Hamburg was the president of Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1982 to 1997. He was chief of the adult psychiatry branch at the National Institutes of Health, from 1958 to 1961; professor and chairman of the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University from 1961 to 1972, and a professor of human biology at Stanford from 1972 to 1976; president of the Institute of Medicine from 1975 to 1980; director of health policy research and education at Harvard University from 1980 to 1983; and president and chairman of the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1984 to 1986. "Hamburg was a member of the United States Defense Policy Board with Secretary of Defense William Perry and cochair with former Secretary of State Cyrus Vance of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. He is a member of President Clinton's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology and a visiting professor at Harvard Medical School's department of social medicine. He was the founder of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Government."Hamburg bio / Carnegie Corporation of NY
Hamburg was an investigator of "stress and anxiety" and behavior, at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1952-53), the Institute for Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago (1953-56), the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University (1957-58 and 1967-68); the National Institute of Mental Health (1958-1961); and Stanford University (1961-1976.) He was on the Advisory Committee on Medical Research of the World Health Organization from 1976 to 1988, and in 1994 joined the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. (Hamburg bio, National Academy of Sciences).Hamburg bio / National Academies of Science
The Institute for Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training at the Michael Reese Hospital had been planned since 1945. "Funds were provided chiefly by the Jewish Federation of Chicago and Mr. and Mrs. A.D. Lasker of New York; Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Block of Chicago; and Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Brody of Beverley Hills, Calif." (Institute to Spur Psychiatric Study. New York Times, Jan. 3, 1951, pg. 40.) The Blocks and Brodys were daughters and sons-in-law of the Laskers. The longtime (~25y) medical director of the American Psychiatric Association, Melvin Sabshin, was its assistant director while Hamburg was associate director. (Melvin Sabshin: A Profile, by Leslie Knowlton. Psychiatric Times, May 1998.) Sabshin led the effort to remove homosexuality from the list of psychiatric disorder. (Panelists Recount Events Leading to Deleting Homosexuality As A Psychiatric Disorder From DSM. Psychiatric News, July 17, 1998.)Knowlton, May 1998 / Psychiatric Times
The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences was established by the Ford Foundation under Paul Hoffman, and Frank Stanton, president of CBS from 1946 to 1971, was its founder and chairman from 1953-60, and a trustee until 1971.
Hamburg made the closing remarks at the session on "Smoking and Disease," at the Institute of Medicine Annual Meeting, "The Health Sciences and the Burden of Illness, Oct. 27-28, 1976. Joshua Lederberg made the opening remarks and the summation.IOM, 1976 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
Hamburg participated in the IOM Invitational Conference on
and Behavior, "Health and Behavior: A Research Agenda Interim Report
No. 1, Smoking and Behavior." Hamburg's wife Beatrix was on its
advisory panel, and Gilbert S. Omenn
Surgeon General Julius
Richmond made presentations. Judith
Rodin, now president of The Rockefeller Foundation and a
of Citigroup, was a participant.
Hamburg participated in the Institute of Medicine and the New York Academy of Medicine Joint Scientific Symposium in commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the Institute of Medicine (which appeared to consist of a potpourri of subjects including everything but this topic), along with former American Health Foundation Trustees David J. Mahoney and Robert J. Haggerty, and former IOM President Kenneth I. Shine.Journal of Urban Health, Summer 1996 / New York Academy of Medicine
To Improve Human Health. A History of the Institute of Medicine. Ch. 3 The Hamburg Era. Institute of Medicine, 1998.To Improve Human Health, 1998 / Institute of Medicine
Memo from Leonard Zahn to Robert F. Gertenbach, about the AAAS Annual Meeting, May 24-29, 1984: "It was the usual AAAS format: something for everyone (almost)... Perhaps that was why the incoming AAAS president, DAVID HAMBURG, president of the Carnegie Corporation, thought he could attack tobacco in a brief talk at the annual banquet of the National Association of Science Writers. But his remarks were ill-advised.
