The anti-smoking conspiracy began over a century ago. Skull & Bones members ring-led the creation of the American Tobacco Trust, to gather all the companies under anti-smoker control. But they knew that they couldn't just take over the tobacco companies and shut them down, because others would simply enter the field. So, they also created and built up enemies to persecute tobacco, particlarly the American Cancer Society, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the American Heart Association, and used these as proxies to create and control the federal health establishment (the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute, et al.) to manufacture fraudulent pseudo-science to deceive the public at taxpayer expense. The anti-smoker-controlled tobacco companies merely put up a phony pretense of fighting the anti-smoker-controlled "health" lobbies, and purposely throw lawsuits (that is, to those brought by the "right" plaintiffs) in order to financially intimidate potential entrants away from the tobacco industry.
In January 1899, the majority of stock of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. was sold to Mr. Butler of the Union Tobacco Company by Moses C. Wetmore, Charles E. Halliwell, Samuel T. McCormick, Mrs. Claude Kilpatrick, Mrs. John Fowler, and Mrs. John E. Liggett for $6.5 million cash. Wetmore was to continue as president and general manager for five years, and George S. Myers kept his shares. (Big Tobacco Deal. Morning Oregonian, Feb. 5, 1899. A.A. Housman & Co. attached the trustees of the will of John E. Liggett for $277,200 in commissions on the sale of 550½ shares of stock of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company to George P. Butler. Claude Kilpatrick, John Fowler, and Mitchell Scott were the trustees. "The Sheriff served the attachment upon the Central Trust Company." (The Liggitt [sic] and Myers Sale. New York Times, Apr.22, 1899.)
Caleb Conley Dula (1864-1930) was President of Liggett & Meyers
Tobacco Co. from 1911-1927, then Chairman until 1930. He joined the
Drummond Tobacco Co. in 1886, and after it was bought by the American
Tobacco Co., he joined the Continental Tobacco Co., a subsidiary of
American. Dula was a close friend of James B. Duke, and in 1927, Dula
added $200,000 to the Duke Endowment Fund at Duke University. Dula was
on the board of directors of the Guaranty
Trust from 1916 until 1930. (Caleb C. Dula Dies; Tobacco Financier.
New York Times, Dec. 26, 1930.) Dula's stockholdings included 2,176
George W. Helme Co. common, $167,824; 40,620 Liggett & Myers common
$3,269,910; 49,320 Liggett & Myers common B $4,019,580; 2,313 R.J.
Reynolds Tobacco Co. common $94,977; 1,400 U.S. Tobacco Co. common,
$83,300; 500 Congress Cigar $11,000; and 300 General Cigar $9,825. He
also had 2,057 shares of the Guaranty Trust Company, of which he was a
director, $871,179, and a cash deposit there of $1,006,672. He had a
joint brokerage with T.B. Yuille,
and was a founder of the Hudson River Country Club with his neighbor,
Col. William Boyce Thompson. He left it all to his widow. (C.C. Dula's
Estate Worth $14,831,387. New York Times, Mar. 24, 1934.) In 1916, Dula
and other tobacco officials and bankers were guests at a dinner given
by Thomas F. Ryan at his Fifth
Avenue home. (Thomas F. Ryan Is Host. New York Times, Feb. 18, 1916.)
C.C. Dula was
a director of the P. Lorillard Tobacco Company
in 1901. Clinton
W. Toms succeeded him as president of L&M.
brother, Robert B. Dula
(1847-1926), started the tobacco firm of Carr & Dula in Missouri
shortly after the Civil War. He became associated with the Drummond Tobacco Co. and
headed it from 1886 to 1898, when it was sold to the
American Tobacco Company. In 1903, he became a Vice President of
American, and, when this company was broken up in 1911, he continued as
a director of Liggett & Myers. (R.B. Dula, Pioneer in Tobacco,
Dead. New York Times, Apr. 28, 1926.) He married Josephine Carr. Their
son, Grover Carr Dula, went to Andover. He was with the American Cigar
Company until 1912, when he moved to Richmond and established the
Westmoreland Candy Company. Robert L. Dula was another son.
(Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, Edited by Lyon Gardiner Tyler,
Robert B. Dula's daughter, Flora, married William Block Dean, Yale 1896, in 1907. He was a bond salesman with G.H. Walker & Co. 1901-1915 and a partner from 1915 to 1940. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1940-1941, p. 191.)Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1940-1941 / Yale University Library (pdf, 290 pp.)
Mrs. Caleb C. Dula was the aunt of Mrs. Orrin Sage Wightman, M.D.,
who was a member of William Boyce Thompson's 1917 Red Cross Mission
to Russia. The Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company contributed
$50,000 to the mission through its various branches. James W. Andrews,
Liggett's auditor, was also a member of the mission.
Joseph C. Widmer, a director of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, died at age 74. He was born in Philadelphia and attended the University of Pennsylvania, but left to become a tobacco broker. Two years later he went to Pittsburgh. He became a manager of the Continental Tobacco Works, a branch of the American Tobacco Company in Louisville. He came to New York in 1901, and was employed in purchasing and manufacturing for American Tobacco and its subsidiaries, including the American Cigar Company and the Amsterdam Supply Company. He became a director of Liggett & Myers in 1911. Honorary pallbearers were to include fellow Liggett & Myers directors C.W. Toms, F.L. Fuller, Benjamin Carroll, W.W. Flowers, W.D. Carmichael, G.W. Whitaker, and J.W. Andrews. (Joseph C. Widmer, Tobacco Man, Dies. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1933.)
