Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.

The anti-smoking conspiracy began over a century ago. Skull & Bones members ring-led the creation of the American Tobacco Trust, to gather all the companies under anti-smoker control. But they knew that they couldn't just take over the tobacco companies and shut them down, because others would simply enter the field. So, they also created and built up enemies to persecute tobacco, particlarly the American Cancer Society, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the American Heart Association, and used these as proxies to create and control the federal health establishment (the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute, et al.) to manufacture fraudulent pseudo-science to deceive the public at taxpayer expense. The anti-smoker-controlled tobacco companies merely put up a phony pretense of fighting the anti-smoker-controlled "health" lobbies, and purposely throw lawsuits (that is, to those brought by the "right" plaintiffs) in order to financially intimidate potential entrants away from the tobacco industry.

In January 1899, the majority of stock of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. was sold to Mr. Butler of the Union Tobacco Company by Moses C. Wetmore, Charles E. Halliwell, Samuel T. McCormick, Mrs. Claude Kilpatrick, Mrs. John Fowler, and Mrs. John E. Liggett for $6.5 million cash. Wetmore was to continue as president and general manager for five years, and George S. Myers kept his shares. (Big Tobacco Deal. Morning Oregonian, Feb. 5, 1899. A.A. Housman & Co. attached the trustees of the will of John E. Liggett for $277,200 in commissions on the sale of 550½ shares of stock of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company to George P. Butler. Claude Kilpatrick, John Fowler, and Mitchell Scott were the trustees. "The Sheriff served the attachment upon the Central Trust Company." (The Liggitt [sic] and Myers Sale. New York Times, Apr.22, 1899.)

Caleb C. Dula

Caleb Conley Dula (1864-1930) was President of Liggett & Meyers Tobacco Co. from 1911-1927, then Chairman until 1930. He joined the Drummond Tobacco Co. in 1886, and after it was bought by the American Tobacco Co., he joined the Continental Tobacco Co., a subsidiary of American. Dula was a close friend of James B. Duke, and in 1927, Dula added $200,000 to the Duke Endowment Fund at Duke University. Dula was on the board of directors of the Guaranty Trust from 1916 until 1930. (Caleb C. Dula Dies; Tobacco Financier. New York Times, Dec. 26, 1930.) Dula's stockholdings included 2,176 George W. Helme Co. common, $167,824; 40,620 Liggett & Myers common $3,269,910; 49,320 Liggett & Myers common B $4,019,580; 2,313 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. common $94,977; 1,400 U.S. Tobacco Co. common, $83,300; 500 Congress Cigar $11,000; and 300 General Cigar $9,825. He also had 2,057 shares of the Guaranty Trust Company, of which he was a director, $871,179, and a cash deposit there of $1,006,672. He had a joint brokerage with T.B. Yuille, and was a founder of the Hudson River Country Club with his neighbor, Col. William Boyce Thompson. He left it all to his widow. (C.C. Dula's Estate Worth $14,831,387. New York Times, Mar. 24, 1934.) In 1916, Dula and other tobacco officials and bankers were guests at a dinner given by Thomas F. Ryan at his Fifth Avenue home. (Thomas F. Ryan Is Host. New York Times, Feb. 18, 1916.) C.C. Dula was a director of the P. Lorillard Tobacco Company in 1901. Clinton W. Toms succeeded him as president of L&M.

His older brother, Robert B. Dula (1847-1926), started the tobacco firm of Carr & Dula in Missouri shortly after the Civil War. He became associated with the Drummond Tobacco Co. and headed it from 1886 to 1898, when it was sold to the American Tobacco Company. In 1903, he became a Vice President of American, and, when this company was broken up in 1911, he continued as a director of Liggett & Myers. (R.B. Dula, Pioneer in Tobacco, Dead. New York Times, Apr. 28, 1926.) He married Josephine Carr. Their son, Grover Carr Dula, went to Andover. He was with the American Cigar Company until 1912, when he moved to Richmond and established the Westmoreland Candy Company. Robert L. Dula was another son. (Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, Edited by Lyon Gardiner Tyler, 1915.)

Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography / Google Books

Robert B. Dula's daughter, Flora, married William Block Dean, Yale 1896, in 1907. He was a bond salesman with G.H. Walker & Co. 1901-1915 and a partner from 1915 to 1940. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1940-1941, p. 191.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1940-1941 / Yale University Library (pdf, 290 pp.)

Mrs. Caleb C. Dula was the aunt of Mrs. Orrin Sage Wightman, M.D., who was a member of William Boyce Thompson's 1917 Red Cross Mission to Russia. The Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company contributed $50,000 to the mission through its various branches. James W. Andrews, Liggett's auditor, was also a member of the mission.

Liggett & Myers 1933

Joseph C. Widmer, a director of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, died at age 74. He was born in Philadelphia and attended the University of Pennsylvania, but left to become a tobacco broker. Two years later he went to Pittsburgh. He became a manager of the Continental Tobacco Works, a branch of the American Tobacco Company in Louisville. He came to New York in 1901, and was employed in purchasing and manufacturing for American Tobacco and its subsidiaries, including the American Cigar Company and the Amsterdam Supply Company. He became a director of Liggett & Myers in 1911. Honorary pallbearers were to include fellow Liggett & Myers directors C.W. Toms, F.L. Fuller, Benjamin Carroll, W.W. Flowers, W.D. Carmichael, G.W. Whitaker, and J.W. Andrews. (Joseph C. Widmer, Tobacco Man, Dies. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1933.)

