The Institute of Human Relations

Yale's Propaganda Organ for the New World Order

In 1929, Yale President James Rowland Angell created an advisory committee for its Institute of Human Relations, chaired by Dr. William H. Welch, Skull & Bones 1870. Under the cover of advising Yale's Human Welfare Group, it set up a national network for centralized control by Skull & Bones in the fields of law, medicine, education, religion, business, labor, banking, government, journalism, engineering, philosophy, economics, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, and biology. (Committee to Aid Yale Welfare Idea. New York Times, Nov. 22, 1929, pg. 32.)

Nicholas F. Brady, the son of tobacco and utilities magnate Anthony N. Brady, was said to be a member of the national advisory committee of the Yale Human Welfare Group at his death in 1930.

Milton C. Winternitz, President James R. Angell, and Robert Hutchinson, Dean of the Law School, were major supporters. "Winternitz saw medicine as a social science with a responsibility to the community. C.E.A. Winslow was a staunch ally, but others, such as Abraham Flexner, thought the institute a pipe dream and the applied research inappropriate for a university." (Medicine at Yale, 1901-1951: 1921-1931. The Institute of Human Relations.)

Medicine at Yale, 1921-1931 / Yale University

Milton Charles Winternitz, Dean of the Yale School of Medicine from 1920 to 1935, had been a professor of pathology at Johns Hopkins under William H. Welch for ten years. He married Helen Watson, the daughter of Alexander Graham Bell's partner, Thomas Watson, in 1913. He published "The Pathology of Influenza" in 1920 [in which he observed the cell proliferation that followed the disease, and speculated that it may play a role in the development of lung cancer]. In 1923, Winternitz, Angell, and Hutchins were primary advocates for establishing the IHR. "The Rockefeller Foundation funded the institute in the belief that it was the way to start psychiatry at Yale. [Abraham] Flexner later maintained that Richard Milk Pearce, who was director of the Medical Sciences Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, said on the day of his death that this award was the only questionable appropriation the foundation ever made, his endorsement of which he profoundly regretted." A student newspaper, the Harkness Hoot, said of it in 1931: "no one knows precisely what the function of this great foundation is; but everyone knows how many million dollars it has cost." In 1935, the major powers at the Yale School of Medicine including C.E.A. Winslow and his assistant Ira Hiscock, and Harvey Cushing and his crony Samuel Clark Harvey, replaced Winternitz with Stanhope Bayne-Jones. (Chapter 5, The Boom Years. In: A History of Yale's School of Medicine: Passing Torches to Others, by Gerard N. Burrow. Yale University Press, 2002.) A couple of years after his first wife, Helen Watson of Boston, died, he married Pauline Webster, the widow of Stephen Whitney. (Mrs. Whitney Weds Dr. M.C. Winternitz. New York Times, Apr. 7, 1932.)

Burrow, Ch. 5 / Yale School of Medicine (pdf, 44pp)

Mark Arthur May

Mark Arthur May was appointed director of the statistical bureau of the Institute in 1930 (Named to Yale Institute. New York Times, Jun 9, 1930). Five years later, he was named director of the I.H.R. (Dr. May in New Yale Post. New York Times, Apr. 24, 1935). He was chairman of a group of eight educators named by industry censor Will Hays to evaluate 15,000 film "shorts" in Hollywood vaults for their educational possibilities (Old Films Studied for Use in Schools. New York Times, July 15, 1937) (during which students laid their heads on their desks and napped). He was a member of the Public Education Association's Commission on Human Relations, which was funded by the Rockefeller General Education Board (New Books Offer 'Higher Morality'. New York Times, Aug. 22, 1937). In March of that year, Mary Woodard Reinhardt, along with her mother and sister, and Mrs. Artemus L. Gates (Skull & Bones, 1918), and others, raised funds for the P.E.A. (Reception Will Be Held March 22 For Opening of Degas Exhibition. New York Times, Mar. 7, 1937). May was also a member of Will Hays's Commission on Motion Pictures in Education in 1944 (Will Hays Stresses Freedom of Screen. New York Times, Mar. 28, 1944).

Mark May and the O.S.S.

Prof. Mark May "collected a great amount of information on the social and psychological characteristics of many societies throughout the world" in the Yale Cross-Cultural Survey. He was recruited by the Research and Analysis Branch of the Office of Strategic Services. (Interoffice Memo from Mr. Tryon to Dr. James Baxter, of the Coordinator of Information, Jan. 21, 1942. In: OSS - The Psychology of War. By Paul Wolf.)

Tryon to Baxter, Jan. 21, 1942 / Paul Wolf
OSS - The Psychology of War / Paul Wolf

Mark May and the New World Order

"The moment for calling a congress of the United Nations for discussion of plans for the new world order can be decided only by those who are in positions to command comprehensive views of the changing world situation, says Dr. May. But it is not too soon to plan the educational reconstruction of a new world. A tremendous amount of educational propaganda and persuasion will be necessary, first to induce people to accept and try out a new government and then to continue supporting it. The forces of education and propganda must be put to work preparing the masses for its acceptance and support. 'Statesmen, diplomats, and social planners are apt to overlook the tremendous possibilities of social conditioning and base those plans on conditions that the present generation of adults will accept.' There is hope for a new order in the fact that there are more uniformities than diversities in the world. The basic social unit is the family, the culture is usually transmitted by parents, teachers, priests and playmates; all have a system of government; all are more or less trained to obey those in authority. The problem is to whittle down the diversities and increase the uniformities. How fast the United Nations will proceed will depend on the courage and wisdom of their leaders, on public opinion from now until the close of the war, and on the military progress of the war." (Some New Perspectives for Peace, by W.A. MacDonald. Review of "A Social Psychology of War and Peace," by Mark A. May. Yale University Press. New York Times, July 11, 1943.)

In 1946, Eric Johnston, president of the Motion Picture Association (who had been a member of the Lasker group that took over the American Society for the Control of Cancer and turned it into the American Cancer Society), announced that $100,000 had been appropriated for the production of seven experimental films, "which it is hoped will serve as a standard for producers of classroom films... Among those present when Mr. Johnston announced the new project were Dr. Mark A. May, director of the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University..." (Fund Set to Test Classroom Films. New York Times, Apr. 2, 1946).

In 1948, May was named to the U.S. Advisory Committee on Information, which promptly advocated "[a]n immediate and broad expansion of the world-wide information being conducted by the State Department, including the activities of the Voice of America." The five-member group was chaired by Mark Ethridge, publisher of the Louisville Courier Journal, and also included Erwin D. Canham, editor of the Christian Science Monitor; Philip D. Reed, chairman of the board of General Electric; and Justin Miller, president of the National Association of Broadcasters (Widening of 'Voice' Urged on Congress. New York Times, Mar. 31, 1949). May was made chairman in 1952 (Yale Educator to Direct US Information Group. New York Times, May 11, 1952). He briefly resigned to act as a special consultant to Theodore C. Streibert, director of the United States Information Agency, during its reorganization. "Dr. Streibert recommended that Dr. May be re-appointed to the commission in January after his consultative service ends." (Benson Will Stay, White House Says. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1953.) In 1962, President Kennedy appointed Morris S. Novik, "a radio programming consultant in New York," to replace him (Mollenhoff Named. New York Times, Mar. 30, 1962). William Benton's 1946 advisory committee on the Voice of America had included Prof. Harold Lasswell of the Yale School of Law, and Mark Ethridge of the Courier-Journal, among others.

The Institute of Human Relations developed "a system for classifying or indexing the cultural, behavioral, and background information" on societies around the world.

The Development and Applications of the HRAF Collections / Yale University

Members of the Advisory Committee, Yale Institute of Human Relations, 1929

William H. Welch, Skull & Bones 1870

William Henry Welch, Johns Hopkins University, Chairman.

Jane Addams

Founder, Hull House, Chicago (1889). A variety of mainly leftist judges, authors, political and social activists, religious and other leaders gathered at Hull-House to coordinate their plans for social change. Addams's supporter and financial mainstay, Bertha Honore Palmer (1849-1918), was one of the feminist financiers of Johns Hopkins Medical School. Palmer was the daughter of Louisville, Kentucky real estate magnate Henry M. Honore. They moved to Chicago when she was six. She married a Quaker dry goods magnate, Potter Palmer, who turned the business over to his partners, Marshall Field and Levi Leiter, then built the Palmer House hotel. (The other Bertha Palmer. By Brenda Warner Rotzoll, staff reporter. Chicago Sun-Times, March 16, 2003.)

Rotzoll, 2003 / Chicago Sun-Times

Residents of Hull House included Gerard Swope (1897-98), later president/chairman of General Electric; his wife-to-be, Mary Dayton Hill, daughter of Harvard President Thomas Hill and a student of John Dewey; and her roommate Dr. Alice Hamilton, later a consultant for GE. (Swope of Hull House: The Influence of Settlement Life on Gerard Swope. By Thomas Perrin. In: The Men of Hull House: An Overlooked Aspect of Settlement Life. University of Illinois at Chicago.)

Perrin / University of Illinois at Chicago

Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) got her MD at the University of Michigan in 1893. She studied bacteriology and pathology in Munich and Leipzip in 1895-96, then continued her postgraduate work at Johns Hopkins University as a research assistant of Simon Flexner. In 1897, she moved to Chicago and became professor of pathology at Womans Medical College of Northwestern University. In 1919, she was the first woman appointed to the faculty of Harvard, where the Dean of the Medical School had established the first industrial hygiene program. "Upon retirement from Harvard in 1935, Dr. Hamilton returned to the U.S. Department of Labor, where the late Frances Perkins was Secretary of Labor and a fellow member of the social reform network." (Alice Hamilton bio, National Safety Council.)

Alice Hamilton bio / National Library of Medicine
Alice Hamilton / Chemical Heritage Foundation
Alice Hamilton / National Safety Council

In 1910, Addams was a member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, co-founded by Johns Hopkins psychiatrist and fellow IHR advisory committee member Adolf Meyer. Other future IHR advisory committee members were Edwin A. Alderman, Lewellys F. Barker, Arthur T. Hadley, and William H. Welch; and James R. Angell's father, James B. Angell; plus assorted Bonesmen and other allies.

Beers / Disability Museum

Jane Addams lived for much of her life with Louise De Koven Bowen, the widow of banker Joseph T. Bowen (Roses For Miss Addams. New York Times, Apr. 13, 1916; Jane Addams Dies In Her 75th Year. New York Times, May 22, 1935; Mrs. J.T. Bowen, 94, Leader In Welfare. New York Times, Nov. 10, 1953.) Mrs. Bowen was a member of the Republican National Committee National Women's Camapign for Hughes in 1916, and a member of the RNC. (Willcox Has Women Aides. New York Times, Sep. 16, 1916; Mrs. Bowen Takes Republican Post. New York Times, Jul. 18, 1923.) Mrs. Bowen succeeded Addams as president until 1944, and was the treasurer of Hull House for about sixty years, until 1953. (Mrs. Bowen Reaches 81. New York Times, Feb. 27, 1940.) Her daughter, Helen Bowen, married William McCormick Blair Jr., Skull & Bones 1907, who founded the Chicago investment banking firm of William Blair & Company. (Miss Bowen to Wed Wm. McC. Blair. New York Times, Jun. 3, 1911.) Mrs. William McCormick Blair Jr. was Vice President of the Lasker Foundation.

Edwin A. Alderman

President of the University of Virginia. Oliver H. Payne of the Tobacco and Standard Oil Trusts made an unconditional gift of $50,000 to its endowment fund (Col. Payne Helps A College. New York Times, Nov. 25, 1908.) Alderman was a trustee of the General Education Board in 1915. He and Arthur T. Hadley were also trustees of the Institute for Government Research of the Brookings Institution between 1915 and 1925.

Brookings Institution Archives 1987 / Brookings Institution

Alderman was a member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, co-founded by Johns Hopkins psychiatrist and fellow IHR advisory committee member Adolf Meyer. Other future IHR advisory committee members were Jane Addams, Lewellys F. Barker, Arthur T. Hadley, and William H. Welch; and James R. Angell's father, James B. Angell; plus assorted Bonesmen and other allies.

Beers / Disability Museum

James Rowland Angell

President of Yale University, 1921-37.

James Rowland Angell bio / Athabasca University

Angell was the son of James Burrill Angell, who was President of the University of Vermont and then of the University of Michigan. Andrew White was a visitor at their home during Angell's childhood. William James and John Dewey were his greatest influences. He was briefly president of the Carnegie Corporation before being offered the presidency of Yale: "I had hardly gotten settled down in my job and matured plans for presentation to my trustees when I was approached by Otto T. Bannard [Skull & Bones 1876, chairman of New York Trust Company, who had been a member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene with Angell's father in 1910] of the Yale Corporation, to ask if I would be interested to succeed Mr. Hadley as President of the University... The invitation itself completely staggered me, for of all our great universities Yale had perhaps been the most tenacious in recruiting its staff from among its own sons. I was not a Yale man, while I had been offered a professorship in psychology by President Hadley after Charles H. Judd went to Chicago (an arrangement for which I was in no small measure responsible), and counted many Yale graduates among my best friends, I had never served on the faculty, nor had I many intimate friends there." He notes that "the university had just undergone a violent reorganization imposed by the Trustees, with a good deal of vigorous alumni support, to be sure, but entailing wide areas of soreness and discontent which could not quickly be forgotten." And, "oddly enough, as it seems to me, I apparently won the confidence of the older group much more rapidly than that of the younger classes... The acceptance of the position has at least allowed me to exercise a significant influence in the promotion of psychology and the allied scientific interests. In the Institute of Psychology founded shortly after I went to New Haven and financed by the Rockefeller interests, and later in the Institute of Human Relations, supported by the same group, it has been possible to set up fruitful cooperation between psychology on the one hand and on the other a large group of closely related interests, such as psychiatry, neurology, physiology, biology, anthropology, and the social sciences in general." (James Rowland Angell, by James Rowland Angell. In: A History of Psychology in Autobiography Vol. 3, by Carl Murchison. Russell & Russell, 1961.)