William Washington Flowers was chairman of the board of Liggett
& Myers Tobacco Company since 1936. He graduated from Trinity
College, now Duke University, in 1894, and took advanced studies at
Harvard and the University of Berlin. He was a German teacher at Duke
and superintendent of the Durham public schools, until 1900 when James
B. Duke asked him to become an executive of the American Tobacco
Company. He was with American Tobacco until 1911, when Liggett was
formed, where he became a vice president. His brother, Robert L.
Flowers, was president of Duke University. One of his pallbearers was
Dr. Lenox D. Baker. (Wm.
Flowers Dies; Tobacco Executive. New York Times, May 2, 1941.)
Clinton White Toms (~1869-1936) was born in Hertford, North
Carolina, and graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1889.
By 1894, he was Superintendent of Schools in Durham, NC. In 1897, James
B. Duke made him general manager of the American Tobacco Company's
works in Durham. He became executive vice president and a director of
the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company when it was organized after the
breakup of the Trust in 1911. In 1928, he succeeded Caleb C. Dula as
president. (C.W. Toms Dead; Tobacco Leader. New York Times, Aug. 30,
1936.) His sons Edgar S. Toms and Zach Toms were also with L&M.
Edgar S. Toms (~1899-1952) "His entire business career was spent
with the tobacco concern, first in Philadelphia and later at Durham,
where he became a director and general manager." (Edgar S. Toms. New
York Times, Mar. 24, 1952.)
Zach Toms (1901-1964) was born in Durham, N.C. He graduated from the
University of Virginia after an interruption for Army service in World
War I, and went on to the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce at the
University of Pennsylvania. He joined Liggett & Myers in 1922 in
Richmond, and became a factory superintendent and assistant factory
manager. He moved to its executive offices in New York in 1943 as
assistant to the vice president for manufacturing and leaf. In 1951, he
was vice president for export sales; executive vice president in 1959;
president in 1961; chief executive officer in 1963, and chairman in
1964. (Zach Toms Sr., Chief Officer Of Liggett & Myers, Dies at 63.
New York Times, Jul. 10, 1964.) He was a member of the Sevens Society
of the University of Richmond, which was founded "possibly" in 1905.
The names of 77 of its members who had died were revealed in 1957. "The
tolling of the University carillon - in seven mournful tones - lifts
the hood of secrecy long enough to proclaim a death among its members.
This, plus the unique arrangement of magnolia leaves and white flowers
atop the coffin, and the Society's sign by the obituary in the alumni
magazine are the only public recognition a member can receive." Besides
Toms, the list includes former Secretary of State Edward J. Stettinius
Jr., Adm. William F. Halsey, and Henry N. Taylor, a news correspondent
killed in the Congo. (Seven Society's Secret Still Secret. Washington
Post, Feb. 15, 1965.)
In 1935, Clinton W. Toms was the largest stockholder among officers and directors of Liggett & Myers, with 17,500 common and 1000 preferred. Other officers and directors: J.W. Andrews, vice president, 3800 common, 837 common B; W.D. Carmichael, vice president, 100 preferred, 1966 common, 334 common B; W.W. Flowers, 14,300 common, 60 common B; E.H. Thurston, 3000 common; G.W. Whitaker, 5 preferred, 7500 common; E.T. Noland, secretary, 5154 common; Ben Carroll, treasurer, 2426 common, 280 common B; C.B. Arthur, assistant treasurer, 124 preferred, 500 common, 726 common B; R.W. Frishell, branch manager, 100 common, 636 common B; D.F. Green, sales manager, 760 common, 843 common B; W.S. Tisdel, assistant treasurer, 2500 common, 20 common B; R.B. Fleming, assistant treasurer, 500 preferred, 252 common, 88 common B; E.S. Abbott, assistant auditor, 134 common B; H.E. White, 40 common B. (Toms Chief Holder in Liggett-Myers. New York Times, May 2, 1935.)