William W. Flowers

William Washington Flowers was chairman of the board of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company since 1936. He graduated from Trinity College, now Duke University, in 1894, and took advanced studies at Harvard and the University of Berlin. He was a German teacher at Duke and superintendent of the Durham public schools, until 1900 when James B. Duke asked him to become an executive of the American Tobacco Company. He was with American Tobacco until 1911, when Liggett was formed, where he became a vice president. His brother, Robert L. Flowers, was president of Duke University. One of his pallbearers was Dr. Lenox D. Baker. (Wm. Flowers Dies; Tobacco Executive. New York Times, May 2, 1941.)

Clinton W. Toms

Clinton White Toms (~1869-1936) was born in Hertford, North Carolina, and graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1889. By 1894, he was Superintendent of Schools in Durham, NC. In 1897, James B. Duke made him general manager of the American Tobacco Company's works in Durham. He became executive vice president and a director of the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company when it was organized after the breakup of the Trust in 1911. In 1928, he succeeded Caleb C. Dula as president. (C.W. Toms Dead; Tobacco Leader. New York Times, Aug. 30, 1936.) His sons Edgar S. Toms and Zach Toms were also with L&M.

Edgar S. Toms (~1899-1952) "His entire business career was spent with the tobacco concern, first in Philadelphia and later at Durham, where he became a director and general manager." (Edgar S. Toms. New York Times, Mar. 24, 1952.)

Zach Toms

Zach Toms (1901-1964) was born in Durham, N.C. He graduated from the University of Virginia after an interruption for Army service in World War I, and went on to the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce at the University of Pennsylvania. He joined Liggett & Myers in 1922 in Richmond, and became a factory superintendent and assistant factory manager. He moved to its executive offices in New York in 1943 as assistant to the vice president for manufacturing and leaf. In 1951, he was vice president for export sales; executive vice president in 1959; president in 1961; chief executive officer in 1963, and chairman in 1964. (Zach Toms Sr., Chief Officer Of Liggett & Myers, Dies at 63. New York Times, Jul. 10, 1964.) He was a member of the Sevens Society of the University of Richmond, which was founded "possibly" in 1905. The names of 77 of its members who had died were revealed in 1957. "The tolling of the University carillon - in seven mournful tones - lifts the hood of secrecy long enough to proclaim a death among its members. This, plus the unique arrangement of magnolia leaves and white flowers atop the coffin, and the Society's sign by the obituary in the alumni magazine are the only public recognition a member can receive." Besides Toms, the list includes former Secretary of State Edward J. Stettinius Jr., Adm. William F. Halsey, and Henry N. Taylor, a news correspondent killed in the Congo. (Seven Society's Secret Still Secret. Washington Post, Feb. 15, 1965.)

Zach Toms Obituary, Celanese Cigarette Tow Newsletter, Aug. 15, 1964 / tobacco document

Liggett & Myers 1935

In 1935, Clinton W. Toms was the largest stockholder among officers and directors of Liggett & Myers, with 17,500 common and 1000 preferred. Other officers and directors: J.W. Andrews, vice president, 3800 common, 837 common B; W.D. Carmichael, vice president, 100 preferred, 1966 common, 334 common B; W.W. Flowers, 14,300 common, 60 common B; E.H. Thurston, 3000 common; G.W. Whitaker, 5 preferred, 7500 common; E.T. Noland, secretary, 5154 common; Ben Carroll, treasurer, 2426 common, 280 common B; C.B. Arthur, assistant treasurer, 124 preferred, 500 common, 726 common B; R.W. Frishell, branch manager, 100 common, 636 common B; D.F. Green, sales manager, 760 common, 843 common B; W.S. Tisdel, assistant treasurer, 2500 common, 20 common B; R.B. Fleming, assistant treasurer, 500 preferred, 252 common, 88 common B; E.S. Abbott, assistant auditor, 134 common B; H.E. White, 40 common B. (Toms Chief Holder in Liggett-Myers. New York Times, May 2, 1935.)

Bethuel M. Webster Jr.