James Rowland Angell / Dept. of Sociology, Brock University

William H. Welch had been one of Angell's important supporters for the presidency of Yale.

Burrow, Ch. 5 / Yale School of Medicine (pdf, 44pp)

Angell's daughter, Marion, married William Rockefeller McAlpin, whose mother was Emma Rockefeller, the daughter of William Rockefeller and niece of John D. Rockefeller Sr. (Marion Angell Wed to W.R. M'Alpin. New York Times, Dec. 5, 1926). McAlpin's father, Dr. D. Hunter McAlpin, was the son of the president of D.H. McAlpin & Co., tobacco manufacturers. Dr. McAlpin graduated from Bellevue Hospital in 1888 and became an attending physician on the hospital staff. In 1895 he was named Professor of Gross Pathology at Bellevue Medical School. He later gradually withdrew from active practice to attend to the McAlpin estate. (David H. M'Alpin Dead. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1901; Dr. D.H. M'Alpin, Educator, Dead. New York Times, Jan. 21, 1934; McAlpin Estate $7,000,000. New York Times, Dec. 23, 1903.) William R. McAlpin's cousin, David Hunter McAlpin Pyle, was president of the United Hospital Fund of New York from 1934 to 1943, and a member of the board of directors of the Post Graduate Medical School, from 1934 until his death in 1944 (Obituary. New York Times, Nov. 7, 1944, pg. 27). David Pyle administered the McAlpin Estates in the 1930s. In 1931, he was a founding director of the Fiduciary Trust Company, whose fellow directors included Elihu Root Jr. and Grenville Clark of Root, Clark & Buckner, attorneys; Pierre Jay, former chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and former Deputy Agent General for Reparations Payments in Berlin, Germany; David F. Houston, president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York; and F. Haven Clark and Theodore T. Scudder of investment counsel firm Scudder, Stevens & Clark. "It has been remarked in trust company circles that, providing the investment counsel firm succeeded in directing the majority of its clients to the new trust company it would succeed in keeping secret those of its investment recommendations which it did not care to have revealed to other trust companies." (Fiduciary Trust 30 Stories in Air. New York Times, Apr. 2, 1931; Fiduciary Trust Opens Doors Today. New York Times, June 3, 1931; Display Ad. New York Times, Oct. 1, 1931.) Time, Inc. financier William V. Griffin was a trustee of the United Hospital Fund since 1926, and Pyle's successor as its president was Roy E. Larsen, the president of Time, Inc.

After retiring from Yale, Angell was an educational counselor for the National Broadcasting Company. From 1947 until his death in 1949, he was president of the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory, which was founded by Clarence Cook Little of Tobacco Industry Research Council fame. (Dr. Angell Is Dead; Yale Ex-President. New York Times, March 5, 1949.) He was also a director of the New York Life Insurance Co. from 1934 until his death.

Frank Aydelotte

President of Swarthmore College. He was the American secretary of the Rhodes scholarship trustees from 1918-52, chairman of the education advisory board of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation from 1925-50, and director of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, 1939-1947. His son, William Osgood Aydelotte, was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, 1976-77.

The Institute for Advanced Study / Princeton University
William Osgood Aydelotte / National Academy of Sciences

Leonard P. Ayres

Vice President of the Cleveland Trust Company. His sister, May Ayres, was the first wife of W. Randolph Burgess of the New York Federal Reserve. (Mrs. W.R. Burgess, A Nursing Expert. New York Times, Jul. 16, 1953.) He blamed "a vast, rapidly growing, unofficial, invisible banking system; a banking system by which the corporation haviong excess funds, loans these funds to the call money market of the New York Stock Exchange," rather than the Federal Reserve or the general public for widespread speculation and credit inflation. Assistsnt Secretary of Commerce Julius Klein denounced "paternalism" and stated that the Hoover Administration intended to let business run its own affairs. (Urges Move to Curb 'Invisible' Banking. New York Times, May 3, 1929.)

Lewellys F. Barker

Lewellys Franklin Barker (1867-1943) was Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. He studied at the universities of Leipzig, Munich and Berlin. He was a vice president of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1916. (Call Surgery Only Remedy for Cancer. New York Times, May 19, 1916), and he was a member of the Medicine and Surgery Group of the Life Extension Institite that year as well.

Mrs. August Belmont (Eleanor Robson)

New York (1879-1979). She was an actress before marrying banker August Belmont Jr. in 1910. She was a correspondent of James Rowland Angell between 1935 and 1939; Mrs. Edward H., Averell, and Mrs. J. Borden Harriman between 1917 and 1978; Harry L. Hopkins between 1922 and 1932; Charles Evans Hughes between 1933 and 1945; and David Sarnoff between 1937-45. She was involved with the American Red Cross between 1910 and 1943.

Eleanor Robson Belmont Papers / Columbia University

Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the Yale School of Nursing in 1949 were Dr. Alan Gregg of the Rockefeller Foundation; C.E.A. Winslow, Professor of Public Health; Effie J. Taylor, second Dean of the Nursing School; James Rowland Angell, President Emeritus of Yale, and its current president, Charles Seymour; Mrs. August Belmont; Annie W. Goodrich, first Dean of the Nursing School; and Professor of Pathology Milton C. Winternitz.

25th Anniversary of Yale School of Nuirsing / Yale University

Arthur Dean Bevan

He was born in Chicago in 1861 (Up-To-Date. Nebraska State Journal, Lincoln, Neb. Mar. 19, 1910), and educated at Sheffield Scientific School at Yale and Rush Medical College, 1883. He was in the United States Marine Hospital Service from 1883 to 1887 while a professor of anatomy at Oregon State University. He joined Rush Medical College in 1887 as professor of anatomy, associate professor of surgery 1899-1902, professor of surgery 1902-1907 then head of the surgical department. His father, Dr. Thomas Bevan, received his M.D. in 1851 from Maine Medical College and studied at L'École de Médicine, Paris; his grandfather was from Ohio. (Dr. Arthur Bevan, Noted Surgeon, 81. New York Times, Jun. 11, 1943.; Arthur Dean Bevan, Ph.B. 1881. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1942-1943, pp. 156-157.) He secretly married Miss Anna Laura Barber, only child of O.C. Barber, the millionaire president of the Diamond Match Co., to skirt Ohio laws. His mother was Mrs. George S. Newberry. The Robinsons of Diamond Match were his wife's cousins. (Married A Second Time. New York Times, Feb. 4, 1896.) He and Dr. Frank Billings were the physicians of Marshall Field Jr., who shot himself in 1905. (In Death's Shadow. Stevens Point Daily Journal, Nov. 24, 1905; Marshall Field Jr. Better. New York Times, Nov. 26, 1905.) In 1914, Dr. Arthur D. Bevan was head of the department of surgery at Presbyterian Hospital, with Dr. Frank Billings head of the medical staff, and H. Gideon Wells and Ludwig Hektoen heads of the Research Department. (Chicago Houses Medical Marvels on the West Side. By Henry M. Hyde. Chicago Tribune, May 8, 1914.) He was Theodore Roosevelt's doctor when he was shot in 1912. In 1929 he gave $1,000,000 to Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago."Dr. Bevan is a large stockholder, a potent director of the $42,000,000 Diamond Match Co." He was a militant Prohibitionist. (Match-Maker Surgeon. Time, May 30, 1932.) He was Chairman of the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association (1907), which preceded the Flexner Report, which held a continuing series of meetings whose participants included Drs. Lewellys F. Barker of Johns Hopkins and James Ewing of Cornell. (Medical Congress Meets in Chicago. Janesville Daily Gazette, Feb. 7, 1916.) Bevan was a member of the executive committee of the National Anticancer Association, the predecessor of the American Society for the Control of Cancer and the American Cancer Society. (To Fight Cancer. Boston Daily Globe, May 23, 1913.) In 1914, he announced Dr. Edward C. Rosenau's discovery that ulcers are an infectious disease. He was a longtime friend of 1928 Lasker Foundation advisor Dallas Phemister, and a correspondent of fellow IHR advisory board members Harvey Cushing in 1909 and 1919-32 and William H. Welch from 1910-23.

Yale Obituary Record 1942-1943 / Yale University Library (pdf, 312 pp)

In 1868, a chair Public Hygiene was created at Northwestern University, and Dr. Thomas Bevan was appointed to it. (Northwestern University: A History, 1855-1905. By Arthur Herbert Wilde. The University Publishing Co. 1905, p. 315.) Bevan was a founder of the Historico-Medical Association, "the chief object to be the publication of a medical register of the city of Chicago." (The Doctors in League. Inter Ocean, Apr. 29, 1874.) He was President of the Chicago Society of Physicians and Surgeons. (City Brevities. Inter Ocean, May 11, 1875.) He was a director of the Floating Hospital Association; fellow directors included Edward G. Mason, Yale 1860, the son of the former Mayor of Chicago and one of ten Yale brothers, including two Bonesmen; and Marshall Field. (The Floating Hospital. Inter Ocean, May 19, 1876.) His death was noted by the Medical Society in 1880. (Medical Themes. Daily Inter Ocean, Apr. 20, 1880.)

Franz Boas

Professor of Anthropology, Columbia University. Boas was the nephew-by-marriage of Abraham Jacobi, a friend of Eduard Lasker.

S. Parkes Cadman

President of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, which helped force Prohibition on the US in the 1920s.

The Federal Council of Churches / Temperance & Prohibition, Ohio State University

In 1926, Cadman was on the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society), along with fellow IHR advisory committee members Henry Sloane Coffin, Charles Evans Hughes, and Owen D. Young. Haven Emerson was a member of the ASCC Executive Committee and Board of Directors in 1923 and 1936.

John J. Carty

Vice President of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 1919-1930. Carty was named Chairman of the Executive Committee of the newly-organized National Research Council in 1916, with William H. Welch, S&B 1870 and President of the National Academy of Sciences, and anti-smoker Raymond Pearl as members. (The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963; Ch. 8 World War I and the Creation of the National Research Council, p. 214. National Academy of Sciences, 1978.)

John Joseph Carty bio / IEEE History Center
The National Academy of Sciences / National Academy Press

Carty was a trustee of the Carnegie Institution from 1916 to 1932 and fellow IHR advisory board member Frederic C. Walcott (S&B 1891) was from 1931 to 1948. Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was its first president from 1902 to 1904, and a trustee until 1908; Andrew D. White (S&B 1853) was a trustee from 1902 to 1916; William H. Welch (S&B 1870) from 1906 to 1934; John S. Billings from 1902-1913; and Simon Flexner from 1913-1914. Later trustees include Edward E. David, Hanna H. Gray, and J. Irwin Miller.

Carnegie Institution Yearbook 1999-2000 / Carnegie Institution (pdf, 4pp)

Harry W. Chase

President of the University of North Carolina, 1919-1930; and President of the University of Illinois, 1930-1933. Chase was a student of G. Stanley Hall, of whom Antony C. Sutton wrote: "Hall is a good example of someone whose life has major turning points and on probing the turning points, we find The Order's guiding hand." (America's Secret Establishment. An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. Liberty House, 1986.) Chase did his doctoral dissertation on Freudian psychology before going to the University of North Carolina in 1911. (Introduction to 'The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis,' Sigmund Freud (1910)," by Raymond E. Fancher, York University, 1998.)

Records of the Department of Psychology #40085 / University of North Carolina
Fancher / York University

Chase was board chairman of the National Advisory Council on Radio in Education, founded in 1930 by the Carnegie Corporation and NBC. Fellow IHR member Robert M. Hutchins was president, and it enjoyed the support of IHR member and Secretary of the Interior Ray Lyman Wilbur. (Tuning Out Education. The Cooperation Doctrine in Radio, 1922-30. by Eugene E. Leach. Current, Jan-Mar 1983.) Note: The phony "competition" between NACRE and the NEA-dominated NCER is an example of S&B secretly controlling both sides!

Leach, 1983 / Current

IHR members James R. Angell, Harry W. Chase, Ray Lyman Wilbur, and Owen D. Young were members of the Rockefeller General Education Board, ca. 1936. (Undermining America website). Harry W. Chase, Chancellor of New York University was a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation, along with R.W. de Forest's son, Johnston de Forest, and Arthur T. Hadley's son, Morris Hadley, S&B 1916, who was elected president. (Russell Sage Foundation Elects a New President. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1944.)

Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, Skull & Bones 1897

President of the Union Theological Seminary. His father, Edmund Coffin (S&B 1866), was counsel for the Phelps Dodge Company from 1869, and the Union Theological Seminary from 1892 until his death. He married Euphemia Sloane, sister of William D. Sloane, in 1874. William Sloane Coffin (S&B 1900) was Henry S. Coffin's brother. (Edmund Coffin. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University 1928-1929, pp. 19-20.) His grandfather was Edmund Coffin Sr.

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University 1928-1929 / Yale University Library

"With a tower that would not be out of place in King Ludwig's Neuschwanstein Castle, and a nine-story Church House by James Gamble Rogers that overshadows the tower, the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church cuts a high profile. Appropriately, some of the most powerful and influential names in New York City history are associated with this church, beginning with James Lenox - of the Lenox Hill Lenoxes - who gave this site to the Phillips Presbyterian Church, named in hor of the Rev. William Wirt Phillips. The Phillips congregation merged in 1899 with the Madison Avenue Presbyterian church and built this Gothic sanctuary by James E. Ware & Son. (Part of an earlier church on this site, built in 1869, survives as the Phillips Chapel.) Other leading figures here have included the Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, who was pastor from 1905 to 1926 (his nephew, the Rev. William Sloan Coffin Jr., was senior minister at Riverside Church; Edward S. Harkness, Henry Coffin's roommate at Yale and a Standard Oil heir; and Henry R. Luce, the founder of Time, Inc., and son of a Presbyterian missionary, who was a parishioner." (In: Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church. By Carter B. Horsley. The City Review.)

Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church / The City Review

In 1926, Coffin was on the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society), along with fellow IHR advisory committee members S. Parkes Cadman, Charles Evans Hughes, and Owen D. Young; and Haven Emerson was a member of its Executive Committee and Board of Directors in 1923 and 1936.

In 1942, Coffin and IHR advisory committee members Thomas Walter Swan and Thomas Day Thacher were current Fellows of the Yale Corporation, along with Arthur Hadley's son Morris and Henry W. Taft's nephew, Robert Alphonso Taft; and Fred Towsley Murphy was a former Fellow.

Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

Also in 1942, Coffin was a member of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, of which Mary Woodard Lasker was involved as Secretary and Vice President; on the Executive Committee and Board of Directors; and as Chairman of the Fund Raising Committee. Fellow IHR Advisory Committee member Haven Emerson was also a member.

Hugh S. Cumming

Surgeon General of the United States, 1920-1936. In 1992, the Public Health Service established the Office of Cancer Investigations at Harvard University, under Assistant Surgeon General Joseph W. Schereschewsky, who had been director general of the International Congress of Hygiene and Demography in 1912, of which William H. Taft was honorary president. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was expanded and became the National Institutes of Health; the US Government's drug treatment facilities were constructed; and the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was begun. He was also the Director of the Pan American Health Organization from 1920 to 1947.

Hugh Smith Cumming (1869-1948) bio / Surgeon General.gov
Directors / Pan American Health Organization

William H. Welch was a member of the advisory council of the Milbank Fund in 1925. In 1929, the Fund began funding the $50 burial expenses used to recruit participants for the Tuskegee Experiment. The experiment continued under Thomas Parran, Cumming's successor as Surgeon General. (The Roots of Racism and Abortion, An Exploration of Eugenics; Ch. 7, Laws Against Mixing Races. By John Cavanaugh-O'Keefe. Eugenics Watch.)

O'Keefe / Eugenics Watch

In 1928, the American Public Health Association appointed a committee of prominent physicians to form a cancer clinic in Chicago to serve the midwest. They were Dr. Herman Bundesen, president of the American Public Health Association; Dr. Frank Billings; Dr. L.L. McArthur, Dr. Frank Morton, Dr. H. Gideon Wells, Dr. J.E. Tuite, Dr. Ludwig Hektoen, Surgeon General Hugh S. Cummings, and Dr. William A. Pusey. They were appointed by a committee composed of Dr. Charles Mayo, Dr. Joseph C. Bloodgood, professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University; Dr. William Carpenter McCarty, pathologist, Mayo Clinic; Gen. Cumming; Dr. Maude Slye, associate professor of pathology, University of Chicago; and Dr. George A. Soper, managing director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer. "They declared heredity a dominating factor in cancer," along with some platitudes about education. (Cancer Experts Marshall Forces to Halt Disease. Chicago Daily Tibune, Oct. 18, 1928.)

"The liaison officer between the State Department and the CIA was Hugh S. Cummings Jr., an ex-ambassador to Indonesia charged by Secretary of State Dulles 'in mid-1957 with fashioning a new, covert interventionist policy toward Indonesia.'" (Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. By Chris Brozda.)

Indonesia / Chris Brozda website

Harvey Cushing, Scroll & Key 1891

Professor of Surgery, Harvard University. After graduating from Yale, Harvey Cushing was at Harvard Medical School from 1891 to 1895, then at Johns Hopkins from 1896 to 1912. He was a correspondent of William H. Welch between 1897 and 1934. (Harvey Williams Cushing Papers, Yale University.) Cushing's daughter Betsey was married to John Hay (Jock) Whitney. When he died, his widow donated $8 million to enlarge and refurbish the library of Yale's School of Medicine, now called the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Library. Another of Cushing's daughters, Mary Benedict Cushing, was the second wife of Vincent Astor. The third daughter, Barbara, was married to William S. Paley, the Chairman of CBS. Her lung cancer was featured in 1983 Senate anti-smoking hearings.

Cushing was a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha medical fraternity between 1916 and 1937; a correspondent of Frank Altschul between 1928 and 1938; James Rowland Angell 1924-39; Leona Baumgartner 1934-39; Stanhope Bayne-Jones 1933-39; Arthur Dean Bevan in 1909 and 1919-32; his fellow native of Cleveland, Ohio, Mabel Boardman, head of the American Red Cross, in 1891 and 1913-25; Starling W. Childs 1914-1939; Alfred E. Cohn 1928-39; James Ewing 1916-35; Abraham Flexner 1922-36; Simon Flexner 1898-1939; Evarts A. Graham 1919-34; Samuel Clark Harvey 1919-37; Kingsley Trust Association (aka Scroll & Key, founded in 1842 and incorporated in 1860) 1914-1938; Graham Lusk 1917-31; Archibald MacLeish, Skull & Bones 1915, 1923-39; Charles H. Mayo 1916-35; William J. Mayo 1904-39; Dallas Phemister 1919-31; Gifford Pinchot, Skull & Bones 1889, 1908-34; Peyton Rous 1915-38; fellow IHR advisory board member Frederic C. Wolcott, Skull & Bones 1891, 1892 and 1916-39; William Henry Welch, Skull & Bones 1870, 1914-30; Paul Dudley White 1929-36; TIRC SAB member Edwin B. Wilson 1920-1934; CEA Winslow 1934-38; and Milton C. Winternitz 1914-37 [Cushing and his relative Samuel C. Harvey, who was a director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1936, were responsible for replacing Winternitz with Stanhope Bayne-Jones]. Cushing also communicated with Lee, Higginson & Company between 1915 and 1932 [which his son-in-law Jock Whitney had joined in 1929], and with Brown, Shipley & Company and its successor, Brown Brothers Harriman, between 1920 and 1939.

Guide to the Harvey Cushing Papers / Yale University Library
Harvey Williams Cushing Papers / Yale University
Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Library / Yale University

Cushing was on the Medical Advisory Committee of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. Fellow IHR advisory committee member William Green was on its advisory committee. Parran, C.-E.A. Winslow, and Louis I. Dublin were on the Public Health Advisory Committee. Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, was a Committee member.

Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration

"A committee has been formed to make known, especially among alumni and close friends of the University, the work of Yale in medicine and public health, as headed by Dr. Harvey Cushing as general chairman and with Dean Stanhope Bayne-Jones [S&B 1910, of the first Surgeon General report on smoking] as chairman, and and Fuller F. Barnes of Bristol, Conn.; William McCormick Blair [S&B 1907] of Chicago, George Parmly Day and Thomas W. Farnam of Yale University, Dr. Norman E. Freeman of Philadelphia, Harry C. Knight of New Haven, Dr. Fred T. Murphy of Detroit, Professor C.E.A. Winslow of Yale University and Dr. Milton C. Winternitz of Yale University as members." Their new facilities included the ultracentrifuge. (Yale Will Expand Its Medical School. New York Times, May 14, 1939.)

(Harvey [Williams] Cushing, B.A. 1891. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1939-1940, pages 48-51.)

Yale Obituary Record 1939-1940 / Yale University Library (pdf, 317 pp)

William Darrach, Wolf's Head 1897

Dean of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. He was a graduate of Yale, and a correspondent of William H. Welch from 1919 to 1930. He suucceeded Samuel W. Lambert as Dean in 1919. (Col. Darrach Will Head College Here. New York Times, May 7, 1919.) Darrach retired as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia in 1930, but continued as a professor of surgery and consulting surgeon at Presbyterian Hospital. He was a former president of the board of managers at the Sloane Hospital for Women and the Vanderbilt Clinic, and associate editor of the Archives of Surgery from 1923-46.

Darrach, William (1876-1948) / Sociedad Columbiana de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia
William Darrach / College of Physicians and Surgeons Obituary Database

Darrach was on the board of directors of Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement, along with fellow IHR advisory committee member James H. Perkins; Charles Evans Hughes and Edwin R.A. Seligman were longtime correspondents of Wald.

Lillian Wald Papers, 1895-1936 / Microformguides.com (pdf, 73pp)

Darrach graduated from Yale in 1897, where he was a member of Wolf's Head, and attended the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, from 1897-1901. He was a physician and surgeon in New York City and on the staff of Columbia University from 1903 to 1948. (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1947-1948, pages 39-41.)

Yale Obituary Record 1947-1948 / Yale University Library (pdf, 254 pp)

John W. Davis

Partner of the law firm of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed, with fellow IHR advisor Frank Lyon Polk. Davis joined the firm of Stetson, Jennings & Russell in 1920 after the death of partner Frederic Beach Jennings, who had been general counsel to the Associated Press. (Davis to Practice Here. New York Times, Oct. 16, 1920.) Senior partner Francis Lynde Stetson, who died later that year, had been personal counsel to the J.P. Morgans, Senior and Junior. (Francis L. Stetson, Lawyer, Dies At 74. New York Times, Dec. 6, 1920.) Another partner, Lansing P. Reed, was a director of the Guaranty Trust Company of New York since 1924, and Davis joined him there five years later.

In 1929, Davis was elected President and a Director of the Council on Foreign Relations. Fellow IHR advisory board member Owen Young of General Electric was also elected a director; and Charles E. Hughes and Lansing P. Reed were elected to resident membership, along with Sosthenes Bene of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, of which Reed and three other Guaranty Trust directors were also directors; and Joseph R. Swan, S&B 1902, the president of the Guaranty Company of New York, and a director of the Guaranty Trust. (Foreign Council Elects. New York Times, Dec. 14, 1929.) In 1930, he was a director of A.T.&T. (A.T. & T.'s Banking Directorate. New York Times, Aug. 24, 1930.) GE and I.T.&T. made numerous payments to the Nazis during the Second World War.

Davis was Ambassador to Great Britain, 1918-21; a US Representative (D-WV) from 1911 to 1913; and the Democratic candidate for president in 1924 who lost to Coolidge and Dawes. His campaign advisor was Frank Polk.

John William Davis Biographical Information / US Congress

Robert Weeks de Forest, Yale 1870

President of the Russell Sage Foundation. De Forest was a Yale classmate of William H. Welch; in 1913, de Forest and fellow IHR advisory board members Frankel, Mayo, and Welch helped found the Life Extension Institute.

John Dewey

Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University

John Dewey (1859-1952) / American Culture Studies, Bowling Green State University

Haven Emerson

"In 1915, when heart disease for the first time surpassed tuberculosis as New York City's leading cause of death... Drs. Lewis A. Conner, Robert H. Halsey, John Wyckoff, Haven Emerson, and a few colleagues" established the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease, which later became the New York Heart Association." (To the American Heart Association on its 40th Anniversary. New York Heart Association 1963-64 Annual Report.)

New York Heart Association 1963-64 Annual Report / tobacco document

Professor of Public Health, Columbia University, 1922-39.

Deans of the School of Public Health, 1921-2003 / Columbia University

In 1923, Emerson was a member of the Executive Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society), and was a member of its Board of Directors in 1936. In 1926, fellow IHR advisory committee members S. Parkes Cadman, Henry Sloane Coffin, Charles Evans Hughes, and Owen D. Young were on the ASCC General Committee.

ASCC, 1936 / tobacco document

Emerson was a member of the New York City Board of Health in 1935-36. Members of its Medical Advisory Board included James Ewing and Simon Flexner.

New York City Department of Health, 1935 / Brooklyn Genealogy Info.com

In 1942, Emerson was a member of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, of which Mary Woodard Lasker was involved as Secretary and Vice President; on the Executive Committee and Board of Directors; and as Chairman of the Fund Raising Committee. Fellow IHR Advisory Committee member Henry Sloane Coffin was also a member.

His brother, William Emerson, married an aunt of Ogden White, of White, Weld & Co.