Bethuel M Webster Jr. graduated from Harvard Law School in 1924 and was an assistant to U.S. Attorney Emory R. Buckner (Buckner Picks 11 More Aids. New York Times, Feb. 23, 1926.) He was the son of Bethuel M. Webster, an attorney in Denver, Col. (Miss Eleanor Ashton Wilson to Be Married Today. Washington Post, Mar. 16, 1929.) He was general counsel of the Federal Radio Commission. (Radio License Held Not Transferable. New York Times, Jul. 24, 1929.) "Mr. Justice Brennan, in his concurring opinion in the Head case, 374 U.S. at 439, noted that: * * * As early as 1928, for example, the General Counsel of the Radio Commission held that abuses in network cigarette advertising — while not a sufficient basis for revocation proceedings against an individual licensee — might on renewal militate against the requisite finding of broadcasting in the 'public interest.'' The opinion also notes (n.15) that: 'Shortly after the issuance of the General Counsel's opinion, the Chairman of the Federal Radio Commission was asked by Senator Dill during his appearance before the Senate Commerce Committee whether he thought the Commission had sufficient power 'through its power of regulation and its determination of public interest to handle objectionable advertising?' The Chairman replied, 'I think so, Senator Dill, because we have had little trouble about it, even without direct power.' * * * Hearings before Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce on S. 6, 71st Cong., 1st sess., pt. 6, p. 230. See also Hearings before Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce on S. 6, 71st Cong., 1st and 2d sess., pp. 88-89. The particular complaint leading to the General Counsel's opinion charged, inter alia, that 'the object of this broadcasting is to transform 20 million adolescent boys and girls into confirmed cigarette addicts by creating a vast child market for cigarettes in the United States,' that '10 million boys throughout the country are being viciously and deliberately misled by paid testimonials, secured from professional athletes, football coaches and others, definitely suggesting the use of cigarettes as an aid to athletic prowess,' that 'the medical opinion of the country is being continuously misrepresented to support the health and medical claims made for cigarettes,' that the specific claims made for a particular brand of cigarette advertised on the air are overwhelmingly opposed by established health and medical facts,' and that "Such radio activities, the petitioner maintains, are clearly contrary to public interest, public welfare and public health.' Opinion No. 32, 1928-1929 Opinions of the General Counsel, Federal Radio Commission, 77, at 78 (Apr. 15, 1929.) General Counsel Bethuel M. Webster, Jr. concluded that the 'Commission may find, in view of this showing, that public interest, convenience, and necessity will not be served by further renewal of the licenses in question, in which case the matter will be set for hearing pursuant to section 11, and petitioner's prayer for general relief will be granted,' Id., at 82." (In: Federal Communications Communications Commission. Applicability of the Fairness Doctrine to Cigarette Advertising. Memorandum Opinion and Order. In the Matter of Television Station WCBS-TV, New York, N.Y., RM-1170; FCC 67-1029. Federal Register 1967 Sep. 15;32(179):13162-13174.)Fairness Doctrine, Federal Register Sep. 15, 1967 / tobacco document
Bethuel M. Webster was an usher at the wedding of Horace R. Lamb, a law partner of William J. Donovan and later a founder of LeBoeuf, Lamb & Leiby. Other ushers included Edward S. Pinney and U.S. Representative Lewis Williams Douglas, later president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company. (Mrs. Hoover Sees Miss Pitney Wed. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1930; Lamb-Pitney Rite Attended By First Lady. Washington Post, Feb. 9, 1930.) Webster was a member of the Federal Broadcasting Corporation, which acquired the commercial and program presentation rights of New York City radio station WMCA. The group included John T. Adams; Howard G. Cushing; Major Talbot O. Freeman; Walter S. Mack Jr., later the president of Pepsi-Cola; A. Newbold Morris; Paul Nitze; James K. Norris, Allan A. Ryan Jr.; Clendenin J. Ryan Jr.; Robert Thayer; and John Hay Whitney, with former N.Y. Governor Alfred E. Smith as chairman. (Smith Heads Board of New WMCA Group. New York Times, Aug. 28, 1933.) Webster represented Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in the appeal of its 1940 anti-trust conviction. (U.S. Supreme Court. AMERICAN TOBACCO CO. v. UNITED STATES, 328 U.S. 781 (1946) 328 U.S. 781.)American Tobacco Co. v. United States, 1946 / Findlaw.com
Webster had been a member of the board of trustees of the Public Education Association for twelve years when he was elected chairman. Fellow trustees included James F. Brownlee, a partner of J.H. Whitney & Co. [and a trustee of the Ford Foundation 1953-60]. (Bethuel Webster, Leading Attorney Here, Succeeds Mrs. Lewisohn in Education Unit. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1954.) Fundraisers for the P.E.A. during this time included Mary Woodard Lasker and other members of the Woodard family. In 1953, the board of the Ford Foundation chose Webster as counsel to its Fund for the Republic, with Paul G. Hoffman as Chairman. (Security With Freedom and Justice. The Ford Foundation.) In 1961, Webster and J. Irwin Miller, chairman of Cummins Engine Company, were elected trustees of the Ford Foundation. (Ford Fund Elects Two. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1961.) In 1970, Seattle lawyer James R. Ellis, and Walter A. Haas Jr., president of the Levi Strauss Company, replaced Webster and Stephen D. Bechtel as trustees. (Lawyer and Manufacturer Join Ford Foundation Board. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1970.)Security With Freedom and Justice / Ford Foundation
In 1958, Bethuel M. Webster was a member of New York City Mayor
Wagner's new Health Research Council. Other members included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres
& Co.; Dr. Leona
Baumgartner, Commissioner, Department of Health; Devereux C. Josephs,
chairman of the board of the New York Life Insurance Company and a
director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust; Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, president
of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Mrs. Mary Lasker, president of the
Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation; Dr. Robert K. Merton, Professor of
Sociology at Columbia University; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific
American; Anna M. Rosenberg,
public and industrial relations consultant, Anna M. Rosenberg
Associates (who married Paul G. Hoffman a few years later); and Dr. Warren Weaver, vice president of the
Rockefeller Foundation. (New City Research Agency To Finance Health
Studies. By Peter Kihss. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 1; Members of
Health Council. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 22.)
Bethuel M. Webster and his law partner Frederick P. Haas were the
York attorneys for Liggett & Myers in the lawsuit by Otto E.