Bethuel M Webster Jr. graduated from Harvard Law School in 1924 and was an assistant to U.S. Attorney Emory R. Buckner (Buckner Picks 11 More Aids. New York Times, Feb. 23, 1926.) He was the son of Bethuel M. Webster, an attorney in Denver, Col. (Miss Eleanor Ashton Wilson to Be Married Today. Washington Post, Mar. 16, 1929.) He was general counsel of the Federal Radio Commission. (Radio License Held Not Transferable. New York Times, Jul. 24, 1929.) "Mr. Justice Brennan, in his concurring opinion in the Head case, 374 U.S. at 439, noted that: * * * As early as 1928, for example, the General Counsel of the Radio Commission held that abuses in network cigarette advertising — while not a sufficient basis for revocation proceedings against an individual licensee — might on renewal militate against the requisite finding of broadcasting in the 'public interest.'' The opinion also notes (n.15) that: 'Shortly after the issuance of the General Counsel's opinion, the Chairman of the Federal Radio Commission was asked by Senator Dill during his appearance before the Senate Commerce Committee whether he thought the Commission had sufficient power 'through its power of regulation and its determination of public interest to handle objectionable advertising?' The Chairman replied, 'I think so, Senator Dill, because we have had little trouble about it, even without direct power.' * * * Hearings before Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce on S. 6, 71st Cong., 1st sess., pt. 6, p. 230. See also Hearings before Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce on S. 6, 71st Cong., 1st and 2d sess., pp. 88-89. The particular complaint leading to the General Counsel's opinion charged, inter alia, that 'the object of this broadcasting is to transform 20 million adolescent boys and girls into confirmed cigarette addicts by creating a vast child market for cigarettes in the United States,' that '10 million boys throughout the country are being viciously and deliberately misled by paid testimonials, secured from professional athletes, football coaches and others, definitely suggesting the use of cigarettes as an aid to athletic prowess,' that 'the medical opinion of the country is being continuously misrepresented to support the health and medical claims made for cigarettes,' that the specific claims made for a particular brand of cigarette advertised on the air are overwhelmingly opposed by established health and medical facts,' and that "Such radio activities, the petitioner maintains, are clearly contrary to public interest, public welfare and public health.' Opinion No. 32, 1928-1929 Opinions of the General Counsel, Federal Radio Commission, 77, at 78 (Apr. 15, 1929.) General Counsel Bethuel M. Webster, Jr. concluded that the 'Commission may find, in view of this showing, that public interest, convenience, and necessity will not be served by further renewal of the licenses in question, in which case the matter will be set for hearing pursuant to section 11, and petitioner's prayer for general relief will be granted,' Id., at 82." (In: Federal Communications Communications Commission. Applicability of the Fairness Doctrine to Cigarette Advertising. Memorandum Opinion and Order. In the Matter of Television Station WCBS-TV, New York, N.Y., RM-1170; FCC 67-1029. Federal Register 1967 Sep. 15;32(179):13162-13174.)

Fairness Doctrine, Federal Register Sep. 15, 1967 / tobacco document

Bethuel M. Webster was an usher at the wedding of Horace R. Lamb, a law partner of William J. Donovan and later a founder of LeBoeuf, Lamb & Leiby. Other ushers included Edward S. Pinney and U.S. Representative Lewis Williams Douglas, later president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company. (Mrs. Hoover Sees Miss Pitney Wed. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1930; Lamb-Pitney Rite Attended By First Lady. Washington Post, Feb. 9, 1930.) Webster was a member of the Federal Broadcasting Corporation, which acquired the commercial and program presentation rights of New York City radio station WMCA. The group included John T. Adams; Howard G. Cushing; Major Talbot O. Freeman; Walter S. Mack Jr., later the president of Pepsi-Cola; A. Newbold Morris; Paul Nitze; James K. Norris, Allan A. Ryan Jr.; Clendenin J. Ryan Jr.; Robert Thayer; and John Hay Whitney, with former N.Y. Governor Alfred E. Smith as chairman. (Smith Heads Board of New WMCA Group. New York Times, Aug. 28, 1933.) Webster represented Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in the appeal of its 1940 anti-trust conviction. (U.S. Supreme Court. AMERICAN TOBACCO CO. v. UNITED STATES, 328 U.S. 781 (1946) 328 U.S. 781.)

American Tobacco Co. v. United States, 1946 / Findlaw.com

Webster had been a member of the board of trustees of the Public Education Association for twelve years when he was elected chairman. Fellow trustees included James F. Brownlee, a partner of J.H. Whitney & Co. [and a trustee of the Ford Foundation 1953-60]. (Bethuel Webster, Leading Attorney Here, Succeeds Mrs. Lewisohn in Education Unit. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1954.) Fundraisers for the P.E.A. during this time included Mary Woodard Lasker and other members of the Woodard family. In 1953, the board of the Ford Foundation chose Webster as counsel to its Fund for the Republic, with Paul G. Hoffman as Chairman. (Security With Freedom and Justice. The Ford Foundation.) In 1961, Webster and J. Irwin Miller, chairman of Cummins Engine Company, were elected trustees of the Ford Foundation. (Ford Fund Elects Two. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1961.) In 1970, Seattle lawyer James R. Ellis, and Walter A. Haas Jr., president of the Levi Strauss Company, replaced Webster and Stephen D. Bechtel as trustees. (Lawyer and Manufacturer Join Ford Foundation Board. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1970.)

Security With Freedom and Justice / Ford Foundation

In 1958, Bethuel M. Webster was a member of New York City Mayor Wagner's new Health Research Council. Other members included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres & Co.; Dr. Leona Baumgartner, Commissioner, Department of Health; Devereux C. Josephs, chairman of the board of the New York Life Insurance Company and a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust; Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, president of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Mrs. Mary Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation; Dr. Robert K. Merton, Professor of Sociology at Columbia University; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American; Anna M. Rosenberg, public and industrial relations consultant, Anna M. Rosenberg Associates (who married Paul G. Hoffman a few years later); and Dr. Warren Weaver, vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation. (New City Research Agency To Finance Health Studies. By Peter Kihss. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 1; Members of Health Council. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 22.)

Bethuel M. Webster and his law partner Frederick P. Haas were the New York attorneys for Liggett & Myers in the lawsuit by Otto E. Pritchard in Pittsburgh. (A Suit By Smoker Over Cancer Is On. By Russell Porter. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1960.) In 1962, Bethuel M. Webster, partner in the New York law firm of Webster, Sheffield, Fleischmann, Hitchcock & Chrystie, was elected to the board of directors of General American Investors Company, Inc. "Mr. Webster, a trustee of the Ford Foundation, was president of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. He is a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration under The Hague Convention, the New York City Health Research Council and the Mayor's Committee on the Judiciary." (Lawyer Joins Board of Investors Concern. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1962.)