"Attempting to stress science-media cooperation in public education and understanding, Hamburg cited as an example the Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health that had been issued a few days earlier. His personal views on smoking were out of place, considering the occasion, and a number of media people later said so." (More likely he did it to please those who gave him the job. This is exactly the kind of heavy-handed approach that they rewarded -cast)Zahn to Gertenbach, 1984 / UCSF (pdf, 4 pp)
David Hamburg eulogizes the former president of the Carnegie Corporation, John Gardner. Hamburg joined the board of Stanford University in the "John Gardner chair," and later followed him as president of Carnegie as well. He likens Gardner to his "other dear friend who recently passed away, Cyrus Vance" (who was co-founder of The Public Agenda, upon whose board serve a number of the subjects of this website). (A Tribute to John Gardner. Delivered by Dr. David A. Hamburg, Wednesday, April 17, 2002.)Gardner Tribute / Carnegie Corporation of NY
The much-lauded Gardner had been President of Carnegie from 1955-65; HEW Secretary from 1965-68; and was the Miriam and Peter Haas Centennial Professor in Public Service at Stanford University. He was a trustee of the Salk Institute for Biologial Research, circa 1971, whose trustees engaged in assorted anti-smoking activism.
"Until now, most of the efforts being made to change the
smoking habits have been undertaken by federal, state and local
governments. But recently, Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School
of Government has received a sizeable grant to establish an Institute
for the Study of Smoking
Behavior and Policy. The $658,000 grant was
awarded by the Carnegie Corp., a New York-based foundation whose
president, David A. Hamburg, has long maintained a strong interest in
reducing tobacco use. The new institute will be directed by Thomas C.
Schelling, an economist at Harvard... John M. Pinney,
special assistant to former Health, Education and Welfare Secretary
Joseph A. Califano and as director of the department's Office on
Health during the Carter Administration, will serve as
executive director of the new institute..." (A Study That's Up in
Smoke. By John K. Iglehart. National Journal 1984 June 9, p. 1141.) It
was Hamburg's crony Julius Richmond
made the application for the
grant. John Mercer Pinney, Skull & Bones 1965, supervised the
Surgeon General reports from 1977 to 1981.
(From "A Brief History of the Carnegie Group's First Three Years, 1990-1992," by D. Allan Bromley. Carnegie Corporation of New York, April 1996.) "In 1988, Carnegie Corporation of New York, led by its president, David A. Hamburg, M.D., established the Carnegie Commission on Science Technology and Government... The co-chairs of the Commission were Joshua Lederberg, president of Rockefeller University, and William T. Golden, chairman of the board of the American Museum of Natural History and a businessman with a long and influential career in national science policy. Of the tweny-two members of the Commission, half were scientists and engineers with governmental experience, and half were nonscientists with particular knowledge and experience in public affairs and science policy... The Commission members were pleased when President Bush chose D. Allan Bromley, the distinguished Yale University physicist, as his science advisor and upgraded the title. The Commission co-chairs and Dr. Hamburg met with Dr. Bromley in August 1989 and discussed some of the suggestions in the Commission report." (Foreword, by David Z. Robinson.)
Bromley was an old crony of Golden's from the board of directors of the AAAS. They decided to convene a meeting of the science advisors of the G-7R nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the US), plus representatives from the European Community and the Soviet Union. Bromley continues: "We also decided that the meeting should be held at an isolated location and that there should be no staff present... As we discussed possible sites for the meeting, both of us thought immediately of the Seven Springs Center at Mount Kisco, New York -- the former estate of the Eugene Meyer family, which had owned the Washington Post and other major U.S. newspapers. Originally the estate had been given to Yale University, together with a generous endowment to cover both its maintenance and upkeep, as well as basic staffing. For reasons that are still very unclear to me, Yale decided that it did not wish to retain the estate, and it was transferred to the Rockefeller University, where Joshua Lederberg was then president. The estate was roughly an hour's drive from the New York airports, was secluded, and provided extremely comfortable quarters for both the social and business aspects of the proposed meeting. President Lederberg recognized the potential of this meeting and immediately made the Seven Springs Center available to us."Carnegie Group, 1990-1992 / Carnegie Corporation of NY
Hamburg is chairman of Carnegie's "Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century." Other members are his wife, Beatrix; former Surgeon General Julius Richmond; Wilma S. Tisch; several well-known politicians (Michael Dukakis, Sen. James Jeffords of Vermont, Sen. Nancy Kassebaum of Kansas); and Ted Koppel of ABC News.Great Transitions / Carnegie Corporation of NY
Thomas Kean, former chairman of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (and anti-smoker former governor of New Jersey and Trustee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation) is co-chair of the Century Foundation's Homeland Security Project. President Bush named Kean to head the September 11 investigation. The other co-chair of the Homeland Security Project is Richard Celeste, a director of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (and Chairman of the Health Effects Institute). And, David Hamburg's daughter Margaret Hamburg is a member of the Coordinating Committee of the Homeland Security Project.