Pritchard in Pittsburgh. (A Suit By Smoker Over Cancer Is On. By
Russell Porter. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1960.) In 1962, Bethuel M.
Webster, partner in the New York law firm of Webster, Sheffield,
Fleischmann, Hitchcock & Chrystie, was elected to the board of
directors of General American Investors Company,
Inc. "Mr. Webster, a trustee of the Ford Foundation, was president of
the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. He is a member of
the Permanent Court of Arbitration under The Hague Convention, the New
York City Health Research Council and the Mayor's Committee on the
Judiciary." (Lawyer Joins Board of Investors Concern. New York Times,
Nov. 17, 1962.)
"The Lindsay inner circle is small and about half family. Besides
[Herbert] Brownell and Webster, he relies heavily on the advice of
Robert Price, a young New York lawyer who has been his campaign
manager. He also sees a good deal of his twin brother, David, and older
brother, Robert, a vice president of the Morgan Guaranty Trust
Company." (Big Gamble of John Vliet Lindsay. By Warren Weaver Jr. New
York Times, May 23, 1965.) Bethuel M. Webster "sponsored the Mayor's
early legal career, and
served as head of his transition task force." Lindsay's outer inner
circle included Andrew Heiskell, chairman of the board of Time, Inc.;
and Walter N. Thayer, lawyer, investment banker, and former president
of the New York Herald Tribune. (The Lindsay Inner Circle. By Martin
Arnold. New York Times, Oct. 15, 1967.) Lindsay joined Webster,
Sheffield in 1948, and rejoined the firm after leaving office. "His
senior partner is Bethuel M. Webster, and over the years Mr. Lindsay
has regarded Mr. Webster as a kind of surrogate father." Webster,
Sheffield's biggest client was the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.
(About New York. By John Corry. New York Times, Nov. 6, 1974.) John V.
Lindsay's twin brother David A. Lindsay was a member of Skull &
Bones 1944. John V. Lindsay graduated from Yale ahead of him.
A differential cigarette tax was created by an amendment to Article
2-A(c) of the Cigarette Tax Law Regulations for The New York City
Administrative Code promulgated by the Finance Administrator of the
Ciiy of New York. The amendment was promulgated on December 18, 1972 to
be effective on January 27, 1973. It required that cigarettes
sold in vending machines in the City of New York be sold at five cents
differential between "low tar" cigarettes and all other cigarettes
regardless of whether the latter were subject to a three or four cents
additional tax. The State Legislature authorized the city to tax
cigarettes in 1952, and enabled the differential tax in 1971. (Long
Island Tobacco Co., Inc., Maurice Bronstein D/B/A Allied Cigarette
Sales and Robert Bogats D/B/A/ B & B Vending Co., Plaintiffs -
Appellants, Against John V. Lindsay, As Mayor of the City of New York
and Richard Lewisohn As Finance Administrator of the City of New York,
Defendants-Respondents Brief for Plaintiffs - Appellants.)
Webster was chairman of the Council on Drug Abuse, set up by four
foundations (Ford, Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Commonwealth
Fund, and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), to which the Ford
Foundation contributed $2 million of its $2.5 million funding. (Four
Foundations Set Up A Foundation On Drug Abuse. New York Times, Feb. 16,
1972.) "In 1934, he founded the firm that grew into Webster &
Sheffield. Mr. Webster became senior counsel in 1984. After World War
II, Mr. Webster served as a special advisor to the High Commissioner of
Germany, where he was engaged in decartelization of German industries.
Under the military government, he enforced the antitrust laws and
reorganized the coal and steel monopolies. From 1959 to 1965, he served
as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. From
1965 to 1968, he was an ambassador for the United States in the
mediation of a territorial dispute between Britain and Guatemala over
British Honduras." (Bethuel M. Webster, 88, Founder of Law Firm and
Lindsay Advisor. New York Times, Aug. 1, 1989.)
Francis Harding Horan (1900-1978) was born in Saxtons River,
Vermont. He graduated from Dartmouth University in 1922, and Harvard
Law School in 1926. He joined the firm of Simpson, Thacher &
Barlett, which he left in 1929 to be an assistant to US Solicitor
General Thomas Day Thacher,
Skull & Bones 1904. In 1932, he became assistant chief in the tax
division of the
Department of Justice. In 1934, he was chief of the civil division of
the US Attorney's Office of the Southern District of New York, under
Martin Conboy. [His service with Conboy included the attempt to ban
"Ulysses" and other films for obscenity, acquiescing to the Soviet
Union's nationalization decree, and deportations of immigrants for
minor past offenses. As a Dartmouth alumnus, he favored eliminating the
independence of the student newspaper, of which he had been editor.] In
1940, he was appointed counsel to the Moreland Commission by Governor
Herbert H. Lehman. He was general counsel of Liggett & Myers from
1951 until retiring in 1965, when he returned to his former law firm of
Webster, Sheffield & Horan as counsel. (Francis Harding Horan, 78,
Dies; Former Liggett & Myers Counsel. New York Times, Jan. 1,
1979.) From 1942 to 1951, he was a partner in the law firm of Webster,
Sheffield & Horan, when he was appointed general counsel of
L&M. He was elected a trustee of the New York School of Social Work
in 1953. (Liggett & Myers Names A New General Counsel. New York
Times, Aug. 27, 1951; Elected as a Trustee Of Social Work School. New
York Times, Jun. 1, 1953.) He became a director of L&M in 1954, and
a vice president in 1956. (Liggett & Myers Tobacco Names General
Counsel. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1954; Elected Vice President By
Liggett & Myers Co. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1956.) His wife,
Elizabeth Selden Rogers, was also an assistant to Martin Conboy. She
graduated from Vassar in 1928, and Yale Law School in 1931, when she
was appointed to the State Department by Secretary of State Henry L.