"The Lindsay inner circle is small and about half family. Besides [Herbert] Brownell and Webster, he relies heavily on the advice of Robert Price, a young New York lawyer who has been his campaign manager. He also sees a good deal of his twin brother, David, and older brother, Robert, a vice president of the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company." (Big Gamble of John Vliet Lindsay. By Warren Weaver Jr. New York Times, May 23, 1965.) Bethuel M. Webster "sponsored the Mayor's early legal career, and served as head of his transition task force." Lindsay's outer inner circle included Andrew Heiskell, chairman of the board of Time, Inc.; and Walter N. Thayer, lawyer, investment banker, and former president of the New York Herald Tribune. (The Lindsay Inner Circle. By Martin Arnold. New York Times, Oct. 15, 1967.) Lindsay joined Webster, Sheffield in 1948, and rejoined the firm after leaving office. "His senior partner is Bethuel M. Webster, and over the years Mr. Lindsay has regarded Mr. Webster as a kind of surrogate father." Webster, Sheffield's biggest client was the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. (About New York. By John Corry. New York Times, Nov. 6, 1974.) John V. Lindsay's twin brother David A. Lindsay was a member of Skull & Bones 1944. John V. Lindsay graduated from Yale ahead of him.

A differential cigarette tax was created by an amendment to Article 2-A(c) of the Cigarette Tax Law Regulations for The New York City Administrative Code promulgated by the Finance Administrator of the Ciiy of New York. The amendment was promulgated on December 18, 1972 to be effective on January 27, 1973. It required that cigarettes sold in vending machines in the City of New York be sold at five cents differential between "low tar" cigarettes and all other cigarettes regardless of whether the latter were subject to a three or four cents additional tax. The State Legislature authorized the city to tax cigarettes in 1952, and enabled the differential tax in 1971. (Long Island Tobacco Co., Inc., Maurice Bronstein D/B/A Allied Cigarette Sales and Robert Bogats D/B/A/ B & B Vending Co., Plaintiffs - Appellants, Against John V. Lindsay, As Mayor of the City of New York and Richard Lewisohn As Finance Administrator of the City of New York, Defendants-Respondents Brief for Plaintiffs - Appellants.)

New York City Cigarette Tax, 1973 / tobacco document

Webster was chairman of the Council on Drug Abuse, set up by four foundations (Ford, Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Commonwealth Fund, and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), to which the Ford Foundation contributed $2 million of its $2.5 million funding. (Four Foundations Set Up A Foundation On Drug Abuse. New York Times, Feb. 16, 1972.) "In 1934, he founded the firm that grew into Webster & Sheffield. Mr. Webster became senior counsel in 1984. After World War II, Mr. Webster served as a special advisor to the High Commissioner of Germany, where he was engaged in decartelization of German industries. Under the military government, he enforced the antitrust laws and reorganized the coal and steel monopolies. From 1959 to 1965, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. From 1965 to 1968, he was an ambassador for the United States in the mediation of a territorial dispute between Britain and Guatemala over British Honduras." (Bethuel M. Webster, 88, Founder of Law Firm and Lindsay Advisor. New York Times, Aug. 1, 1989.)

Francis H. Horan

Francis Harding Horan (1900-1978) was born in Saxtons River, Vermont. He graduated from Dartmouth University in 1922, and Harvard Law School in 1926. He joined the firm of Simpson, Thacher & Barlett, which he left in 1929 to be an assistant to US Solicitor General Thomas Day Thacher, Skull & Bones 1904. In 1932, he became assistant chief in the tax division of the Department of Justice. In 1934, he was chief of the civil division of the US Attorney's Office of the Southern District of New York, under Martin Conboy. [His service with Conboy included the attempt to ban "Ulysses" and other films for obscenity, acquiescing to the Soviet Union's nationalization decree, and deportations of immigrants for minor past offenses. As a Dartmouth alumnus, he favored eliminating the independence of the student newspaper, of which he had been editor.] In 1940, he was appointed counsel to the Moreland Commission by Governor Herbert H. Lehman. He was general counsel of Liggett & Myers from 1951 until retiring in 1965, when he returned to his former law firm of Webster, Sheffield & Horan as counsel. (Francis Harding Horan, 78, Dies; Former Liggett & Myers Counsel. New York Times, Jan. 1, 1979.) From 1942 to 1951, he was a partner in the law firm of Webster, Sheffield & Horan, when he was appointed general counsel of L&M. He was elected a trustee of the New York School of Social Work in 1953. (Liggett & Myers Names A New General Counsel. New York Times, Aug. 27, 1951; Elected as a Trustee Of Social Work School. New York Times, Jun. 1, 1953.) He became a director of L&M in 1954, and a vice president in 1956. (Liggett & Myers Tobacco Names General Counsel. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1954; Elected Vice President By Liggett & Myers Co. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1956.) His wife, Elizabeth Selden Rogers, was also an assistant to Martin Conboy. She graduated from Vassar in 1928, and Yale Law School in 1931, when she was appointed to the State Department by Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, S&B 1888 (his father-in-law's brother-in-law). She was a daughter of Dr. John Rogers, Skull & Bones 1887, and Elizabeth Selden (White), of the National Woman's Party. (Elizabeth S. Rogers Will Be Bride Today. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1935; Dr. John Rogers, 73, Surgeon, Dies Here. New York Times, Nov. 20, 1939; Elizabeth Horan Dies; A Former City Counsel. New York Times, Apr. 6, 1984.)