The Carnegie Corporation has funded the Carter Center since the early 1980s (information from The Unfinished Presidency, by Douglas Brinkley). David A. Hamburg is a trustee of Carter Center, along with Richard C. Blum, the husband of anti-smoker Sen. Dianne Feinstein, and a business crony of Thomas L. Kempner.Board of Trustees / Carter Center
Hamburg was a member of the Board of Directors of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1992, and was a member of the search committee for a new CEO. Charles A. Sanders was Chairman of the Board. The board nominated Joshua Lederberg to be the academy's president. (New CEO Envisions A Broader Role For New York Academy. By Barbara Spector. The Scientist 1992 Mar 16;6(6).)New NYAS CEO / The Scientist, 1992
Hamburg is a director of the American Ditchley Foundation, along with his crony Joseph Califano, Charles A. Sanders, and John Brademas, who is chairman and also a Governor of Ditchley. The late Cyrus Vance was also a director. Ditchley Park is where British Prime Minister Winston Churchill spent weekends during World War II, and also where he met with Harry Hopkins to settle the details of Lend Lease.Ditchley Newsletter Spring 2000 / The Ditchley Foundations
"This [American Ditchley Foundation] sponsors select, Bilderberg-like gatherings at Ditchley Park, a remote estate of over a thousand acres in the Oxfordshire countryside... The 250 year-old house is equipped with modern conference rooms, interpretation circuits and closed-circuit televisions. It is elegantly decorated with valuable antiques and priceless paintings... Presidential advisors, senators, bankers and businessmen from the United States gather frequently at Ditchley to meet with their British counterparts, but their comings and goings through nearby Kidlington Airport are rarely reported by the press. The palatial manor is regularly used for high level weekend conferences by officials from the Home Office, diplomats from the Foreign and Commonwealth office, and for private meetings of British, European and international political leaders... The Board of Governors at Ditchley includes former Bilderberg Chairman Lord Home, Bilderberg steering committee members Lord Roll [since at least 1974] and Henry Heinz II, and at least twelve other Bilderbergers..." (On Target Britain Oct-Nov 2002. The Australian League of Rights.)On Target Britain Oct-Nov 2002 / Australian League of Rights
Joseph A. Califano, founding chairman and president of the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University, thanked "David Hamburg, who has given me so much wise advice over the years." He also thanked former Johnson & Johnson Chairman James Burke; Jeffrey Merrill and Steven Schroeder of RWJF; Margaret Mahoney; Sanford Weill of Travelers; and John Rosenwald of Bear Stearns. (CASA 1992 Annual Report).CASA 1992 Annual Report / UCSF (pdf, 24 pp)
Hamburg is on the Advisory Council of the United States Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union, along with Washington Advisory Group principals Frank Press and Robert M. White.Advisory Council / Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Hamburg is a member of the International Advisory Council of the Harvard AIDS Institute, which is chaired by Maurice Tempelsman and Mrs. William McCormick Blair Jr.International Advisory Council / Harvard AIDS Institute
Hamburg is a Trustee of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. A fellow trustee is John E. Pepper, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Procter & Gamble, where Hamburg's crony Joshua Lederberg was a director. Trustees emeriti include Katharine Graham and C. Everett Koop. The Chairman is Hamburg's crony from Carnegie, Thomas H. Kean.Leaders / National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
Hamburg is a member of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses, along with Phillip J. Landrigan, the pediatrician featured on ABC News's Good Morning America.Committee / GWVI
Hamberg is a member of the Board of Trustees of the New York Academy of Medicine.Trustees / New York Academy of Medicine
Hamburg was a member of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) during the Clinton administration. John M. Deutch, former CIA director and a director of Cummins Engine Co. since 1997; and Judith Rodin, who participated in Hamburg's 1980 "Smoking and Behavior," are also members; and John A. Young, former President and CEO of Hewlett-Packard Co., was co-chairman.PCAST Membership List / Office of Science and Technology Policy
Hamburg is an Emeritus Trustee of Rockefeller University, and William O. Baker is a Chairman Emeritus. Former American Health Foundation Trustee D. Ronald Daniel is a current Trustee.Board of Trustees / Rockefeller University
Hamburg is a Director of the National Sleep Foundation (a subject in which the National Heart Lung & Blood Institute is concerned.)