Stimson, S&B 1888 (his father-in-law's brother-in-law). She was
a daughter of Dr. John Rogers,
& Bones 1887, and Elizabeth Selden (White), of the National Woman's
Party. (Elizabeth S. Rogers Will Be Bride Today. New York Times, Feb.
9, 1935; Dr. John Rogers, 73, Surgeon, Dies Here. New York Times, Nov.
20, 1939; Elizabeth Horan Dies; A Former City Counsel. New York Times,
Apr. 6, 1984.)
Frederick Sheffield (1902-1971), who joined Bethuel M. Webster to form the law firm which became Webster Sheffield Fleischmann Hitchcock & Chrystie, was a director of Liggett & Myers from 1961 until his death in 1971. His father was James Rockwell Sheffield, who was a member of the advisory board of the Yale Institute of Human Relations. Frederick Sheffield's mother was a granddaughter of David Tod, governor of Ohio during the Civil War. His wife, Carolyn Cornell Blair, was the great-grand-daughter of Ezra Cornell, founder of Cornell University. Frederick Sheffield graduated from Yale in 1924, and from Yale Law School in 1927. He was a member of Scroll & Keys, and was associated with the law firm of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed. (Troth Announced of Carolyn Blair. New York Times, Oct. 18, 1934.) Kenneth A. Ives was best man at his wedding, and the ushers were David Tod Bulkley, George A. Brownell, Frederick A.O. Schwarz of New York; J. Stillman Rockefeller of Greenwich, Richard C. Storey Jr. and Harrison Gardner of Boston. (Carolyn C. Blair Has Church Bridal. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1935.) Sheffield succeeded Morris Hadley, S&B 1916, as chairman of the board of trustees of the New York School of Social Work [which became the Columbia University School of Social Work in 1963]. He was a trustee since 1946 of the Community Service Society, which founded the school in 1898 [as the New York School of Philanthropy until 1917]. He was also a director of the Bank of the Manhattan Company and the F.A.O. Schwarz Company, treasurer of St. Luke's Hospital, and a trustee of the Trudeau Sanitarium. (Lawyer Heads Trustees Of School of Social Work. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1950.) He was a director of the American Sugar Refining Co., the Chase Manhattan Bank, and F.A.O. Schwarz. (American Sugar Adds Lawyer to Directorate. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1961.) He rowed on the Yale crew that represented the U.S. in the 1924 Olympics. As a lawyer, he represented Columbia University and the New York Public Library. "He was a fellow of Pierson College of Yale University, one-time chairman of the Yale rowing committee and a former member of the University Athletic Board of Control. He served as assistant United States Commissioner for the New York World's Fair in 1940. He was a former chairman of the board of the New School for Social Research. Mr. Sheffield was a trustee of St. Luke's Hospital Center and Trudeau Institute and former of Smith College and the Community Service Society." He was board chairman of the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1966 to 1971. (Frederick Sheffield Dies at 69; Lawyer Headed Carnegie Fund. New York Times, May 10, 1971.) One of the projects funded by the Carnegie Corporation during his tenure was the Children's Television Workshop. His son was James Rockwell Sheffield, Skull & Bones 1959. (Nancy J. Wilkinson Fiancee Of James Rockwell Sheffield. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1964; Miss Wilkinson Attended by 5 At Her Nuptials. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1964.) James R. Sheffield was an usher at the marriage of Frederick A.O. Schwarz's son H. Marshall Schwarz to Jane Trowbridge Gillespie, a granddaughter of Lansing P. Reed, S&B 1904. (Jane T. Gillespie Becomes Bride On Long Island. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1962.) Frederick A.O. Schwartz was a trustee of Columbia Presbyterian Hospital from at least 1944 to 1957, when he became acting president after Charles Proctor Cooper.L&M 1961 Annual Report and Proxy / tobacco document
"1. The Scientific Advisory Board meeting this Friday was attended by Carl Thompson. They made more grants and analized what has been accomplished.
"2. Ogden White, Chairman of the Finance Committee of Sloan
and Memorial Hospital reported that the R. J. Reynolds Company
had agreed to grant a $100 thousand to Sloan Kettering. It could
indicate that Reynolds feels here's a little protection or TIRC
hasn't done too much. Reynolds wanted a raw products center for
the industry, claiming that TIRC should be interested in agriculture
as well as health (They control 35 - 40% of the TIRC funds).
American Tobacco vetoed this because they couldn't be connected
with any leaf industry. Reynolds then bought a farm and formed
their own raw products research center. Sloan Kettering will be
the logical one to investigate cancer claims. P. Lorillard has
been giving $25,000 for years without any fanfare. They are going
to approach other tobacco companies, automotive companies, milk
companies, and anyone else with an interest in the cancer controversy.