John Huston Finley

Associate Editor of The New York Times. In 1898, Finley was elected a director of the McCormick Theological Seminary, replacing the deceased Thomas S. Ridgway. His fellow directors included Marvin Hughitt, president of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad and funder of Zionist W.E. Blackstone; Albert Keep, who replaced the deceased Henry W. King; both were directors of the Commercial National Bank of Chicago, of which Franklin MacVeagh, S&B 1862, was president; and Harold F. McCormick, who succeeded his brother, Cyrus McCormick. (Young Clergymen Graduate. Chicago Daily Tribune, May 6, 1898.) "At age twenty-nine he became the president of Knox College, in Galesburg, Illinois. Finley's former teacher from Johns Hopkins, Woodrow Wilson, invited him to teach politics at Princeton University. In 1903, through the intercession of his Princeton neighbor, Grover Cleveland, Finley became president of the City College of New York," then educational commissioner of New York in 1913. (Picture History.com)

John Huston Finley / Picture History.com
City College Presidents / City College of New York

"Throughout the 1920s and 30s, after Finley had left academia to assume an editorial post with the New York Times... Finley was possibly the single most central figure in virtually all of the east coast philanthropic world, the ear and voice of the Times on the interest of foundations. He was one of those figures whose public anonymity contrasts sharply with his position in the worlds he influenced, even controlled without ever seeming to blow a whistle, appear in a front page photograph, let alone a headline, or warrant a decent biography until well after his death... it was to Finley leaders in the foundation world would appeal when they wanted support from the Times, or, indeed, any other advice about projects they were considering." (The Philanthropic Foundation: Ambiguities of an Inherently Urban Institution. By Barry Karl.)

Karl / Rockefeller Archive (pdf, 26pp)

John H. Finley Jr. was professor of Greek history at Harvard. John H. Finley 3d graduated from Harvard in 1958, and Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. James R. Houghton was an usher at his wedding [and Finley was an usher at Houghton's wedding]. (Margot Gerrity Is Married in Boston. New York Times, Jan. 12, 1959.)

Lee K. Frankel

Vice President of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. In 1913, Frankel and fellow IHR advisory board members de Forest, Mayo and Welch helped found the Life Extension Institute.

Bishop James E. Freeman

Episcopal Diocese of Washington, DC, 1909-1923. Freeman delivered the invocation at the dedication of the National Research Council, April 28, 1924. Vernon Kellogg, Thomas Hunt Morgan, William H. Welch, and officers of the Carnegie Corporation and Rockefeller Foundation were there. (The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963. By Rexmond C. Cochrane. National Academy of Sciences, 1978.)

The National Academy of Sciences / National Academy Press

Charles W. Gilkey

Chaplain of the University of Chicago. Gilkey was minister of Hyde Park Union Church until 1928, when he became Dean of Rockefeller Chapel. (A Brief History of Hyde Park Union Church.) He was an instructor in homiletics at McCormick Theological Seminary and Garrett Biblical Institute, and a member of the board of Union Theological Seminary. (The Protestant Picture, by W. Carl Ketcherside. Restoration Movement Pages, Memorial University of Newfoundland.)

A Brief History of Hyde Park Union Church / Hyde Park Union Church
Ketcherside / Memorial University of Newfoundland

William Green

President of the American Federation of Labor, 1924-1952.

William Green (1873-1952) / AFL-CIO

Green was a member of the Advisory Committee of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934. Fellow IHR advisory committee member Harvey Cushing was on the Medical Advisory Committee, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. Parran, C.-E.A. Winslow, and Louis I. Dublin were on the Public Health Advisory Committee. Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, was a Committee member.

Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration

Green was a member of President Eisenhower's Arden House group of policy-makers.

Arthur T. Hadley, Skull & Bones 1876

President of Yale University, 1899-1921. His father, James Hadley, was a professor of Greek at Yale. After graduating, he studied in Berlin, then worked as a freelance writer for the Railroad Gazette. He published a book on railway management in 1885, and became a professor of political science at Yale. He was the first Dean of the Graduate School from 1892-1895. (Old Yale: Getting Yale on the Right Track. By Judith Ann Schiff. Yale Alumni Magazine, Nov. 1999.) He is famous for getting his foot stuck in a wastebasket during a lecture, and for being buried in full Samurai battle dress. (Samurais and falling plaster: 100 years of weird Yale. By Orianne Dutka. Yale Herald, 2000.) Hadley and Edwin A. Alderman were also trustees of the Institute for Government Research of the Brookings Institution between 1915 and 1925.

Schiff / Yale Alumni Magazine
Dutka / Yale Herald
Brookings Institution Archives 1987 / Brookings Institution

Mrs. Hadley was Helen Harrison Morris, daughter of Luzon Morris (S&B 1854), and sister of Ray Morris (S&B 1901). (Arthur Twining Hadley, B.A. 1876. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1929-1930, pages 53-58.) Ray Morris was the first treasurer of the American Heart Association's predecessor, the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease.

Yale Obituary Record 1929-1930 / Yale University Library (pdf, 398 pp)

In 1910, Hadley was a member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, co-founded by Johns Hopkins psychiatrist and fellow IHR advisory committee member Adolf Meyer. Other future IHR advisory committee members were Jane Addams, Edwin A. Alderman, Lewellys F. Barker, Adolf Meyer, and William H. Welch; and James R. Angell's father, James B. Angell; plus assorted Bonesmen and other allies.

Beers / Disability Museum

Arthur Hadley's sons, Morris and Hamilton, joined Skull & Bones in 1916 and 1919, respectively. Morris Hadley was a Fellow of the Yale Corporation in 1942, as were IHR advisory committee members Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, Thomas Walter Swan, and Thomas Day Thacher, along with Henry W. Taft's nephew, Robert Alphonso Taft. Fred Towsley Murphy was a former Fellow, and Mark Arthur May was still IHR Director.

Hadley / Hadley Family US
Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

Morris Hadley was elected president of the Russell Sage Foundation in 1944. R.W. de Forest's son, Johnston de Forest, and Harry W. Chase, Chancellor of New York University, were fellow trustees. (Russell Sage Foundation Elects a New President. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1944.) He was a partner of Millbank, Hope & Hadley, also a trustee of the Yale Corporation with his classmate, fellow trustee Charles D. Dickey, a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust. (2 Trustees at Yale Retire. New York Times, Jul 30, 1962.) Morris Hadley's son, Arthur T. Hadley 2d, married Mary Hill, daughter of the late President of the American Tobacco Company, George Washington Hill. (Mary Hill Is Wed to A.T. Hadley 2d. New York Times, Dec. 19, 1948.)

John Hays Hammond, Book and Snake 1876

Hammond graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School in 1876 and was a member of Book and Snake. "Attended Royal School of Mines, Freiberg, Germany, 1876-79; special expert, U.S. Geological Survey 1879-80; mining expert with office in San Francisco 1881-82; superintendent Minas Nuevas, near Sonora, Mexico, 1882-83; consulting engineer, mining department Union Iron Works, San Francisco, 1884-93; and Central Pacific Railway and Southern Pacific Railway; consulting engineer for Barnato Brothers in Transvaal, South Africa, April-October 1893, for Cecil Rhodes 1894-99, for Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa 1894-99, British South Africa Comapny 1894-99, and Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company 1898-99; had independent office as consulting engineer in London, England, 1896-1900; consulting engineer El Oro gold mines in Mexico 1900; general manager and consulting engineer Guggenheim Exploration Company 1903-07; engaged in mining engineering and the purchase and promotion of mines, hydroelectric, and irrigation projects since 1907; chairman Engineers Exploration & Mining Corporation since 1933; professor of mining engineering at Yale 1902-09; chairman United States Coal Commission 1922-23." (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of the Yale University Deceased during the Year 1935-1936, pages 131-132.)

Yale Obituary Record 1935-1936 / Yale University Library (pdf, 278 pp)

Hammond, John Hays 1855-1936. As children, Taft and Hammond spent summer vactions together at Murray Bay, Canada, and as adults, they had summer homes near each other at Gloucester, Mass. "It is under that he receives $500,000 a year from the Guggenheims to pick out paying mines for them." (The Most Intimate Friends of President Taft. By E.J. Edwards. New York Times, May 29, 1910.) He was a speechwriter in behalf of the Republican Party from 1893-1934, and Special Ambassador and representative of President William Howard Taft to the coronation of George V of Great Britain. (Guide to the John Hays Hammond, Sr. Papers. Yale University Library.)

John Hays Hammond, Sr. Papers / Yale University Library (pdf, 8pp)
Hammond bio / Sacklunch.net
John Hays Hammond / The Hammond-Harwood House

John Hays Hammond was executor of the will of George Crocker, the youngest son of California railroad magnate Charles Crocker. Crocker left a fund of about $1.5 million called the "'George Crocker Special Research Fund,' the income from which is to be applied in the proecution of researches as to the cause, prevention, and cure of cancer,'" to the Trustees of Columbia University. His previous gifts to Columbia were put in the hands of Dr. Lambert, Dr. Joseph A. Blake, Dr. Frank Wood, C.N. Calkins, and Dr. William J. Cies. Crocker and his wife both died of cancer. (Crocker Millions for Cancer Cure. New York Times, Dec. 8, 1909.)

Mrs. John Hays Hammond was a prominent socialite in Washington, DC, whose crowd included Mrs. Richard H. Townsend, Mrs. Robert McCormick, her sister, and her granddaughter, Mrs. Robert W. Patterson, and Countess Cyzleki, Mme. Christian Hauge, widow of the former Minister of Norway to the United States, Miss Mabel Boardman, Mrs. Robert Hitt, Mrs. Marshall Field, Mrs. Henry C. Corbin and her sisters, the Misses Patten, Mrs. Hope Slater, Mrs. Stephen B. Elkins, Mrs. Billy Hitt, formerly Katherine Elkins, Miss Mary Sherrill, Mrs. Thomas F. Bayard, Mrs. Hennen Jennings, Mrs. James McMillan, Mrs. Preston Gibson, Mrs. Thomas F. Walsh and her daughter, Mrs. Edward Beale McLean, Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, Mrs. Mary McCallum, and others. (New Social Bosses of the Nation's Capital. By Mary E. Noyes. Los Angeles Times, Nov. 23, 1913.)

Robert F. Herrick

Robert Frederick Herrick, Lawyer, Boston. He was an Overseer of Harvard University in 1920 , when the Harvard School of Public Health was established. Mrs. Robert F. Herrick of Boston was a sister of Robert Forbes Perkins, and a daughter of Charles Elliott Perkins of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. [And a cousin of James H. Perkins of the IHR.] (Robert F. Perkins, Retired Broker, 72. New York Times, Feb. 21, 1938.)

E. Kent Hubbard

Elijah Kent Hubbard, President of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut since 1918, was born in Chicago in 1869, but was almost a lifetime resident of Middletown, Conn. He was the son of Elijah Kent Hubbard and Anna Jones Dyer Hubbard [Chicago pioneers]. (Elijah K. Hubbard, Industrial Figure. New York Times, Aug. 8, 1941.) He was a favorite nephew of Mrs. Hugh T. Dickey, widow of the Illinois judge of the Brown Brothers family, who left $5,000 each to him and another favorite nephew, Reginald De Koven. (Will of Mrs. Hugh T. Dickey. New York Times, Nov. 4, 1900.) His son, Otis Livingston Hubbard, Wolf's Head 1924, was engaged to Florence Addington. He was with the firm of Wilson Brothers in Chicago. (Miss Addington Betrothed. New York Times, Nov. 10, 1926.) His brother, Elisha Dyer Hubbard, married Muriel McCormick, daughter of Harold McCormick and granddaughter of John D. Rockefeller. (Muriel M'Cormick Wed in a Garden. New York Times, Sep. 11, 1931.) His brother, Louis De Koven Hubbard, was a textile manufacturer. (Louis DeK. Hubbard. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1934.) His daughter, Helen Kent Hubbard, married Washington Dodge 2d, Skull & Bones 1929, and divorced him a few years later. (Other Weddings. New York Times, Aug. 11, 1932; Mrs. Dodge Sues at Reno. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1939.) His son, Chauncey Keep Hubbard, Scroll & Key 1929, married Virginia Drake, daughter of James Frank Drake, president of the Gulf Oil Company. He was with the Mellon National Bank in Pittsburgh. Paul Mellon, Henry Wilmerding, Horace Moorehead Jr., and James C. Brady Jr., all Scroll & Key 1929; Leonard Mudge [Wolf's Head 1929], and Richard Goss were among the ushers. George Wycoff [S&K 1929] was best man. (Sixty Men Tapped For Yale Societies. New York Times, May 18, 1928; Drake-Hubbard. New York Times, Aug. 25, 1935; Elaborate Bridal for Miss Drake. New York Times, Dec. 24, 1935.) Mrs. E. Kent Hubbard was Helen Keep Otis. She died while the Hubbards were visiting Florida as guests of John H. Goss, president of the Scovill Manufacturing Company of Waterbury. (Mrs. E. Kent Hubbard, Civic Leader, Is Dead. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1941.) Goss succeeded him as the head of the Connecticut Manufacturers Association.

Charles Evans Hughes

Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948) was Governor of New York 1906-1910; appointed Supreme Court Justice by William Howard Taft, 1910-1916, resigned to run for president against Woodrow Wilson; Secretary of State in the Harding adminsitration, 1921-25; appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover, 1930-41. He won his renown as counsel for the New York State Insurance Investigating Committee in 1904-05.