L&M 1948 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1949 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1951 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1954 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1955 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1956 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1957 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1958 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1959 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1960 Annual Report / tobacco document

Frederick Sheffield, Scroll & Key 1924

Frederick Sheffield (1902-1971), who joined Bethuel M. Webster to form the law firm which became Webster Sheffield Fleischmann Hitchcock & Chrystie, was a director of Liggett & Myers from 1961 until his death in 1971. His father was James Rockwell Sheffield, who was a member of the advisory board of the Yale Institute of Human Relations. Frederick Sheffield's mother was a granddaughter of David Tod, governor of Ohio during the Civil War. His wife, Carolyn Cornell Blair, was the great-grand-daughter of Ezra Cornell, founder of Cornell University. Frederick Sheffield graduated from Yale in 1924, and from Yale Law School in 1927. He was a member of Scroll & Keys, and was associated with the law firm of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed. (Troth Announced of Carolyn Blair. New York Times, Oct. 18, 1934.) Kenneth A. Ives was best man at his wedding, and the ushers were David Tod Bulkley, George A. Brownell, Frederick A.O. Schwarz of New York; J. Stillman Rockefeller of Greenwich, Richard C. Storey Jr. and Harrison Gardner of Boston. (Carolyn C. Blair Has Church Bridal. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1935.) Sheffield succeeded Morris Hadley, S&B 1916, as chairman of the board of trustees of the New York School of Social Work [which became the Columbia University School of Social Work in 1963]. He was a trustee since 1946 of the Community Service Society, which founded the school in 1898 [as the New York School of Philanthropy until 1917]. He was also a director of the Bank of the Manhattan Company and the F.A.O. Schwarz Company, treasurer of St. Luke's Hospital, and a trustee of the Trudeau Sanitarium. (Lawyer Heads Trustees Of School of Social Work. New York Times, Feb. 1, 1950.) He was a director of the American Sugar Refining Co., the Chase Manhattan Bank, and F.A.O. Schwarz. (American Sugar Adds Lawyer to Directorate. New York Times, Oct. 21, 1961.) He rowed on the Yale crew that represented the U.S. in the 1924 Olympics. As a lawyer, he represented Columbia University and the New York Public Library. "He was a fellow of Pierson College of Yale University, one-time chairman of the Yale rowing committee and a former member of the University Athletic Board of Control. He served as assistant United States Commissioner for the New York World's Fair in 1940. He was a former chairman of the board of the New School for Social Research. Mr. Sheffield was a trustee of St. Luke's Hospital Center and Trudeau Institute and former of Smith College and the Community Service Society." He was board chairman of the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1966 to 1971. (Frederick Sheffield Dies at 69; Lawyer Headed Carnegie Fund. New York Times, May 10, 1971.) One of the projects funded by the Carnegie Corporation during his tenure was the Children's Television Workshop. His son was James Rockwell Sheffield, Skull & Bones 1959. (Nancy J. Wilkinson Fiancee Of James Rockwell Sheffield. New York Times, Jan. 26, 1964; Miss Wilkinson Attended by 5 At Her Nuptials. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1964.) James R. Sheffield was an usher at the marriage of Frederick A.O. Schwarz's son H. Marshall Schwarz to Jane Trowbridge Gillespie, a granddaughter of Lansing P. Reed, S&B 1904. (Jane T. Gillespie Becomes Bride On Long Island. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1962.) Frederick A.O. Schwartz was a trustee of Columbia Presbyterian Hospital from at least 1944 to 1957, when he became acting president after Charles Proctor Cooper.

L&M 1961 Annual Report and Proxy / tobacco document
L&M 1962 Annual Report / tobacco document

1962 Tobacco Industry Research Council Scientific Advisory Board Meeting

"1. The Scientific Advisory Board meeting this Friday was attended by Carl Thompson. They made more grants and analized what has been accomplished.

"2. Ogden White, Chairman of the Finance Committee of Sloan Kettering and Memorial Hospital reported that the R. J. Reynolds Company had agreed to grant a $100 thousand to Sloan Kettering. It could indicate that Reynolds feels here's a little protection or TIRC hasn't done too much. Reynolds wanted a raw products center for the industry, claiming that TIRC should be interested in agriculture as well as health (They control 35 - 40% of the TIRC funds). American Tobacco vetoed this because they couldn't be connected with any leaf industry. Reynolds then bought a farm and formed their own raw products research center. Sloan Kettering will be the logical one to investigate cancer claims. P. Lorillard has been giving $25,000 for years without any fanfare. They are going to approach other tobacco companies, automotive companies, milk companies, and anyone else with an interest in the cancer controversy. Right now we are committed to the TIRC concept. Reynolds by working with Sloan Kettering might see developments as they come about. They might get a new dimension to their research. Mr. Wynder will be out in April with a paper which says there is something in filters which is selective and safe. The agency was alerted that this paper might come out and asked to think of anything which might be exploitable. The marketing department has been alerted to play on the selectrate trademark of Marlboro. There is talk that the FCC might lift the ban on health claims in ads." (From James Bowling Area, Philip Morris, Mar. 13, 1962.) Ogden White joined the board of directors of Liggett & Myers in 1968.