Right now we are committed to the TIRC concept.
by working with Sloan Kettering might see developments as they come
about. They might get a new dimension to their research. Mr.
Wynder will be out in April with a paper which says there is
something in filters which is selective and safe. The agency was
alerted that this paper might come out and asked to think of anything
which might be exploitable. The marketing department has been alerted
to play on the selectrate trademark of Marlboro. There is talk that the
FCC might lift the ban on health claims in ads." (From James Bowling
Area, Philip Morris, Mar. 13, 1962.) Ogden White joined the board of
directors of Liggett & Myers in 1968.
In 1963, Howard W. McCall Jr. and Frank Talbott were elected directors of L&M. McCall was vice chairman of the Chemical Bank New York Trust Company, and a director of the Lykes Brothers Steamship Co., the Association of Reserve City Bankers, the American Petroleum Institute, and the American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc. Talbott was chairman of Dan River Mills, Inc., textile manufacturer, and senior partner in the Danville, Va. law firm of Talbott, Wheatley & Talbott. He was a director of the Iselin-Jefferson Co., the Life Insurance Company of Virginia, and the American National Bank and Trust Co., Danville. (Two Named by Liggett & Myers. New York Times, Dec. 19, 1963.)L&M 1963 Annual Report / tobacco document
Zach Toms was named chairman and Milton E. Harrington became
president. J. Bowling Anderson and Loy D. Thompson became senior vice
presidents, and Jonathan W. Old Jr. became vice presidents. Harrington
joined the company in 1934, and became a director in 1955, and vice
president in 1960. Anderson joined the company in 1934, became
treasurer in 1958, and vice president in charge of finance in 1961. Old
joined the company in 1947, became factory superintendent in 1953, and
assistant to the vice president for manufacturing in 1959. (Liggett
& Myers Elects Officers. New York Times, Apr. 2, 1964.)
Frederick P. Haas graduated from Yale, Skull & Bones 1935, and
Yale Law School, and served as a lieutenant commander in the Navy
during World War II. He joined Webster, Sheffield in 1946, and became a
partner in 1948. Haas and law partner Bethuel M. Webster were the New
York attorneys for Liggett & Myers in the lawsuit by Otto E.
Pritchard in Pittsburgh. (A Suit By Smoker Over Cancer Is On. By
Russell Porter. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1960.) He was appointed general
counsel of Liggett & Myers when Francis H. Horan retired in 1965.
(Legal Post Is Filled By Liggett & Myers. New York Times, May 19,
1965.) He was appointed vice president in 1967. (Vice President
Named By Liggett & Myers. New York Times, Aug. 22, 1967.) He was
elected to the board of directors and remained with the company until
1976. (Frederick Haas, 85, Ex-Counsel at Liggett. New York Times, Oct.
4, 1997.) Ushers at his wedding included William Skinner Kilborne and
John Eliot Bowles of New York; Stanley Evert Fuller of Akron, Ohio;
Charles Seymour Jr. of Washington, DC; Joseph H. Johnson of Hartford,
Conn., and Lyman Spitzer Jr. of New Haven, all S&B 1935; and
classmates Richard Hine Lynch and James Edward Spalding. (Miss Mary
Helen Parke Wed to Frederick Peter Haas In Ceremony at New Haven. New
York Times, Feb. 9, 1941.) Haas was an usher at the weddings of Lynch
and Spalding. (Judith Enwright New Haven Bride. New York Times, Jul.
31, 1949; Mary Waterbury A Bride in Darien. New York Times, Jun. 5,
His father, John George Haas, graduated from Yale in 1903. He was
assistant attorney at The Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford,
1914-1919; general counsel of the Norwich Union Indemnity Company,
1919-1921; and a member of the legal staff of The Association of Life
Insurance Presidents, 1935-37; and advisory counsel for other
corporations. Charlotte Alice vonWiegand was a sister. (John G. Haas.
Times, Dec. 21, 1937; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University
Deceased during the Year 1937-1938, pp. 108-109.) His brother, John
George Haas 3d, married a daughter of Rev. Dr. Rockwell Harmon Potter,
Dean of the Hartford Theological Seminary. (Miss Jean Potter Becomes A
Bride. New York Times, Aug. 9, 1933.)
Directors: J. Bowling Anderson, William W. Bates Jr., S. Bacon
Fuller, Frederick P. Haas, Milton E. Harrington, James G. Huckabee Jr.,
Robert F. Hunsicker, Howard W. McCall, Ralph P. Moore, Jonathan W. Old
Jr., Edward J. Parrish, Abraham Rosenberg, Frederick Sheffield, Robert
L. Taylor, Edgar M. Waller Jr., Ogden White, Samuel White. (Liggett
& Myers Incorporated 1968 Annual Report, p. 4.)
Ogden White, a general partner of the international banking firm of
White, Weld & Co., was elected to the board of directors of Liggett
& Myers Tobacco Co. in 1968. Also in 1968, he was
a trustee of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for
Cancer Research. In
1946, he had been chairman of the fund drive of the Council for Heart
Disease, organized by Charles
Proctor Cooper, president of Columbia Presbyterian Hospital and a
director of the Guaranty Trust. (Dewey Helps Drive Against Heart Ills.