Charles Evans Hughes / FindLaw
Charles Evans Hughes / Michael Ariens.com

Prior to his appointment to the Supreme Court, Hughes was a corporate lawyer for the city transit and utility trusts. His alleged integrity was based on being "extremely careful of the proprieties.. sticking to the letter and dismissing the spirit" of the law. (Ch. 18, The Supreme Court Under Chief Justice White (continued). In: History of the Supreme Court of the United States, by Gustavus Myers. Chicago, 1910.)

History of the Supreme Court, Ch. 18 / Yamaguchy

In 1926, Hughes was on the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society), along with fellow IHR advisory committee members S. Parkes Cadman, Henry Sloane Coffin, and Owen D. Young; and Haven Emerson was on its Executive Committe and Board of Directors in 1923 and 1936.

Hughes was a Vice President of the American National Red Cross in 1945. Mabel T. Boardman was Honorary Secretary. Harry L. Hopkins was a member of the Central Committee; Basil O'Connor was Chairman, and Louis I. Dublin his Assistant. James L. Fieser was Vice Chairman at Large. Mrs. Archibald MacLeish, whose husband was a member of Skull & Bones 1915, was Director of Camp and Hospital Services, and E. Roland Harriman, S&B 1917, was Manager, North Atlantic Area.

Hughes and fellow IHR advisory committee member Edwin R.A. Seligman were longtime correspondents of Lillian Wald, and William Darrach and James H. Perkins were on the board of directors of the Henry Street Settlement.

Lillian Wald Papers, 1895-1936 / Microformguides.com (pdf, 73pp)

Robert Maynard Hutchins

Hutchins was Dean of the Yale Law School. In 1923, Hutchins, Angell and Winternitz were primary advocates for establishing the IHR. Later, he was President of the University of Chicago while Albert D. Lasker was a trustee. Hutchins was associate director of the Ford Foundation (with Lasker's old pal, Paul G. Hoffman), and later president of its Fund for the Republic; and Chairman of the Board and a director of Encyclopedia Britannica from 1943 to 1974. With his former classmate at Yale, William Benton, he roped Chicago-area businessmen into the University of Chicago's "Great Books Seminars."

Burrow, Ch. 5 / Yale School of Medicine (pdf, 44pp)

Vernon Kellogg

Vernon Kellogg was Secretary of the National Research Council; also, former Professor of Entomology at Stanford University.

James H. Kirkland

Chancellor of Vanderbilt University, 1893-1937. He received his PhD at the University of Leipzig, then, "With the help of colleagues he met during his German studies, he landed a job teaching Latin at Vanderbilt in 1886." "One of his major triumphs was the relocation of the School of Medicine to the main campus and the construction of a facility in 1925 to join under one roof the medical school's laboratories and its teaching hospital. In order to build that facility, the Chancellor led a drive to raise more than $5 million, an immense sum at the time. The Rockefeller Foundation and the General Education Board also provided funding to built the full-time, research-oriented medical school dedicated to specialized scientific research and public health outreach." Kirkland was a close friend of Abraham Flexner of the General Education Board.

James H. Kirkland / Vanderbilt University
Abraham Flexner / Vanderbilt University Medical College

Chancellor Kirkland, Daniel Coit Gilman, Wickliffe Rose, and Wallace Buttrick, Secretary of the General Education Board, were "conspirators" who got Peabody College for Teachers, to be funded from George Peabody's 1867 will, for Vanderbilt rather than the University of Nashville. "Secrecy, and sometimes deceit, was a deliberate part of their strategy." (Peabody College: From a Frontier Academy to the Frontiers of Teaching and Learning. By P.K. Conkin. Peabody Journal of Education 2002;78(1):68-90.)

Conklin / Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (pdf, 23pp)

Julius Klein

Assistant Secretary of Commerce. "He was a professor at Harvard when he was chosen to serve as chief of the Latin-American Division of the Department of Commerce in 1917. He was Assistant Secretary of Commerce from 1929 to 1933, under President Herbert Hoover." From 1920 to 1928, he was director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. He founded the economic consultant firm of Klein-Saks in Washington, D.C., and directed various government economic missions to Peru between 1949 and 1955, and later to Chile and Guatemala. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1933. (Dr. Julius Klein, An Economist, 74. New York Times, Jun. 16, 1961.) He was born in San Jose, Cal. in 1886. (Today in History. Frederick Daily News, Jun. 27, 1927.) He conducted a survey of the merchandising business of United Cigar Stores Company and its subsidiary, the retail Chemists Corporation, formerly the Whelan Drug Company, on behalf of the Irving Trust Company, the trustee in bankruptcy for the companies. (Cigar Stores Get Klein for Survey. New York Times, Dec. 30, 1932.) His analysis showed that United Cigar had never made a profit on its cigar business, not considering its real estate and other ventures. (Referee Rejects Offer for Whelan. New York Times, Feb. 4, 1934.) He was a director of Foreign Bond Associates Inc., whose fiscal agent was the Distributors Group Inc. (New Company to Invest in Foreign Bonds; Will Issue Self-Liquidating Debentures. New York Times, Nov. 2, 1933.) On behalf of the Chase National Bank as trustee for the bondholders of the Liggett Building Inc., he opposed the property's acquistition by the United Drug Company. (Trustee Opposes Bid for Liggett Co. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1933.) Klein was proposed as a director of the Paramount Publix Corp. (Paramount Publix Set to Reorganize. New York Times, Dec. 28, 1934.) He was an administrator of the estate of theatrical producer Abraham L. Erlanger. (Long Fight Ended on Erlanger Will. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1935.) Julien M. Saks was his business partner in Klein & Saks. (Klein & Saks to Open Office. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1935.)

David Lawrence

Founder (1926) and Editor of The United States Daily, Washington. In 1946, he founded The World Report, then merged them two years later into US News and World Report. Lawrence also founded the Bureau of National Affairs, which reports on the massive activities of the US Government, which he sold to its most senior editors after World War II.

David Lawrence (1888-1973) / The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, George Washington University
The BNA Story / BNA

Investors in the $1,000,000 corporation which launched the US Daily included fellow IHR advisory board members Owen D. Young, Charles Evans Hughes, Frank L. Polk, John Hays Hammond, and John W. Davis. Albert D. Lasker, The University of Chicago, Col. E.M. House, and the Brookings Institution were also involved. Lawrence owned the controlling interest. U.S. Daily Ends 7 Years of Life. New York Times, May 7, 1933.)

Walter Lippmann

Editor of the New York World

Graham Lusk

Professor of physiology, Cornell University. "Graham Lusk (1866-1932) Educated at Columbia University and Munich, Germany, with Carl Voit. Held positions at Yale University, University and Bellevue Medical College. Research on diabetes and energy metabolism, including the specific dynamic action of protein. Author of major textbook, 'The Science of Nutrition' and the history 'Nutrition' in the Clio Medica series." (American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Vanderbilt Medical College.) He was a founder of the American Institute of Nutrition in 1928.

Graham Lusk / Vanderbilt Medical College

Lusk was also a co-founder, with William H. Welch and Harvey W. Cushing, of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine in 1903; and the Harvey Society, with James Ewing and Simon Flexner, in 1905.

Samuel James Meltzer obit / Society for Experimental Biology
History / The Harvey Society

He was the son of Dr. William T. Lusk, Yale 1859, and father of William Thompson Lusk, Skull & Bones 1924. His brother was Dr. William Chittenden Lusk, Yale 1890, a surgeon in New York City from 1895-1927. (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1934-1935, pp. 65-66.) William T. Lusk and seven other members of Bones 1924 or their wives were guests at the pre-marital dinner for their classmate, Charles Dewey Hilles Jr. (C.D. Hilleses Give Dinner. New York Times, Mar. 16, 1929.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University 1934-1935 / Yale University Library (pdf, 260 pp)

Graham Lusk was married to Mary Woodbridge Tiffany, daughter of Louis Comfort Tiffany of the Tiffany lamps, and his first wife. Tiffany designed a window for the Garrett home in Baltimore. (Artistry in Glass: The Undisputed Master, Our Oyster Bay Neighbor [Louis Comfort Tiffany]. By Judith A. Spinzia. The Freeholder 1990, 1997.) Lusk was an usher at the 1890 wedding of Baron Hugh Colin Gustave George Halkett of Hanover, a partner of the Rothschilds in London, to Sarah Phelps Stokes, daughter of Anson Phelps Stokes and granddaughter of Isaac N. Phelps of the Central Trust. His son William T. Lusk was the president of the Tiffany Company. (William T. Lusk Dies, Ex-Head of Tiffany. New York Times, Mar. 6, 1976.)

Spinzia / The Freeholder

Bishop William T. Manning

New York. William Thomas Manning (1866-1949) was born in Southampton, England. He was rector of Trinity Parish, New York from 1908-1921, and Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of New York, 1921-46.

William Thomas Manning / Bartleby.com

Manning was an ex officio trustee of Columbia University from 1908-1946.

Columbia Trustees Elected in the Butler Era, 1901-1945 / Barnard College, Columbia University

Julian S. Mason

Editor of the New York Evening Post. An individual by that name was a member of the Kipling Club at Yale University. The club was founded by Payne Whitney in 1895. (Kipling's ties to the United States detailed in Beinecke exhibit. Yale Bulletin and Calendar, Oct. ?, 1997.)

Kipling's ties / Yale University

William J. Mayo

Rochester, Minnesota. William J. Mayo (1861-1939) and his brother Charles H. Mayo (1865-1939) were founders of the Mayo Clinic. William J. Mayo graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1883. In 1913, Mayo and fellow IHR advisory board members de Forest, Frankel, and Welch helped found the Life Extension Institute. "Chronic irritation is the most important condition which predisposes tissue to cancerous growths, accoridng to a paper read by Dr. William J. Mayo of Rochester, Minn., President of the American Surgical Association... The peculiar cancer which attacks the mouths of natives of India, Dr. Mayo said, was due to the irritation set up by the juice opf the betel not which they chew. Cancer of the groin, for another illustration, was almost entirely confined to sailors and chimney sweeps. Cancer of the stomach, he said, formed one-third of the cases among civilized peoples, but was less frequent among savages and animals... Dr. Mayo seemed inclined to blame the prevalence of cancer, however, more on the quantity of food eaten by people in civilized countries than on its quality. He said that, accepting the theory that cancer is caused by irritation in the great majority of cases, and because of the fact that cancer of the stomach is the most prevalent form, the logical conclusion is that overeating is the principal cause of the disease. Meat, when eaten in too large quantities, he said was a greater irritant than other forms of food." He read the the paper during a convention preceding the International Congress of Surgeons. (Chronic Irritation A Cause of Cancer. New York Times, Apr. 10, 1914.)

History / Mayo Clinic

In 1928, the American Public Health Association appointed a committee of prominent physicians to form a cancer clinic in Chicago to serve the midwest. They were Dr. Herman Bundesen, president of the American Public Health Association; Dr. Frank Billings; Dr. L.L. McArthur, Dr. Frank Morton, Dr. H. Gideon Wells, Dr. J.E. Tuite, Dr. Ludwig Hektoen, Surgeon General Hugh S. Cumming, and Dr. William A. Pusey. They were appointed by a committee composed of Dr. Charles Mayo, Dr. Joseph C. Bloodgood, professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University; Dr. William Carpenter McCarty, pathologist, Mayo Clinic; Gen. Cumming; Dr. Maude Slye, associate professor of pathology, University of Chicago; and Dr. George A. Soper, managing director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer. "They declared heredity a dominating factor in cancer," along with some platitudes about education. (Cancer Experts Marshall Forces to Halt Disease. Chicago Daily Tibune, Oct. 18, 1928.)

Bishop Francis J. McConnell

New York. McConnell was a Methodist bishop who belonged to leftist groups such as the Foundation for Moral and Religious Leadership, along with fellow IHR advisory committee members Jane Addams and John Dewey. (FBI Kept a Close Eye on Chapman Catt, by David McCartney. Charles City Press, July 10, 1999.) He was a leader of the Methodist Federation for Social Service from its founding in 1907 to 1944.

McCartney / Carrie Lane Chapman Catt Childhood Home Restoration Project
Francis John McConnell (1871-1953) Papers / DePauw University

Adolph Meyer

Professor of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University. "Adolph Meyer was born in Niederweningen, Switzerland, and received an extensive medical education in neurology in Zurich, obtaining his M.D. in 1892. He emigrated to the United States in the same year. Beginning in 1893, Meyer worked for several hospitals, including a state hospital in Kankakee, Illinois, as a pathologist, and the New York State Hospital Service Pathological Institute, where he was involved with the training of psychiatrists. Meyer later joined the faculty of Cornell Medical College in New York City, where he served as professor of psychiatry. In 1909 G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924), a prominent psychologist and student of William James, invited Meyer to Clark College in Worcester, Massachusetts, on the occasion of the college's twentieth anniversary, where he met with Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. In the following year Meyer was appointed professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Universary and director of its Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic,..." (Meyer, Adolf (1866-1950). Cartage.org)

Meyer, Adolf (1866-1950) / Cartage
Guide to the Adolf Meyer Collection / Johns Hopkins Medical Archives

Meyer helped edit Clifford Whittingham Beers's autobiography, A Mind That Found Itself," (toning down criticism of doctors and demanding more funding instead), and was a co-founder of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. In 1910, its members included future IHR advisory committee members Jane Addams, Edwin A. Alderman, Lewellys F. Barker, Arthur T. Hadley, Adolf Meyer, and William H. Welch; James R. Angell's father, James B. Angell; assorted Bonesmen: Otto T. Bannard, S&B 1876, President of New York Trust Co. and Vice President of the Charity Organization of the City of New York under Robert W. de Forest; mathematical economist Irving Fisher, S&B 1888; Gifford Pinchot, S&B 1889; prep school founder Sherman Day Thacher, S&B 1883; Yale Secretary Anson Phelps Stokes, S&B 1896; plus financier Major Henry L. Higginson (whose wife was Ida Agassiz); and Stanford President David Starr Jordan.

