaganda.
Senior Scientist and Deputy Director of the National Environmental Respiratory Center of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute. Also a major contributor to "Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction," another piece of anti-smoker propaganda adored by FORCES.
The late "Distinguished Professor of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health" at the University of Iowa was a co-author with Lester Breslow of "The Future of Public Health," the bible of Roz Diane Lasker's crowd.
Samet was Leon Gordis' crony at the Johns
Hopkins University School
of Public Health, and was the anti-smokers' star perjuror in the
tobacco trial in 1998, and the US Department of Justice show trial in
The founding director of Harvard University's Nurses Health Study, one of the "Fat Cats" of NIH funding, dedicated to blaming lifestyle for every possible malady; and the Six Cities Study, dedicated to blaming particulates, also by exploiting confounding by infection. Speizer and cronies now have another similar scam, the EPA/Harvard Center on Ambient Particle Health Effects.Speizer bio / Harvard School of Public Health
As if GM's funding of HEI wasn't bad enough, the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation awarded Speizer and his Harvard crony Walter C. Willett its Charles S. Mott Prize.Speizer & Willett / Harvard School of Public Health
Dean emeritus of Harvard Medical School, Daniel
In 1989, the EPA asked the HEI "to identify research needs and opportunities in environmental epidemiology." The project oversight HEI Steering Committee consisted of: Leon Gordis, Curtis Harris of the National Cancer Institute; Millicent Higgins of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, still a dogmatic believer in non-infectious etiologies; the late Richard Remington; John Tukey of Princeton University; Arthur Upton of New York University; and Mark Utell, of the University of Rochester Medical Center.
The reviewers for the "Indoor Air and Other Complex Mixtures" working group consisted of four from the Centers for Disease Control and one from UMD-New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, institutions which eagerly embrace corrupt statistical methodology; one from the DuPont Co. and one from the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology.
And the authors in this Working Group are: Jonathan M. Samet and Frank E. Speizer, the Working Group Leaders; Douglas Dockery, a crony of Speizer at the Harvard School of Public Health; Sander Greenland, UCLA School of Public Health, like Gordis a true believer in the magic of multiple regression; Brian Leaderer of Yale, and Paul Lioy of UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, both members of the Science Advisory Board for the EPA ETS report; Joe Mauderly of the Inhalation Toxicology Institute of Lovelace; William F. McDonnell of the EPA; Carl Shy of UNC-Chapel Hill; John Spengler, another Speizer crony at the Harvard School of Public Health; Noel Weiss of the University of Washington, another Speizer crony and EPA ETS reviewer; and Timothy Wilcosky of Research Triangle Institute.
(Communication Number 3. Introduction to the Health Effects Institute Environmental Epidemiology Planning Projects Documents. Aaron J Cohen and Leon Gordis. Environ Health Perspect 1993;101(Suppl 4):15-17.)Communication Number 3, 1993 / HEI
"Early in 1981, Mr. Archibald Cox, the President of the Health Effects Institute of Harvard University [sic] has expressed his intention of having this consultant [Aviado] participate in research activities at the newly-formulated research institute that will be distributing research funds." (Annual report of Domingo Aviado to William W. Shinn of Shook, Hardy & Bacon, Jan. 20, 1981, p. 7.) Aviado was one of the leading Council for Tobacco Research Special Projects investigators.Aviado 1981 Annual Report to Shinn of SHB / UCSF (pdf, 18 pp)
"The Center for Indoor Air Research wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the following: The Health Effects Institute (HEI) for sharing their Request for Application and mailing list..." EPA Science Advisory Board Chairman and ETS report reviewer Morton Lippmann served on CIAR's Science Advisory Board, estimated date 1995, pp. 26 and 3.CIAR ~1995 / UCSF (pdf, 32 pp)