New York Times, Dec.
20, 1946.) Mrs. Ogden White raised funds for
Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer fund in 1950. (Fan Ball At Plaza Aids
Cancer Fund. New York Times,
Dec. 14, 1950.) Ogden White joined Memorial Hospital's board of
managers in 1950 and was named a vice president in 1952. He served
subsequently as a member of the executive committees of both the
hospital, which is the clinical unit of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center, and as a trustee and vice chairman of the center. He was an
emeritus member of the board of the cancer center at his death. He was
president and a trustee of the Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied
Diseases from 1962 to 1965 and chairman of the board from 1965 to 1971.
He was the son of Alexander M. White, founder of the investment banking
concern of White, Weld & Company, and became a general partner of
the concern in 1954. He retired in 1971, and White, Weld was absorbed
by Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith in 1978. He was born
in Brooklyn and graduated from Harvard University in 1931. He then
worked with the engineering and consulting concern of Stone &
Webster Inc. During World War II he served with the Foreign Economic
Administration and then was the United States's executive officer on
the Allied Combined Production and Resources Board. After the war, he
was associated with banking interests headed by Laurance S. Rockefeller
until he joined White, Weld. (Ogden White, 75, Ex-Banker and Memorial
Hospital Head. By Walter H. Waggoner. New York Times, Oct. 4, 1984.)
His daughter, Alexandra White, married Robert E. Strawbridge 3d, who
was "with the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York." He was the
son of Robert E.
Strawbridge Jr., a member of the Board of Managers of
Memorial Hospital. (Alexandra White and a Bank Aide Marry in Jersey.
New York Times, Jun. 28, 1964.)
His sister, Elinor White, married Edward G. Janeway, Yale 1922.
(Janeway-White. New York Times, May 24, 1925.) [He was the son of Dr. Theodore C. Janeway, Yale
1891, who had been a member of the board of scientific directors of the
Rockefeller Institute.] He was a self-employed Wall Street investment
broker until World War II, when he joined the Navy. After the war, he
moved to Londonderry, Vt. and became a state legislator. (Edward G.
Janeway, 84, Dies; Former Senator in Vermont. New York Times, Jan. 11,
His brother, Alexander Moss White, Harvard 1925, joined White, Weld
& Co. in
1930, became a partner in 1933, and managing partner in 1937. He joined
the Harvard Committee on University
Resources in 1951, where he raised $50 million as chairman of its
fundraising campaign. One of his daughters married George G. Montgomery Jr.
(Alexander White, Banker, Dies; Led Natural History Museum. New York
Times, Nov. 29, 1968.)
Ogden White's father was Alexander Moss White, Harvard 1892, who
spent three years with Spencer
Trask & Co. In 1895 he and George B.
Moffat formed Moffat & White, which dissolved in 1915 when he
formed White, Weld & Co. with Francis
M. Weld. (A.M. White Dies; Investnent Banker. New York Times, Sep.
22, 1929.) His wife was Elsie Ogden, daughter of Col. and Mrs. Willis
L. Ogden of Brooklyn. (Harvard College Record of the Class of 1892,
1907, p. 154.)
Ogden White's aunt, Frances Hillard White, married William Emerson
(Harvard 1895), brother of Dr. Haven
Emerson. He was Dean of the School of Architecture, chairman
of the Unitarian Service Committee from 1940-1953, and a life member of
the M.I.T. Corporation. (William Emerson of M.I.T. Is Dead. New York
Times, May 5, 1957.)
Ogden White's grandfather was William Augustus White, Harvard 1863.
He was Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Washington Water Power
Company of Spokane, Washington. (Report of the Secretary of the Class
of 1863 of Harvard College, June 1903, to June, 1913, p. 115.)
Earl Gilbert Graves, President of Earl G. Graves Publishing Co., was
elected to the board of directors in 1971. He was a former aide to Sen.
Robert F. Kennedy, and coordinator for minority groups in the
Humphrey/Muskie presidential campaign. (Humphrey Aide Named. New York
Times, Oct. 15,1968.) Graves was one of five former RFK aides who
received grants from the Ford
Foundation under McGeorge Bundy, Skull
& Bones 1940. "Rep. John Byrnes (R-Wis) referred to it acidly as
'severance pay.'" (5 RFK Aides Defend Grants. By Bruce Galphin.
Washington Post Times Herald Feb. 27, 1969.) Graves founded Black
Enterprise magazine at the end of 1969, with a $175,000 loan from
the Chase Manhattan Bank. Its advertisers included United Air Lines,
U.S. Steel, and IBM. (Among the Media. By Ronald L. Soble. LA Times,
Apr. 9, 1974.) Graves helped with funding for the National Medical
Fellowship when its grants from the Alfred P. Sloan Jr. and Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation ran out. (Minority Scholarship Organization To Halve
Aid for Medical Students. (New York Times, Jul. 16, 1975.) He was a
director of ITT from 1977 to 1981. (Earl G.