Beers / Disability Museum

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology

Fred T. Murphy

Murphy was "A wealthy Detroit physician and a [Yale] Corporation Fellow," who had reviewed the Yale School of Medicine in 1921.

Burrow, Ch. 5 / Yale School of Medicine (pdf, 44pp)

Fred T. Murphy was the nephew of William H. Murphy, a lumber dealer who had been a financial backer of Henry Ford's Detroit Automobile Co. (1899) and Henry Ford Automobile Co. (1901). As a director of the Lincoln Motor Company, Fred succeeded in "driv[ing] it into the open arms of Henry Ford." (Ch. 2 The Leland Lincolns, in Lincoln and Continental Classic Motor Cars - The Early Years, by Marvin E. Arnold; and The Rise of Detroit, by John Chamberlain.)

Arnold / Story Domain
Chamberlain / Antique Automobile Club of America

In 1920, there were rumors that Murphy might succeed Arthur T. Hadley as president of Yale. The Yale Corporation's Committee on the Presidency included John V. Farwell; New York lawyer Samuel H. Fisher [Samuel Herbert Fisher, S&B 1889], the chairman; Edwin M. Herr, president of the Westinghouse Company of Pittsburgh; Henry B. Sargent and Rev. Mr. Newman Smyth of New Haven, Conn. The sixth member was not named. (Dr. Murphy to Head Yale? The New York Times, Dec. 6, 1920.) Murphy was a director of the Maxwell Motor Corporation, which later became the Chrysler Corporation, along with Walter P. Chrysler, James C. Brady, and Jules S. Bache. (Maxwell Motor Election. New York Times, June 3, 1921.)

Murphy was a member of the committee, headed by Harvey Cushing, to expand cancer research at Yale. (Yale Will Expand Its Medical School. New York Times, May 14, 1939.) In 1942, Fred Towsley Murphy was a former Fellow of the Yale Corporation. IHR advisory committee members Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, Thomas Walter Swan, and Thomas Day Thacher were current Fellows, along with Arthur Hadley's son, Morris, and Henry W. Taft's nephew, Robert Alphonso Taft; and Mark Arthur May was still IHR Director.

Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

Murphy graduated from Yale in 1897 and was a member of Scroll & Key. He graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1901, and held various surgical positions there and at Massachusetts General Hospital until 1911; then moved to Washington University (St. Louis) School of Medicine. He retired in 1919 and returned to his home town of Grosse Point, Mich., to head the Murphy Family Trusts and the Simon J. Murphy Co., real estate. He was a trustee of Phillips Academy (Andover) from 1908 to 1948, and Harper Hospital, Detroit, 1920-48. He was a fellow of the Yale Corporation from 1919 to 1940. "Dr. Murphy established and endowed the William H. Carmalt Professorship of Surgery in the Yale School of Medicine. The Fred T. Murphy Fund, established by his son from the estate, is for endowment of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene." (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1947-1948, pages 43-44.)

Yale Obituary Record 1947-1948 / Yale University Library (pdf, 254 pp)

"A rare 15th-century Jewish manuscript stolen from the Rothschild family by the Nazis during World War II has been found in Yale University's Beinecke rare books library, library officials said today. The manuscript is a Haggadah, or Passover prayer book, which has been valued at $150,000. It will be sent to Hebrew University in Israel, in accordance with the wishes of the late Baron Edmond de Rothschild, university officials said. The Manuscript was bequeathed to Yale by Dr. Fred Towsley Murphy, an 1897 graduate of Yale college, who died in 1948. How the Haggadah got from Germany and into the possession of Dr. Murphy, a physician and financier, is not known... 'There is still a lot of mystery about the ownership,' Miss Hurwitz said. 'Murphy was not a collector of Jewish manuscripts, and his heirs do not know how he acquired the Haggadah." (Rare Manuscript Stolen by Nazis Is Found at Yale. Special to The New York Times, Oct. 5, 1980.)

William A. Neilson

President of Smith College. Neilson was Associate Professor of English Literature at Bryn Mawr (under JHU feminist financier M. Carey Thomas), 1898-1901; Professor of English at Harvard, 1906-17; and President of Smith College from 1917 to 1939. He was on the Board of Directors of numerous liberal organizations such as the NAACP and ACLU.

William Allan Neilson Personal Papers / Five College Archives & Manuscript Collections
William Allan Neilson Presidential Papers / Five College Archives & Manuscript Collections

A member of Skull & Bones made it onto the first Board of Trustees of Smith College, 1870: William Barrett Washburn, S&B 1844, former governor of Massachusetts; also compulsory schooling advocate Rev. Birdsey Grant Northrop of New Haven, Connecticut, Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Education and former member of the Massachusetts Board of Education. (Chapter 1, The Beginnings. In: Smith College: The First Seventy Years, by William A. Neilson. Unpublished typescript, ca. 1946.)

Neilson / Five College Archives & Manuscript Collections

Adolph S. Ochs

Publisher of The New York Times, 1896-1935.

The New York Times Masthead, 1988 / tobacco document
Adolph Simon Ochs bio / Tennessee History

John Barton Payne

"John Barton Payne, who was born in Pruntytown [West Virginia] on January 26, 1855, served as mayor of Kingwood and as a circuit court judge in Tucker County before moving to Chicago at the age of 28. He became one of the most prominent railroad lawyers in the Midwest and, as Director General of Railroads in 1918, Payne was instrumental in the government's takeover of rail lines after the U.S. entered World War I. He served one year as Wilson's Secretary of the Interior before becoming Chairman of the American Red Cross [1921], a post he held until his death in 1935." (Time Trail, West Virginia, Jan. 1998. West Virginia Archives and History.) He was judge of the Superior Court of Cook County, Illinois, from 1893 to 1898, and practiced law with the firm of Winston, Payne, Strawn & Shaw in Chicago from 1902 to 1917. (American President.org)

Time Trail, West Virginia, Jan. 1998 / West Virginia Archives and History
Secretary of the Interior: John B. Payne / American President.org
John Barton Payne / Red Cross International

Payne succeeded Edward N. Hurley as Chairman of the Shipping Board in 1919. They served during the massive Hog Island plunder of US taxpayers (The Saga of Hog Island, 1917-1921: The Story of the First Great War Boondoggle, by James J. Martin.) Payne was succeeded in 1920 by Adm. William S. Benson, the retired Chief of Naval Operations who had commanded the Philadelphia Navy Yard; and from July 16, 1921 to 1923, Albert D. Lasker chaired during the great media softpedaling of the corruption.

Martin / Blancmange.net

James H. Perkins

James Handasyd Perkins was President of the Farmers Loan and Trust Company of New York, which became a big stockholder in the American Tobacco Company in the 1920s. His great-grandfather was the youngest brother of the founders of J. & T. Perkins & Co., and his grandfather, James Handasyd Perkins, had been a crony of Alphonso Taft, the co-founder of Skull & Bones, in Cincinnati. His cousin was Mrs. Robert F. Herrick of the IHR.

Frank L. Polk, Scroll & Key 1894

Frank Lyon Polk was a partner of the law firm of Davis, Polk, Lansing, Wardwell & Reed of New York City.

George E. Roberts

Vice President of the National City Bank, New York. Roberts was a newspaper publisher in Fort Dodge, Iowa, until he was appointed Director of the U.S. Mint from Feb. 1898 to July 1907.

Directors of the United States Mint: 1792 - Present / U.S. Mint

Edward A. Ross

Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin. "Ross attended Coe College, Iowa, where he was graduated with the A.B. degree in 1886. During 1888-89 he studied at the University of Berlin, and in 1891 he received his PhD degree at Johns Hopkins." His teacher at Hopkins was Richard T. Ely, who in 1906 "called" him to the chair of sociology at the University of Wisconsin. (Edward Alsworth Ross: Sociological Pioneer and Interpreter. By J.O. Hertzler. American Sociological Review 1951 Oct;16(5):597-613.) He was the source of the infamous quote that the job of schools is gathering "little plastic lumps of human dough and shaping them on the social kneadingboard, " in his 1901 book, "Social Control."

Edward A. Ross (1866-1951) Obituary / American Sociological Society (pdf, 18pp)

Edwin R.A. Seligman

Professor of Economics, Columbia University. "An American convert to German Historicism, E.R.A. Seligman's institutional and historical approach to public finance led him to become one of the foremost authorities on taxation in economics... This Columbia economist was, together with his more radical comrade-in-methodology, Richard T. Ely, one of the founders of the American Economic Association (AEA)... Seligman was one of the founders and organizers of the early New School for Social Research."

Edwin R.A. Seligman 1861-1939 / New School for Economics

According to G. Stanley Hall's "Confessions," after returning from his first trip to Germany in 1871, he became a tutor for the Seligman banking family in New York. (America's Secret Establishment. An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones, by Antony C. Sutton. Liberty House, 1986.) Seligman was a nephew of New York banker Jesse Seligman.

Seligman / Jewish Encyclopedia.com

Seligman was "identified with the early activities" of the University Settlement in New York City, which was founded in 1886 by Stanton Coit. Like Jane Addams's Hull House, it was inspired by Toynbee Hall in London. Other early activists included Carl Schurz, Mrs. Henry Villard, and Jacob H. Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, who all had ties with the Northern Pacific Railroad; and fellow IHR advisory committee members James R. Sheffield and Henry W. Taft. (Original Settlement Has An Anniversary. The New York Times, Jan. 23, 1927, p. XX9.) Coit was a native of Columbus, Ohio who got his PhD in philosophy at the University of Berlin in 1885.

Seligman was a correspondent of a large number of fellow IHR advisory committee members, including Jane Addams, James Rowland Angell, Franz Boas, R.W. de Forest, John Dewey, John H. Finley, Arthur Twining Hadley, Charles Evans Hughes, Walter Lippmann, William Thomas Manning, Adolph S. Ochs, Frank Lyon Polk, Albert Shaw, and Ray Lyman Wilbur. He wa also a correspondent of Jacob Henry Schiff, Gerard Swope, M. Carey Thomas, Lillian D. Wald, and Andrew Dickson White.

Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman (1861-1939) Papers / Columbia University

Seligman and fellow IHR advisory committee member Charles Evans Hughes were longtime correspondents of Lillian Wald, and William Darrach and James H. Perkins were on the board of directors of the Henry Street Settlement.

Lillian Wald Papers, 1895-1936 / Microformguides.com (pdf, 73pp)

Albert Shaw

Editor of The American Review of Reviews. "Albert Shaw, journalist, was born at Shandon, Ohio, July 23, 1857. He came to Iowa when a young man, entering Iowa College at Grinnell where he graduated in 1879. He first entered upon journalism by securing an interest in the Grinnell Herald but still continued his studies under Professor Macy, giving special attention to constitutional history and economic science. In 1881 he entered Johns Hopkins University as a graduate student, and while there attracted the notice of James Bryce who was preparing his "American Commonwealth," and availed himself of Mr. Shaw's knowledge of western political and social conditions. In 1883 Mr. Shaw secured a position on the Minneapolis Tribune but returned to Johns Hopkins taking the degree of Ph.D. He then resumed work on the Tribune. While pursuing his studies he wrote a book called "Icaria; A Chapter in the History of Communism," which became his thesis, was translated and published in Germany where it won the author an enviable reputation. After spending two years in study in Europe he gave lectures at Cornell, Johns Hopkins, and Michigan Universities. In 1891 he was invited to establish the American Review of Reviews of which he has since been the editor... Dr. Shaw is a member of the American Economic Association, American Antiquarian Society, a fellow of the American Statistical Society and the New York Academy of Political Science..." (History of Iowa Vol. IV, by Prof. Benjamin F. Gue. New York City, 1903.)

Shaw bio / Iowa History Project

The American Review of Reviews had been founded by British journalist William Thomas Stead, who retained a financial interest after Shaw took over. "The will of Cecil Rhodes impressed everybody with its marks of originality and imagination; it is not so generally known that the ideas were in large measure Stead's, though it is on record that Rhodes intended at one time to appoint Stead his sole trustee." (The Sinking of the Titanic - Some Notable Victims: Mr. W.T. Stead's Career. The Times, April 18, 1912.)