TIRC Meeting, 1962 / tobacco document

In 1963, Howard W. McCall Jr. and Frank Talbott were elected directors of L&M. McCall was vice chairman of the Chemical Bank New York Trust Company, and a director of the Lykes Brothers Steamship Co., the Association of Reserve City Bankers, the American Petroleum Institute, and the American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc. Talbott was chairman of Dan River Mills, Inc., textile manufacturer, and senior partner in the Danville, Va. law firm of Talbott, Wheatley & Talbott. He was a director of the Iselin-Jefferson Co., the Life Insurance Company of Virginia, and the American National Bank and Trust Co., Danville. (Two Named by Liggett & Myers. New York Times, Dec. 19, 1963.)

L&M 1963 Annual Report / tobacco document

Zach Toms was named chairman and Milton E. Harrington became president. J. Bowling Anderson and Loy D. Thompson became senior vice presidents, and Jonathan W. Old Jr. became vice presidents. Harrington joined the company in 1934, and became a director in 1955, and vice president in 1960. Anderson joined the company in 1934, became treasurer in 1958, and vice president in charge of finance in 1961. Old joined the company in 1947, became factory superintendent in 1953, and assistant to the vice president for manufacturing in 1959. (Liggett & Myers Elects Officers. New York Times, Apr. 2, 1964.)

L&M 1964 Annual Report / tobacco document

Frederick Peter Haas, Skull & Bones 1935

Frederick P. Haas graduated from Yale, Skull & Bones 1935, and Yale Law School, and served as a lieutenant commander in the Navy during World War II. He joined Webster, Sheffield in 1946, and became a partner in 1948. Haas and law partner Bethuel M. Webster were the New York attorneys for Liggett & Myers in the lawsuit by Otto E. Pritchard in Pittsburgh. (A Suit By Smoker Over Cancer Is On. By Russell Porter. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1960.) He was appointed general counsel of Liggett & Myers when Francis H. Horan retired in 1965. (Legal Post Is Filled By Liggett & Myers. New York Times, May 19, 1965.) He was appointed vice president in 1967. (Vice President Named By Liggett & Myers. New York Times, Aug. 22, 1967.) He was elected to the board of directors and remained with the company until 1976. (Frederick Haas, 85, Ex-Counsel at Liggett. New York Times, Oct. 4, 1997.) Ushers at his wedding included William Skinner Kilborne and John Eliot Bowles of New York; Stanley Evert Fuller of Akron, Ohio; Charles Seymour Jr. of Washington, DC; Joseph H. Johnson of Hartford, Conn., and Lyman Spitzer Jr. of New Haven, all S&B 1935; and classmates Richard Hine Lynch and James Edward Spalding. (Miss Mary Helen Parke Wed to Frederick Peter Haas In Ceremony at New Haven. New York Times, Feb. 9, 1941.) Haas was an usher at the weddings of Lynch and Spalding. (Judith Enwright New Haven Bride. New York Times, Jul. 31, 1949; Mary Waterbury A Bride in Darien. New York Times, Jun. 5, 1955.)

L&M 1967 Annual Report / tobacco document

His father, John George Haas, graduated from Yale in 1903. He was assistant attorney at The Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, 1914-1919; general counsel of the Norwich Union Indemnity Company, 1919-1921; and a member of the legal staff of The Association of Life Insurance Presidents, 1935-37; and advisory counsel for other corporations. Charlotte Alice vonWiegand was a sister. (John G. Haas. New York Times, Dec. 21, 1937; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1937-1938, pp. 108-109.) His brother, John George Haas 3d, married a daughter of Rev. Dr. Rockwell Harmon Potter, Dean of the Hartford Theological Seminary. (Miss Jean Potter Becomes A Bride. New York Times, Aug. 9, 1933.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1937-1938 / Yale University Library (pdf, 305 pp)

Liggett & Myers 1968

Directors: J. Bowling Anderson, William W. Bates Jr., S. Bacon Fuller, Frederick P. Haas, Milton E. Harrington, James G. Huckabee Jr., Robert F. Hunsicker, Howard W. McCall, Ralph P. Moore, Jonathan W. Old Jr., Edward J. Parrish, Abraham Rosenberg, Frederick Sheffield, Robert L. Taylor, Edgar M. Waller Jr., Ogden White, Samuel White. (Liggett & Myers Incorporated 1968 Annual Report, p. 4.)

L&M 1968 Annual Report / tobacco document

Ogden White, Harvard 1931

Ogden White, a general partner of the international banking firm of White, Weld & Co., was elected to the board of directors of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. in 1968. Also in 1968, he was a trustee of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. In 1946, he had been chairman of the fund drive of the Council for Heart Disease, organized by Charles Proctor Cooper, president of Columbia Presbyterian Hospital and a director of the Guaranty Trust. (Dewey Helps Drive Against Heart Ills. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1946.) Mrs. Ogden White raised funds for Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer fund in 1950. (Fan Ball At Plaza Aids Cancer Fund. New York Times, Dec. 14, 1950.) Ogden White joined Memorial Hospital's board of managers in 1950 and was named a vice president in 1952. He served subsequently as a member of the executive committees of both the hospital, which is the clinical unit of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and as a trustee and vice chairman of the center. He was an emeritus member of the board of the cancer center at his death. He was president and a trustee of the Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases from 1962 to 1965 and chairman of the board from 1965 to 1971. He was the son of Alexander M. White, founder of the investment banking concern of White, Weld & Company, and became a general partner of the concern in 1954. He retired in 1971, and White, Weld was absorbed by Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith in 1978. He was born in Brooklyn and graduated from Harvard University in 1931. He then worked with the engineering and consulting concern of Stone & Webster Inc. During World War II he served with the Foreign Economic Administration and then was the United States's executive officer on the Allied Combined Production and Resources Board. After the war, he was associated with banking interests headed by Laurance S. Rockefeller until he joined White, Weld. (Ogden White, 75, Ex-Banker and Memorial Hospital Head. By Walter H. Waggoner. New York Times, Oct. 4, 1984.) His daughter, Alexandra White, married Robert E. Strawbridge 3d, who was "with the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York." He was the son of Robert E. Strawbridge Jr., a member of the Board of Managers of Memorial Hospital. (Alexandra White and a Bank Aide Marry in Jersey. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1964.)