Beatrix Hamburg is the wife of David A. Hamburg. She is the immediate past President of the William T. Grant Foundation. Both Hamburgs and their daughter Margaret A. Hamburg are members of the Institute of Medicine. "Dr. Hamburg has participated in many activities sponsored by the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, including the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, the Board on Behavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, and the Standing Committee for Bio-Behavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Dr. Hamburg has served on the boards of the Bush Foundation, the Revson Foundation, and the Greenwall Foundation." (Beatrix A. Hamburg bio, National Academy of Science.)Hamburg bio / National Academies of Science
In 1985, Martha
L. Minow and
Beatrix A. Hamburg were trustees of the William T. Grant Foundation,
with $102,863,000 in assets. Robert
was president; he became a trustee of the American Health Foundation
around 1989. "Since 1978, at least 21 foundations have supported either
anti-smoking organizations or anti-tobacco programs pursued by firms
without histories of anti-smoking activity. Awards range from $5,000 to
$726,300 and total $2,656,426. Although these awards date back ten
years, the majority of the donations were made in the mid-1980s. During
the last five years, foundations gave $2,615,926 to further the efforts
of the anti-smoking 'movement.' The grantors include several prominent
organizations, e.g., The Rockefeller Family Fund, Carnegie Corporation
of New York, and The Kaiser Family Foundation. In addition, corporate,
banking and media-related interests are among the contributors." (Memo
from Carol Hrycaj of the Tobacco Institute to Richard Marcus, Peter
Sparber, and Susan Stuntz, Jan. 14, 1988, p. 15.)
Beatrix Hamburg was a member of the Advisory Board of the Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior at Harvard University, circa 1987. Other members of the Advisory Board included Joseph A. Califano, Newton N. Minow, Joseph P. Newhouse, former Surgeon General Julius B. Richmond, and former NCI director/AHF Trustee Arthur Upton. The Institute Staff included Thomas C. Schelling, the Director; and John M. Pinney [Skull & Bones 1965, Executive Director], Nancy A. Rigotti, and Michael A. Stoto. The Research Advisory Committee included David M. Burns (later a member of the EPA ETS Science Advisory Board), Ellen R. Gritz, Jeffrey E. Harris, Michael Pertschuk, and Kenneth Warner.Institute for the Study of Smoking Behavior and Policy, ca. 1987 / UCSF (pdf, 6 pp)
Beatrix A. Hamburg was a director of Science in 1989. Other directors included William T. Golden, also its Treasurer; and Walter E. Massey of the RAND Gang, its retiring President and Chairman. Members of the Editorial Board included Elizabeth E. Bailey, a director of Philip Morris; David Baltimore, who was involved in the American Cancer Society's National Commission on Smoking and Public Policy; Philip E. Converse, Director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences from 1989-94; and James D. Watson, of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Lasker Foundation director Daniel E. Koshland Jr. was the Editor. (Science 1989 June 16;244(1440):1229, p. 5.)Science, June 16, 1989 / UCSF (pdf, 188 pp)
In 1993, she was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Scientists' Institute for Public Information, an organization which supplies videotape to the mass media. Other trustees included Theodore Cooper (longtime Mary Lasker correspondent), Edward E. David of the Washington Advisory Group, William T. Golden, and Mary's old friend Mathilde Krim. (Letter from Barbara Allen of SIPI to Francis D. Gomez of Philip Morris, April 28, 1993, asking for money.)Allen to Gomez, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
FDA Commissioner nominee Margaret Hamburg is David A.