The Sinking of the Titanic / The W.T. Stead Resource Site

James R. Sheffield, Scroll & Key 1887

James Rockwell Sheffield (1864-1938) - Lawyer, New York City. "Mr. Sheffield was born in Dubuque, Iowa, Aug. 13, 1884, the son of Frederick William Hotchkiss and Sarah Kellogg Sheffield. A descendant of English and Scottish ancestors who settled in Connecticut and Massachusetts in the seventeenth century, he and his family were associated with Yale University for many generations. Mr. Sheffield's great-great-great-grandfather was in 1703 the second graduate of Yale College." His family moved to Utica, NY when he was a boy, and he graduated from Yale in 1887. "He then entered Harvard Law School and became the private secretary to United States Senator William B. Allison of Iowa. At the same time he served as assistant clerk on the Senate Committee on Appropriations and Finance." He completed his law clerkship with the firm of Sherman Evarts, S&B 1881. He joined the New York law firm of Betts, Atterbury, Hyde & Betts in 1893. He was a NY delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1916, 1920, and 1924, and the US Ambassador to Mexico from 1924-27. He was a director of the Radio Corporation of America. (James Sheffield, Ex-Envoy, Is Dead. New York Times, Sep. 3, 1938.) He was a trustee of Presbyterian Hospital and the Trudeau Sanatorium, both from 1912 to 1938. (James Rockwell Sheffield, B.A. 1887. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1938-1939, pages 55-56.)

Obituary Record 1938-1939 / Yale University Library (pdf, 329 pp)

James R. Sheffield was "identified with the early activities" of the University Settlement in New York City, which was founded in 1886 by Stanton Coit. Like Jane Addams's Hull House, it was inspired by Toynbee Hall in London. Other early activists included Carl Schurz, Mrs. Henry Villard, and Jacob H. Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, who all had ties with the Northern Pacific Railroad; and fellow IHR advisory committee members Edwin R.A. Seligman and Henry W. Taft. (Original Settlement Has An Anniversary. The New York Times, Jan. 23, 1927, p. XX9.) He was one of the organizers of the Yale Alumni Association, which later became the Yale Club of New York (My Memories of Eighty Years, by Chauncey M. Depew.)

Depew, Ch. 28 / World Wide School

Sheffield represented the "Marconi and other wireless interests," which blamed amateur radio operators for garbled communications during the Titanic sinking, at a White House conference aimed at regulation of radio. The alternative of using official channels and ignoring scuttlebutt was not of interest. (President moves to stop mob rule of wireless. New York Herald, April 17, 1912.)

President Moves to Stop Mob Rule of Wireless / Early Radio History

His son, Frederick Sheffield, joined Bethuel M. Webster to form the law firm of Webster, Sheffield, et al., general counsel to Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. James Rockwell Sheffield, S&B 1959, was James R. Sheffield's grandson.

Thomas W. Swan

Judge of the United States District Court, New York. Swan was Dean of the Yale Law School from 1916 to 1927; former President William Howard Taft was on its faculty. He was succeeded by Robert Maynard Hutchins.

The Study of Law at Yale University / Yale University

In 1942, Thomas Walter Swan and IHR advisory committee members Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin and Thomas Day Thacher were current Fellows of the Yale Corporation, along with Arthur Hadley's son, Morris, and Henry W. Taft's nephew, Robert Alphonso Taft; and Fred Towsley Murphy was a former Fellow.

Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

Henry Waters Taft, Skull & Bones 1880

Lawyer, New York City. He was a partner of Cadwalader, Wickersham and Taft, the oldest continuously operating law firm in New York City, since 1889. His son, Walbridge S. Taft, Yale 1907, was also a partner. "The firm's client list includes members of New York's foremost families such as the Astors, Belmonts, Whitneys, and Vanderbilts." (Cadwalader, Wickersham and Taft Donate Historical Records to Yale University Library. Yale News Release, Sep. 20, 2000.) Henry W. Taft died in 1945. David S. Ingalls, S&B 1920, was his grandnephew. (Henry Waters Taft, B.A. 1880. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1945-1946, pages 7-8.) Ingalls was an usher at the wedding of Henry R. Luce, S&B 1920, the founder of Time Inc.

Yale News Release, Sep. 20, 2000 / YaleUniversity
Obituary Record 1945-1946 / Yale University Library (pdf, 268 pp)

Henry Waters Taft was the son of Skull & Bones co-founder Alphonso Taft (S&B 1833); brother of Pres. William Howard Taft (S&B 1878) and Horace Dutton Taft (S&B 1883); half-brother of Peter Rawson Taft (S&B 1867); and uncle of Ohio Sen. Robert Alphonso Taft (S&B 1910), Charles Phelps Taft (S&B 1918), and Helen Taft, Dean of Bryn Mawr College. The Taft family has a long history of political activism.

Taft Family / The Political Graveyard

Taft was "identified with the early activities" of the University Settlement in New York City, which was founded in 1886 by Stanton Coit. Like Jane Addams's Hull House, it was inspired by Toynbee Hall in London. Other early activists included Carl Schurz, Mrs. Henry Villard, and Jacob H. Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Company, who all had ties with the Northern Pacific Railroad; and fellow IHR advisory committee members Edwin R.A. Seligman and James R. Sheffield. (Original Settlement Has An Anniversary. The New York Times, Jan. 23, 1927, p. XX9.) Coit was a native of Columbus, Ohio who got his PhD in philosophy at the University of Berlin in 1885.

Taft was the attorney for the Providence and Stonington Steamship Company, which was sued for assault by a passenger who was beaten up by stewards for lighting a cigar after dinner, and then locked in a cell in the hold overnight. (Passenger's Lively Trip. New York Times, Apr. 12, 1903.) In April 1917, Taft was a member of the Executive Committee of the American Relief Clearing House, along with C.A. Coffin, the chairman of General Electric.

American Relief Clearing House April Bulletin, 1917 / The World War I Document Archive, Brigham Young University

Taft was an attorney for the appellee in McAlister v. Henkel, 201 U.S. 90 (1906), in which William H. McAlister, secretary and a director of American Tobacco Company, "refused to answer or produce the documents" demanded by the U.S. Marshall; and in a related case, Hale v. Henkel, involving MacAndrews & Forbes Company.

McAlister v. Henkel, 1906 / FindLaw
Hale v. Henkel, 1906 / FindLaw

Mr. and Mrs. Taft and Walbridge S. Taft were guests at the wedding of Mary, daughter of Benjamin N. Duke of the American Tobacco Co., to A.J. Drexel Biddle. ($500,000 in Gifts At Biddle Wedding. New York Times, Jun. 17, 1915.) He was active in fundraisers for the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1926. (Cancer Fund Gains $90,000 in Campaign. New York Times, Sep. 28, 1926; $100,000 Offered For Cancer Cure. New York Times, Dec. 16, 1926.)

Walbridge S. Taft

His son, Walbridge Smith Taft, Yale 1907, was a member of Elihu. He practiced in his father's office until 1913, practiced independently to 1915, partner Parks, McKinstry, Taft 1915-17, then Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft until his death in 1951. He married Elizabeth Clark of Detroit in 1923. (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased during the Year 1950-1951, pp. 63-64.) He and his father were guests at the wedding of Mary, daughter of Benjamin N. Duke of the American Tobacco Co., to A.J. Drexel Biddle. ($500,000 in Gifts At Biddle Wedding. New York Times, Jun. 17, 1915), and he was an usher of William J. Sturgis at his marriage to Thomas B. Yuille's daughter Ellen. (Miss Ellen Yuille Weds W.J. Sturgis. New York Times, Nov. 18, 1915.) Taft's first marriage was to Helen Draper, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George A. Draper of Boston. His brother, William Howard Taft 2d, was best man. Ushers included William J. Sturgis, Lee J. Perrin [S&B 1906], Arthur P. McKinstrey, James Watson Webb, Angier B. Duke, Theodore P. Dixon, Reese Alsop, and James Jackson Higginson, all of New York. (Walbridge S. Taft Weds Miss Draper. New York Times, Feb. 11, 1917.)

Obituary Record 1950-1951 / Yale University Library (pdf, 160 pp)

William H. Taft 2d

Willliam Howard Taft 2d, Yale 1909, was subscription manager of The New York Times from 1923 to 1929. He was associated with securities brokers Taylor, Bates & Co. from 1929 to 1934. He was vice president of the Central Savings Bank 1934-36, and assistant treasurer, assistant vice president and secretary of the Bank for Savings. He married Marguerite Temple O'Neill of Pittsburgh in 1917. (Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased during the Year 1951-1952, pp. 79-80.)

Obituary Record 1951-1952 / Yale University Library (pdf, 215 pp)

Ida M. Tarbell

Author. Her "History of the Standard Oil Company" was written with the cooperation of Henry Rogers of Standard Oil. (Big Business and the Muck-Rakers, 1900-1910. Morgen Witzel, 2002.)

Witzel, 2002 / Thoemmes Continuum
Ida Tarbell Homepage / Allegheny College

Lewis M. Terman

Professor of Psychology, Leland Stanford University, 1921-1956. Inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ test. One of the "intellectually gifted" students that he studied was Ancel Keys, director of the Seven Countries Study.

Lewis Madison Terman (1877-1956) / J.A. Plucker, Indiana University
Lewis Madison Terman Papers / Online Archive of California

Terman's son, Frederick Emmons Terman, was an instructor at Stanford University from 1925, and was Dean of the School of Engineering from the end of World War II until 1958. He encouraged Stanford graduates William Hewlett and David Packard to start their companies in the Palo Alto area, and persuaded the University to create the Stanford Industrial Park.

Thomas Day Thacher, Skull & Bones 1904

Assistant U.S. Attorney, 1909-10; Major in American Red Cross during First World War; Judge of the United States District Court, Southern District of New York, 1925-1930. Thacher was Solicitor General of the United States, 1930-33; Corporation Counsel of New York City, 1943; and Judge of the New York State Court of Appeals, 1943-48. He was a Fellow of the Yale Corporation from 1931 to 1949. He was an honorary member of the board of directors of the Commonwealth Fund, a director of the William Boyce Thompson Institute, and a former trustee of the Taft School. (Thomas Thacher, Noted Jurist, 69. New York Times, Nov. 13, 1950; Thacher, Thomas Day (1881-1950). Federal Judicial Center.) Thacher's former assistant when he was Solicitor General, Francis H. Horan, became general counsel of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.

Thacher, Thomas Day (1881-1950) / Federal Judicial Center

He was the son of Thomas Thacher (S&B 1871), who began his career with his father-in-law, Judge Ashbel Green, in Alexander & Green, then founded Simpson, Thacher & Barnum in 1884 with John W. Simpson and William M. Barnum (S&B 1877), one of whose partners was Reeve Schley, Wolf's Head 1903; and the grandson of Yale professor of Latin, Thomas Anthony Thacher, S&B 1835, and had Yale ancestors dating back to 1756. (Thomas Thacher. Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 1385; Thomas Day Thacher. Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pages 54-55)

Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 1385 / Internet Archive
Obituary Record 1950-1951 / Yale University Library (pdf, 160 pp )

Thacher was a member of the American Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917, which was headed by Frank Billings. "Poor Mr. Billings believed he was in charge of a scientific mission for the relief of Russia... He was in reality nothing but a mask -- the Red Cross complexion of the mission was nothing but a mask," admitted Cornelius Kelleher, assistant to William Boyce Thompson, head of the US Federal Reserve Bank, who funded the charade. The seven medical members of the mission, including Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, quit and returned to the US. Other participants included George W. Hill, President of the American Tobacco Company; James W. Andrews, then the auditor of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.; and Harry L. Hopkins, who was assistant to the general manager of the Red Cross in Washington, DC. (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton. Chapter V - The American Red Cross Mission in Russia - 1917.)

Ch. V - Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution / Reformed-Theology

In 1942, Thacher and IHR advisory committee members Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin and Thomas Walter Swan were current Fellows of the Yale Corporation, along with Arthur Hadley's son, Morris, and Henry W. Taft's nephew, Robert Alphonso Taft; and Fred Towsley Murphy was a former Fellow.

Yale Daily News - Spring Vacation 1942 / Yale University

John Q. Tilson, Yale 1891

Republican US Representative from Connecticut, 1909-1913 and 1915-1932. He graduated from Yale University in 1891, and its law school in 1893.

John Quillin Tilson (1866-1958) / US Congress

John H. Trumbull

John Harper Trumbull (1873-1961) was the governor of the U.S. state of Connecticut from 1925 to 1931. His daughter, Florence, was married to John Coolidge, the son of President (1923-29) Calvin Coolidge. Frederic C. Walcott was one of the guests invited to their wedding. (Kitchen Shower Given for Florence Trumbull. New York Times, Sep. 10, 1929.)

In 1926, Trumbull was Chairman of the Board of Colonial Airlines. Juan Trippe was General Manager, and Harris Whittemore was Vice President and Assistant Treasurer. The company, combined with others, later became American Airlines. (Air Transportation and the Development of Aviation in Connecticut, by Harvey Lippincott, 1977. The New England Air Museum.)

Lippincott / The New England Air Museum

Frederic Collin Walcott, Skull & Bones 1891

United States Senator from Connecticut (Republican), 1929-1935; member of the advisory committee of the Yale Welfare Group from 1920-1948. "Engaged in father's business [New York Mills Cotton Cloth Mfg Co.] 1892-1907... investment banker and manufacturer in New York City 1907-15 and director and officer in many corporations until 1922; vice president Knickerbocker Trust Company 1907-9; partner William Bonbright & Company 1909-18, representative Rockefeller Foundation to investigate conditions in Belgium and Poland 1915-16." He was the son of William H. Welch's sister, Emiline Collin Welch. His first wife, Frances Dana, was the daughter of John D. Archbold. His son was William Stuart Walcott, S&B 1894, and William W. Kellogg, S&B 1939, was a nephew. (Frederic Collin Walcott, B.A. 1891. Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1948-1949, pages 21-22; Sub-series XIV/D: Biographical material on Welch: Flexner's lists, index cards, clippings, other memorabilia. Johns Hopkins Medical Archives.)