His sister, Elinor White, married Edward G. Janeway, Yale 1922. (Janeway-White. New York Times, May 24, 1925.) [He was the son of Dr. Theodore C. Janeway, Yale 1891, who had been a member of the board of scientific directors of the Rockefeller Institute.] He was a self-employed Wall Street investment broker until World War II, when he joined the Navy. After the war, he moved to Londonderry, Vt. and became a state legislator. (Edward G. Janeway, 84, Dies; Former Senator in Vermont. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1986.)

His brother, Alexander Moss White, Harvard 1925, joined White, Weld & Co. in 1930, became a partner in 1933, and managing partner in 1937. He joined the Harvard Committee on University Resources in 1951, where he raised $50 million as chairman of its fundraising campaign. One of his daughters married George G. Montgomery Jr. (Alexander White, Banker, Dies; Led Natural History Museum. New York Times, Nov. 29, 1968.)

Ogden White's father was Alexander Moss White, Harvard 1892, who spent three years with Spencer Trask & Co. In 1895 he and George B. Moffat formed Moffat & White, which dissolved in 1915 when he formed White, Weld & Co. with Francis M. Weld. (A.M. White Dies; Investnent Banker. New York Times, Sep. 22, 1929.) His wife was Elsie Ogden, daughter of Col. and Mrs. Willis L. Ogden of Brooklyn. (Harvard College Record of the Class of 1892, 1907, p. 154.)

Harvard College Record of the Class of 1892, p. 154 / Google Books

Ogden White's aunt, Frances Hillard White, married William Emerson (Harvard 1895), brother of Dr. Haven Emerson. He was Dean of the School of Architecture, chairman of the Unitarian Service Committee from 1940-1953, and a life member of the M.I.T. Corporation. (William Emerson of M.I.T. Is Dead. New York Times, May 5, 1957.)

Ogden White's grandfather was William Augustus White, Harvard 1863. He was Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Washington Water Power Company of Spokane, Washington. (Report of the Secretary of the Class of 1863 of Harvard College, June 1903, to June, 1913, p. 115.)

Harvard College Class of 1863, p115 / Google Books

L&M 1969 Annual Report / tobacco document
L&M 1970 Annual Report / tobacco document

Earl G. Graves

Earl Gilbert Graves, President of Earl G. Graves Publishing Co., was elected to the board of directors in 1971. He was a former aide to Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, and coordinator for minority groups in the Humphrey/Muskie presidential campaign. (Humphrey Aide Named. New York Times, Oct. 15,1968.) Graves was one of five former RFK aides who received grants from the Ford Foundation under McGeorge Bundy, Skull & Bones 1940. "Rep. John Byrnes (R-Wis) referred to it acidly as 'severance pay.'" (5 RFK Aides Defend Grants. By Bruce Galphin. Washington Post Times Herald Feb. 27, 1969.) Graves founded Black Enterprise magazine at the end of 1969, with a $175,000 loan from the Chase Manhattan Bank. Its advertisers included United Air Lines, U.S. Steel, and IBM. (Among the Media. By Ronald L. Soble. LA Times, Apr. 9, 1974.) Graves helped with funding for the National Medical Fellowship when its grants from the Alfred P. Sloan Jr. and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation ran out. (Minority Scholarship Organization To Halve Aid for Medical Students. (New York Times, Jul. 16, 1975.) He was a director of ITT from 1977 to 1981. (Earl G. Graves Is Named to ITT Board of Directors. Washington Post, Dec. 20, 1977; Executive Changes. New York Times, Mar. 13, 1981.) In 1984, he was elected to the board of Rohm and Haas. "Mr. Graves serves as a Director of Aetna, Inc., AMR Corporation (American Airlines), DaimlerChrysler AG Corporation, Federated Department Stores, Inc., and Rohm & Haas Corporation. In addition, Mr. Graves serves as a volunteer on the boards of TransAfrica Inc. and the American Museum of Natural History and Planetarium." (The Biography of Dr. Earl G. Graves. Howard University, 2003.)

Earl G. Graves bio / Howard University

His son, Earl Gilbert Graves Jr., is a member of Skull & Bones 1984. (Roberta A. Daly Becomes a Bride in Philadelphia. New York Times, Sep. 11, 1988.) He is President and Chief Operating Officer for Earl G. Graves Publishing Company, publisher of Black Enterprise magazine. He is a director of AutoZone Inc. and Premier Automotive Group, and the Board of Advisors of Channel Thirteen (WNET).