Graves Is Named to ITT Board of Directors. Washington Post, Dec. 20,
1977; Executive Changes. New York Times, Mar. 13, 1981.) In 1984, he
was elected to
the board of Rohm and Haas. "Mr. Graves
serves as a Director of Aetna, Inc.,
AMR Corporation (American
Airlines), DaimlerChrysler AG Corporation, Federated Department Stores,
Inc., and Rohm & Haas Corporation. In addition, Mr. Graves serves
as a volunteer on the boards of TransAfrica Inc. and the American
Museum of Natural History and Planetarium." (The Biography of Dr. Earl
G. Graves. Howard University, 2003.)
His son, Earl Gilbert Graves Jr., is a member of Skull & Bones
1984. (Roberta A. Daly Becomes a Bride in Philadelphia. New York Times,
Sep. 11, 1988.) He is President and Chief Operating Officer for Earl G.
Graves Publishing Company, publisher of Black Enterprise magazine. He
is a director of AutoZone Inc. and Premier Automotive Group, and the
Board of Advisors of Channel
Directors: William W. Bates Jr., Director of Research; Curt C.
Brill, Executive Vice President; S. Bacon Fuller, President, Gary
Tobacco Company; Earl G. Graves, President, Earl G. Graves Publishing
Company; Frederick P. Haas, Vice President; Milton E. Harrington,
Retired Chairman; James G. Huckabee Jr., Vice President; L. Emery
Katzenbach, Chairman, White, Weld & Co.; Howard W. McCall Jr.,
Advisor and former President, Chemical Bank; Raymond J. Mulligan,
President; Jonathan W. Old Jr., Executive Vice President; Richard M.
Paget, President, Cresap, McCormick and Paget Inc.; Abraham Rosenberg,
President, The Paddington Corp.; Harry W. Siefert, Vice President;
Arthur E. Sloat, President, Cigarette Division. (Liggett & Myers
1973 Annual Report, p. 29.)
Richard M. Paget graduated from Northwestern University in 1934. "He
was a partner in the consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton
before joining the Navy in 1941 and had done studies for the Army, the
Navy and the War Production Board. He was a life trustee of
Northwestern and helped establish the J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of
Management there. He also served as a director of many companies,
including the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, The Washington Post
Company and Union Dime Savings Bank." He was one of the founders of the
management consulting firm Cresap, McCormick and
Paget in 1946. (Richart Paget, 78; Helped Reorganize Federal
Government. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1991.) Paget was a member of the
staff of Frank Knox,
Secretary of the Navy, where he met met his future business partners.
(Personality. A Triumvir at Westinghouse. New York Times,
Jan. 19, 1958.) Circa 1964, he was a member of the Commerce and
Industry Committee of the New York City Division of the American Cancer
Society. (American Cancer Society, New York City Division, Inc.
Attachment to letter from Edward L. Bond Jr., President of Young &
Rubicam, to Richard Darrow of Hill & Knowlton, Mar. 30, 1964.) He
was a member of the Ash Council
that created the Environmental Protection Agency.
The Ash Council also led to the creation of the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) in the Nixon Administration. He was a director of
Liggett & Myers from at least 1973 to 1978.
In 1976, Fred P. Haas retired, and his law partner William H. Hogeland of Webster Sheffield was appointed General Counsel. In 1977, Roger W. Hooker Jr., former Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation, was elected Vice President of Government and Legal Affairs and Secretary; and Charlotte T. Reid, former U.S. Representative 1962-71 and Federal Communications Commissioner 1971-76, was elected a director.Liggett Group 1976 Annual Report / tobacco document
In 1980, Liggett Group was purchased by Grand Metropolitan, a former
United Kingdom-based company operating hotels, holiday centres,
entertainment centres, public houses and casinos. Grand Metropolitan
owned the Liggett Group and the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company,
and the Pinkerton Tobacco Company. Lazard Freres
partner F.J. Pizzitola was a director of Grand Metropolitan.
In 1986, Grand Metropolitan sold Liggett Group to Bennett Le Bow and Brooke Group.Brooke Group 1992 Annual Report / tobacco document
Bennett LeBow and Carl C. Icahn of Icahn & Co., Inc. were
partners of The Brooke Group, which owned the former Liggett &
and Liggett Ducat in Russia, and also a major interest in the
investment banking firm New Valley. The Brooke Group also held
4.6% of RJR Nabisco voting
stock. (Do It Now. By Ronald A. Margulis.
Tobacconist Apr. 8, 1996.)
Brooke Group announced its settlement of tobacco-related claims with the states of Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, and West Virginia. With Orwellian verbiage, they declared that "The five states and the Castano plaintiffs have agreed that they will not seek to enjoin the spinoff of Nabisco to RJR Nabisco shareholders if Brooke's nominees are elected to the RJR Nabisco Board of Directors." (Brooke Agrees to Settle Tobacco Litigation With 5 States. Press Release, Mar. 15, 1996.) The nominees included Ronald Folford, the former CEO of Imperial Tobacco; and Dale Hanson, who had been employed by the State of Wisconsin Investment Board before serving as the CEO of CalPERS from 1987 to 1994, then American Partners Capital Group. (Former Calpers Chief Joining ICN's Board. By Edward Wyatt.New York Times, Aug. 23, 1995.) Hanson had also been retained by Philip Morris in 1994, "to offer advice in developing an on-going strategy to deal with certain public pension funds." (Minutes of a meeting of the Board of Directors of Philip Morris Companies Inc., Oct. 26, 1994.)Brooke Agrees to Settle Tobacco Litigation With 5 States, 1996 / tobacco document