Obituary Record 1948-1949 / Yale University Library (pdf, 186 pp)
Biographical material on Welch / Johns Hopkins Medical Archives

Skeptical of claims that an all-meat diet was healthy, in 1918 Walcott introduced Arctic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson to future anti-smoking study author Raymond Pearl, who was then with the FDA. In 1926, Pearl chaired a committee of the Russell Sage Institute of Pathology to investigate. They persuaded the Institute of American Meat Packers to fund a year-long study of Stefansson and another subject at Bellevue Hospital. Graham Lusk was one of the investigators. (Adventures in Diet Part 2. By V. Stefansson. Harper's Monthly Magazine, Dec. 1935.)

Stefansson, 1935 / Bible Life Ministries

Starling W. Childs [1891] of Pittsburgh was best man at his wedding to Frances Archbold. His brother Arthur Walcott, John T. Archbold, Norman Williams, and William Phillips Graves, S&B 1891, of Boston were ushers. (Walcott-Archbold. New York Times, Feb. 15, 1899.) She died in Japan on their honeymoon. (Death List of a Day. New York Times, June 21, 1899.) Walcott, Starling Childs, and other members of the class of '91, Edward S. Harkness '97, and Charles A. Coffin of General Electric were involved in setting aside acreage from the Ray Tompkins [S&B 1884] Memorial tract for a nature preserve.The Dean of the Yale Forestry School was Henry S. Graves, presumably the father of S&B 1892. (Yale Establishes Wildlife Preserve. New York Times, Oct. 12, 1925.) A group of senators stayed at a house at 2300 S Street that Walcott leased from Herbert Hoover during 1928-31. They included Walter Evans Edge, Hiram Bingham of Conn., David Aiken Reed of Penn., and George H. Moss of N.H. "The factotum of the senator's establishment is a manservant who worked for Mr. Hoover and Mr. Walcott when they lived together years ago, and who was with President Hoover a dozen years before he became president." (Senator Edge Joins Summer Bachelor Unit. Washington Post, Jun. 19, 1929.) "That particular block of S street contains the homes of some of Washinton's most distinguished families. On the other side of Senator and Mrs. Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Miller have a magnificent home and further down the block are Mr. and Mrs. Frederic Delano, Mr. and Mrs. George Hewitt Myers and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson. Senator and Mrs. Frederic C. Walcott now occupy the former home of President and Mrs. Hoover." Assistant Secretary of State William R. Castle built their home beside the Reed's. (Reeds Moving Into Their New S Street Home. Washington Post, Nov. 19, 1930.)

Walcott was a trustee of the Carnegie Institution from 1931 to 1948, and his fellow IHR advisory board member, John J. Carty, was a trustee from 1916 to 1932. Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was its first president from 1902 to 1904, and a trustee until 1908; Andrew D. White (S&B 1853) was a trustee from 1902 to 1916; William H. Welch (S&B 1870) from 1906 to 1934; John S. Billings from 1902-1913; and Simon Flexner from 1913-1914. Later trustees include Edward E. David, Hanna H. Gray, and J. Irwin Miller.

Carnegie Institution Yearbook 1999-2000 / Carnegie Institution (pdf, 4pp)

In 1937, Walcott was the first chairman of the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, established by Alice S. Coffin, the daughter Charles A. Coffin of General Electric, and his friend, Starling W. Childs. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, S&B 1910 and Dean of the Yale School of Medicine, was the first chairman of its Board of Scientific Advisors. The board of managers of the fund were Frederic C. Walcott, chairman; Starling W. Childs '91; George P. Day '97; Christie P. Hamilton, treasurer; Albert H. Baclay '91, vice chairman; S. Winston Childs Jr. '27, secretary; Edward C. Childs '28; Richard S. Childs '32; and President Seymour, ex officio. Bayne-Jones declared that "The resources of this foundation will be devoted primarily to research into the causes and origins of cancer. Some provision is made for the study of the treatment of cancer, but therapeutic investigations are to be regarded as adjuncts to research into causes." The fund had about $4 million. (Yale Widens Scope of Medical School. New York Times, Oct. 10, 1937.)

About the Fund / The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, Yale University

His son, Alexander G. Walcott, Yale 1932, was "engaged in special medical research work in Boston" when he engaged to marry Catherine B.S. Dominick, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William F. Dominick. (Dominick-Walcott. New York Times, May 13, 1937.) Walcott's work in Belgium and Poland was under President Herbert Hoover, and he was Hoover's aide when Hoover became food administrator in World War I. As a US Senator, he was principal author of the Reconstruction and Finance Corporation bill. He also administered relief in Spain in 1938. (F.C. Walcott, 80, Ex-Senator, Dies. New York Times, Apr. 28, 1949.)

Ray Lyman Wilbur

Ray Lyman Wilbur was Secretary of the Interior, 1929-33, and President of Stanford University, 1916-1943.

Owen D. Young

Chairman of the Board of the General Electric Company, New York. "As we probe into behind-the-scenes German interwar history and the story of Hitler and Nazism, we find both Owen D. Young and Gerard Swope of General Electric tied to the rise of Hitlerism and the suppression of German democracy... In 1928, at the Young Plan reparations meetings, we find General Electric President Owen D. Young in the chair as the chief U.S. delegate, appointed by the US government to use U.S. government power and prestige to decide international financial matters enhancing Wall Street and General Electric profits. In 1930 Owen D. Young, after whom the Young Plan for German reparationswas named, became chairman of the Board of the General Electric Company in New York City. Young was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Radio Corporation of America and a director of both German General Electric (A.E.G.) and Osram in Germany. Young also served on the boards of other major U.S. corporations, including General Motors, NBC, and RKO; he was a councilor of the National Industrial Conference Board, a director of the International Chamber of Commerce, and deputy chairman of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

"Gerard Swope was president and director of General Electric Company as well as French and German associated companies, including A.E.G. and Osram in Germany. Swope was also a director of RCA, NBC, and the National City Bank of New York... From 1915 onward International General Electric (I.G.E.), located at 120 Broadway in New York City, acted as the foreign investment, manufacturing, and selling organization for the General Electric Company." (Chapter Three. General Electric Funds Hitler. In: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, by Antony C. Sutton.)

Sutton, Ch3, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler / Reformed-Theology

"After his graduation from law school in 1896, Young joined the Boston law office of Charles H. Tyler and within a few years became a partner. He handled much litigation for the electrical engineering firm of Stone & Webster and eventually came to the attention of Charles A. Coffin, the first president of General Electric. One morning in 1913, Coffin asked to see him. Young told his wife he expected to be 'spanked' because he had recently inflicted a legal defeat upon General Electric. Instead, Coffin invited him to become the Company's Chief Counsel and Vice President in Charge of Policy." In 1919, he created the Radio Corporation of America, and served as RCA's chairman of the board until 1929. "The GE Board of Directors elected him President of the Company in 1922. Later in 1922 Young succeeded Coffin as Chairman of the Board of General Electric, while Gerard Swope was elected President of the Company. They remained in these roles until 1939, when they both asked for retirement... In 1942 when Philip D. Reed resigned as Chairman of the Board to help administer the Lend-Lease Program and to become Chief of the U.S. Mission for Economic Affairs in London, Owen D. Young returned as Chairman of the Board of GE. He remained as Chairman of the Board until 1945, when Philip D. Reed resigned from his government position and was again elected Chairman of the Board." (Owen D. Young, Chairman, 1922-1939, 1942-1945. General Electric.)

Owen D. Young bio / General Electric

Thomas N. Perkins, brother of IHR advisory board member James H. Perkins, accompanied Young to Argentina in order to consolidate the radio operations of the Radio Corporation of America with those of the English Marconi Company, the French Compagnie de Telegraphie Sans Fil and the German Telefunken. (Big Radio Concerns to Use One Station. New York Times, Mar. 24, 1922.)

In 1926, Young was on the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society), along with fellow IHR advisory committee members S. Parkes Cadman, Henry Sloane Coffin, and Charles Evans Hughes; and Haven Emerson was on its Executive Committee and Board of Directors in 1923 and 1936.

Gerard Swope started out as a helper at GE in 1893; graduated from M.I.T. with a BS in electrical engineering, then joined Western Electric in Chicago. "Four years later, he went to St. Louis as manager of the Western Electric office, and in 1906 was transferred to Chicago. He went to New York as general sales manager two years later. In 1913, Swope was named a vice president and a director. Four years later, he visited the Orient, organizing a Chinese Western Electric Company... He was brought to General Electric in 1919 by Charles A. Coffin, then president. When the foreign departmnt of GE was enlarged that year into a new organization, the International General Electric Company, Swope became its first president. He was elected president of General Electric in May, 1922." (Gerard Swope, President, 1922-1940, 1942-1945. General Electric.)

Gerard Swope bio / General Electric

Swope was a resident of Jane Addams's Hull-House, 1897-98. He was the brother of Herbert Bayard Swope of the New York World. He met his wife-to-be, Mary Dayton Hill, the daughter of Harvard President Thomas Hill, at Hull-House. Jane Addams attended their wedding in 1901. Mary's roommate, Dr. Alice Hamilton, was later a health consultant for GE. "[A]s an advocate of social reform he believed that a worker's social welfare was most secure when disseminated from the top-down by socially responsible corporate leaders." "Swope maintained a relationship with Hull-House and Addams into the 1930s." (The Men of Hull-House: An Overlooked Aspect of Settlement Life, by Thomas Perrin. In: Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963. University of Illinois at Chicago.)

Perrin / University of Illinois at Chicago

The Lewis Thorne Murder

In 1950, assistant psychiatrist Lewis Thorne (Yale 1931) was shot to death by Theodore A. Trent-Lyon, Yale 1943. "Throughout his four years at Yale Trent-Lyon held a scholarship and was graduated with honors. In 1942, he delivered a lecture before a university club entitled "Rational Altruism, a New Theory of Morals." "In January, 1943, he planned to do graduate work at Yale in philosophy and theology and eventually to enter the ministry, Yale sources said. He transferred to the Harvard Divinity School, however, where for a time he was president of the student body. He took a bachelor's degree in theology at Harvard in 1945 but never entered the ministry." "Charles Russman, assistant superintendent of the Middletown State Hospital, said that while at his institution, between February, 1946, and September, 1948, Trent-Lyon had undergone a pre-frontal lobotomy, an operation to relieve mental stress [sic], and that before admission at Middletown he had been treated at the Institute of Human Relations here." (Scholar Is Seized As Yale Murderer. New York Times, Oct. 10, 1950.) Trent-Lyon's attorney, David E. Fitzgerald, Jr., "told newsmen that the 27-year-old student recalls on an earlier visit to Dr. Thorne that the psychiatrist blew cigaret smoke in his face." (Denies He Killed Yale Psychiatrist. The News, Newcastle, Penn., Oct. 11, 1950.) Mrs. Helen Thorne, who was wounded, was the daughter of Reuben Morris Ellis, the late president of Philip Morris & Co. (Yale Professor Slain, Wife Shot In Home by an 'Insane' Intruder. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1950.)

Lewis Thorne was the son of Samuel Thorne, Yale 1896, and the nephew of Edwin Thorne of the Central Trust. (Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, page 93.) Edwin Thorne was a great grandfather of David Hoadley Thorne, S&B 1966, who was the campaign advisor of John Forbes Kerry, S&B 1966, and his twin sister, Julia Stimson Thorne, who is Kerry's ex-wife.

Obituary Record 1950-1951 / Yale University Library (pdf, 160 pp)

His father graduated from Yale in 1896 and Harvard Law School in 1899. He was a member of Delafield, Thorne, Rogers & Howe. "As a layman in the Protestant Episcopal Church, he served many times as a delegate to its General Convention. He was particularly interested in foreign missions and founded the Church Army in the United States. He was a board member of the American University in Cairo, St. Luke's Hospital in Tokyo and Yale-in-China." (Samuel Thorne, 89, A Retired Lawyer. New York Times, Oct. 5, 1963.) His mother was the daughter of Arthur and Emeline Lewis Cheney of Boston. His brothers and sisters included Samuel Jr., Ward C., Arthur, Peter B., James N. and Emeline L. Thorne. (Mrs. Samuel Thorne. New York Times, Apr. 29, 1937.) Peter Brinckerhoff Thorne, Skull & Bones 1940, was killed in a car crash. Samuel Brinckerhoff Thorne, Skull & Bones 1896, was his father's cousin, who died in 1930. His father was then a director of the Church Pension Fund of the Protestant Episcopal Church, of which J.P. Morgan was treasurer. (Auto Crash Kills Thorne, Yale Senior; Family and Kin Noted in College Annals. New York Times, Dec. 1, 1939.) His sister, Emeline Lewis Thorne, married Robert Vance Brawley. Her sister-in-law, Mrs. Lewis Thorne, and Brawley's cousin, Mrs. Gordon Gray, were matrons of honor. (Emeline Thorne Becomes Bride. New York Times, Feb. 5, 1939.) Gordon Gray was the son of Bowman Gray, chairman of the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.

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cast 11-12-14