Earl G. Graves Jr. bio / Keppler Speakers on Campus

Liggett & Myers 1973

Directors: William W. Bates Jr., Director of Research; Curt C. Brill, Executive Vice President; S. Bacon Fuller, President, Gary Tobacco Company; Earl G. Graves, President, Earl G. Graves Publishing Company; Frederick P. Haas, Vice President; Milton E. Harrington, Retired Chairman; James G. Huckabee Jr., Vice President; L. Emery Katzenbach, Chairman, White, Weld & Co.; Howard W. McCall Jr., Advisor and former President, Chemical Bank; Raymond J. Mulligan, President; Jonathan W. Old Jr., Executive Vice President; Richard M. Paget, President, Cresap, McCormick and Paget Inc.; Abraham Rosenberg, President, The Paddington Corp.; Harry W. Siefert, Vice President; Arthur E. Sloat, President, Cigarette Division. (Liggett & Myers 1973 Annual Report, p. 29.)

Liggett Group 1973 Annual Report / tobacco document

Richard M. Paget

Richard M. Paget graduated from Northwestern University in 1934. "He was a partner in the consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton before joining the Navy in 1941 and had done studies for the Army, the Navy and the War Production Board. He was a life trustee of Northwestern and helped establish the J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management there. He also served as a director of many companies, including the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, The Washington Post Company and Union Dime Savings Bank." He was one of the founders of the management consulting firm Cresap, McCormick and Paget in 1946. (Richart Paget, 78; Helped Reorganize Federal Government. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1991.) Paget was a member of the staff of Frank Knox, Secretary of the Navy, where he met met his future business partners. (Personality. A Triumvir at Westinghouse. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1958.) Circa 1964, he was a member of the Commerce and Industry Committee of the New York City Division of the American Cancer Society. (American Cancer Society, New York City Division, Inc. Attachment to letter from Edward L. Bond Jr., President of Young & Rubicam, to Richard Darrow of Hill & Knowlton, Mar. 30, 1964.) He was a member of the Ash Council that created the Environmental Protection Agency. The Ash Council also led to the creation of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the Nixon Administration. He was a director of Liggett & Myers from at least 1973 to 1978.

Commerce and Industry Committee, ACS NYC / tobacco document

Liggett Group 1974 Annual Report / tobacco document
Liggett Group 1975 Annual Report / tobacco document

In 1976, Fred P. Haas retired, and his law partner William H. Hogeland of Webster Sheffield was appointed General Counsel. In 1977, Roger W. Hooker Jr., former Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation, was elected Vice President of Government and Legal Affairs and Secretary; and Charlotte T. Reid, former U.S. Representative 1962-71 and Federal Communications Commissioner 1971-76, was elected a director.

Liggett Group 1976 Annual Report / tobacco document
Liggett Group 1977 Annual Report / tobacco document
Liggett Group 1978 Annual Report / tobacco document

Grand Metropolitan

In 1980, Liggett Group was purchased by Grand Metropolitan, a former United Kingdom-based company operating hotels, holiday centres, entertainment centres, public houses and casinos. Grand Metropolitan owned the Liggett Group and the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, and the Pinkerton Tobacco Company. Lazard Freres partner F.J. Pizzitola was a director of Grand Metropolitan.

Grand Metropolitan Annual Report 1982 / tobacco document
Grand Metropolitan Annual Report 1984 / tobacco document

Brooke Group

In 1986, Grand Metropolitan sold Liggett Group to Bennett Le Bow and Brooke Group.

Brooke Group 1992 Annual Report / tobacco document
Brooke Group 1993 10-K/A
Brooke Group 1994 10-K

Bennett LeBow and Carl C. Icahn of Icahn & Co., Inc. were partners of The Brooke Group, which owned the former Liggett & Myers Tobacco and Liggett Ducat in Russia, and also a major interest in the investment banking firm New Valley. The Brooke Group also held 4.6% of RJR Nabisco voting stock. (Do It Now. By Ronald A. Margulis. Tobacconist Apr. 8, 1996.)

Do It Now, Tobacconist 1996 / tobacco document

Brooke Group announced its settlement of tobacco-related claims with the states of Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, and West Virginia. With Orwellian verbiage, they declared that "The five states and the Castano plaintiffs have agreed that they will not seek to enjoin the spinoff of Nabisco to RJR Nabisco shareholders if Brooke's nominees are elected to the RJR Nabisco Board of Directors." (Brooke Agrees to Settle Tobacco Litigation With 5 States. Press Release, Mar. 15, 1996.) The nominees included Ronald Folford, the former CEO of Imperial Tobacco; and Dale Hanson, who had been employed by the State of Wisconsin Investment Board before serving as the CEO of CalPERS from 1987 to 1994, then American Partners Capital Group. (Former Calpers Chief Joining ICN's Board. By Edward Wyatt.New York Times, Aug. 23, 1995.) Hanson had also been retained by Philip Morris in 1994, "to offer advice in developing an on-going strategy to deal with certain public pension funds." (Minutes of a meeting of the Board of Directors of Philip Morris Companies Inc., Oct. 26, 1994.)

Brooke Agrees to Settle Tobacco Litigation With 5 States, 1996 / tobacco document
1997 Brooke Group Ltd. RJR Proxy Solicitation / tobacco document
PM Directors Minutes, Oct. 26, 1994 / tobacco document

Brooke Group 1996 Proxy

<= Back to The Power Elite Controls Both Sides
<= Back to The Health Establishment and The Order of Skull & Bones
<= HOME

cast 10-16-11