"As New York City’s heath commissioner in the 1990s, Hamburg
for a total ban on indoor smoking in public places long before states
and cities began adopting such aggressive restrictions. And as health
commissioner in Baltimore, [Joshua]
Sharfstein pushed through an indoor
smoking ban in the city that paved the way for a similar statewide
ban." (Obama’s Picks for FDA Adopted Hard Line on Tobacco. By Sean
Mussenden. Media General News Service, March 18 2009.)
In 1990, the Metropolitan Life Insurance
Company sponsored a conference on "Cancer Prevention for Black
Americans: Risks and Reality." Charles
B. Arnold, medical director of MetLife and editor-in-chief of
the company's Statistical Bulletin, was chairman. Secretary of Health
and Human Services Louis W. Sullivan bashed smoking. New York City
Health Commissioner Dr. Woodrow
A. Myers and Margaret A. Hamburg,
deputy commissioner for Policy Research, New York City Department of
Health, attended, along with Arnold's old friends from the American Health
Williams and Ernst Wynder. (Black Americans'
soaring cancer rates can be lowered by by preventive medicine.
PRNewswire, Oct. 11, 1990.)
(Notice of Adoption of Amendments to Rules Promulgated Under
Clean Indoor Air Act to Conform With the New York City Smoke-Free Air
Act. Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., Commissioner of Health. June 28, 1995.)
"City Health Commissioner Margaret Hamburg testified that
kills 14,000 city residents a year. She said health-care and
'smoking-related' costs total nearly $3 billion in the city alone. 'The
evidence is indisputable,' she said. 'Our health is best protected by
prohibiting smoking in public places.'" (Eateries: Smoking Bill Is A
Drag. New York Post, Jun. 7, 1994.)
This are all despicable Big Lies! Startng with the fact that every smoking ban, everywhere, has been rammed down the public's throat by falsely framing the issue as "freedom versus public health," and CONCEALING ANTI-SMOKER SCIENTIFIC FRAUD.
More than 50 studies have implicated human papillomaviruses as the cause of over 22% of non-small cell lung cancers. This equals over 30,000 cases, which is over ten times more lung cancers than the anti-smokers pretend are caused by secondhand smoke. Passive smokers are more likely to have been exposed to this virus, so the anti-smokers' studies, because they are all based on nothing but lifestyle questionnaires, are cynically DESIGNED to falsely blame passive smoking for all those extra lung cancers that are really caused by HPV. A significant proportion of lung cancers blamed on active smoking are actually caused by HPV as well. Obviously, there is a corrupt, politically-motivated coverup of a far larger cause of lung cancer than radon or secondhand smoke!
The anti-smokers lie that smoking bans cause "immediate, dramatic" declines in the number of heart attacks. In the Pueblo study, the death rates from acute myocardial infarction actually increased in the year after the ban, the same time they were boasting that the number of admissions declined! That suggests that people were dying because they weren’t admitted to hospitals when they should have been! And in the Indiana study, they exploited an anomalous spike in acute MIs during the "before" section of the study, to make the "after" part look better! And in the Helena study, the actual death rates from acute myocardial infarction (as opposed to hospital admissions which were the endpoint of the study) were nearly identical in 2001 (before the ban) and 2002 (the year of the ban), and reached their lowest point in 2003, the year after the smoking ban was repealed.
If smoking or passive smoking were real causes of asthma, the rates of asthma would have gone DOWN. But the EPA's own report says, "Between 1980 and 1995, the percentage of children with asthma doubled, from 3.6 percent in 1980 to 7.5 percent in 1995." The graph on pdf page 65 boasts of declines in cotinine levels during this same period.America's Children, 2003 / US Environmental Protection Agency (pdf)
And the CDC says, "Despite the plateau in asthma prevalence, ambulatory care use has continued to grow since 2000... Increased ambulatory care use for asthma has continued during an era when overall rate of ambulatory care use for children did not increase."Akinbami 2006 / Centers for Disease Control full article (pdf, 24 pp)
They create their bogus "smoking cost" claims by pretending
costs paid by smokers were paid by non-smokers, that diseases caused by
infection were caused by smoking, and that non-smokers' costs don't
exist at all! This is exactly how the CDC's vaunted SAMMEC works. The truth
is that at age
20, smokers' lifetime costs will total 220k Euros, obese peoples' costs
will total 250k Euros, and the "Healthy Living" will cost 281k Euros.
The government has no right to restrict peoples' liberty without a compelling justification. The anti-smokers have no such justification, so THEY COMMITTED SCIENTIFIC FRAUD TO DECEIVE THE PUBLIC. This is a classic example of how the unscrupulous manipulators of public opinion have railroaded Americans into tyranny!
Remember how the
propagandists boasted that "New York City's smokefree restaurant law is
a success. Business in the Big Apple is booming. According to Tim
Zagat, co-publisher of the popular Zagat Survey, 1995 finds a record
high number of restaurant openings and a record low number of
nominee Margaret Hamburg was the New York
City Health Commissioner at the time! (SmokeFree Educational Services.
newsletter, Summer 1995.) They
expect us to naively believe that this is proof that
the smoking ban is good for business! BUT - as the old saw goes, when
things look too good to be true, they probably are. WE NOW KNOW THAT
THERE HAS IN FACT BEEN A MASSIVE AND SYSTEMATIC CONSPIRACY TO
GRANT LOANS, INCLUDING COMMERCIAL LOANS, WHICH NEVER SHOULD HAVE BEEN
MADE! AND THAT THESE BAD LOANS WERE INSURED BY AIG - WHOSE DIRECTORS
HAVE INCLUDED TWO TRUSTEES OF THE ROBERT
WOOD JOHNSON FOUNDATION!
So this is how the anti-smoking conspirators
created their phony economic booms - and now they expect the American
taxpayers to bail them out, because they're supposedly "too big to
fail!" And naturally, the real
conspirators expect to get away, while the public is distracted with
ritual punishments of the small fry!
And New York City is not the only town where anti-smokers
business has "boomed" since smoking bans were passed. Is there anyone,
anywhere, who will deny that there has been a massive, systematic
conspiracy to make bad loans, which has now virtually destroyed the
global economy? Is there anyone who would dare to claim that greed
alone is to blame? What about all those who looked the other way about
what was going on, while deriving no direct financial benefit?
Institute of Medicine Roundtable meetings in 1995 and 1996
summit for members of the health fascist organizations and government
agencies, from which their report "Healthy Communities: New Parnerships
for the Future of Public Health" was concocted. They were funded by the
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Centers for Disease Control, and
the Kellogg Foundation. Members included Margaret A. Hamburg, Jo Ivey
RWJF, Roz Lasker, and William
David Satcher and Kenneth
I. Shine attended.
Current members of the Visiting Committee of the Harvard School of Public Health include Margaret A. Hamburg; Clinton administration Acting Assistant Secretary for Health Jo Ivey Boufford; Karen Davis; Steven A. Schroeder of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and Mary Woolley of Research!America. Former Rep. Paul G. Rogers has been on the Dean's Council since 1998.Advisors / Harvard School of Public Health
Margaret Hamburg is a member of the Coordinating Committee of the Century Foundation's Homeland Security Project, see above.Margaret Hamburg bio / Homeland Security Project