"Eric was a man of composite identity who felt American, German, and Jewish in turn. His Jewish identity was certainly the weaker part of his nature and he took actions in 1945 that would have been viscerally impossible for many Jews. He feared the Soviets would waylay many luminaries of German science; already, they were carting off rocket technology from Peenemunde. After alerting his dozing superiors to the scientific threat, Eric was authorized to requisition the Hotel Wittelsbacher Hof in Bad Kissingen. Working against time, he assembled a convoy of jeeps and trucks and rounded up German scientists and their families, housing them at the hotel. In a three-week period, he evacuated to the three Western zones about 160 scientists, including atomic researchers and V-2 rocket experts, a goodly number of whom ended up in the American space program. One of them was Wernher von Braun, who would visit Eric regularly after the war.
"This unquestionable triumph for Western security inevitably meant the rescue of many scientists tainted by Nazi associations. The V-2 rocket had not only killed thousands of British civilians, but twenty-five thousand concentration camp inmates had perished in the hellish underground tunnels that assembled it. Eric's own files contain a report that in the Nordhausen tunnels 150 slave laborers died every day producing the giant rockets. In Germany's atomic program, female inmates from Sachsenhausen were pressed into service to handle radioactive uranium plates. Eric himself would later secure reparations for victims of slave labor programs. Yet, as an intelligence officer in 1945, he showed no regrets about rescuing the scientists. If Eric had a strong sense of Jewish ethics, he didn't have a Jewish nervous system.
"Eric was equally forgiving of the brilliant but weird Otto Warburg, one of Germany's most distinguished biochemists. (Not to be confused with Otto Warburg, the botanist and Zionist mentioned earlier.) A cold, rigid bachelor, selfishly devoted to his work, Otto was descended from Simon von Cassel and hence was a distant relative of the Hamburg Warburgs. His father, Emil -- a distinguished physicist and friend of Einstein -- was a baptized Jew while his mother was a Christian. As a youthful prodigy Otto got a doctorate in chemistry and a medical degree. When he served in the Prussian Horse Guards in World War I, Einstein persuaded him that he was too promising a scientist to risk his life, and Otto, having won an Iron Cross, duly returned to Berlin.
"Eric enjoyed collecting people. By the time he first befriended Otto in 1933, the latter had already won the 1931 Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine for his work on respiratory enzymes. The Rockefeller Foundation had built Otto his own Institute for Cell Physiology at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (later the Max Planck Institute) in the Berlin suburb of Dahlem. The solitary Otto was oblivious of political realities. When he visited Kosterberg after Hitler seized power, he didn't know that Germany had left the League of Nations. Eric found Otto vain and pompous, but also witty, charming, and bristling with original insights. Whenever Otto telephoned in the 1930s, he asked Eric, "You don't smoke, young man?" and "You ride every day, young man?" Eric would reassure him on both counts. Throughout the 1930s, Eric supplied Otto with everything from books to riding breeches.
"The Nazis didn't bother Otto, who treasured the seclusion of his Berlin lab. At one point, he discussed with Max and Eric taking a post in a British university, "but imagine if I had to talk with the other Professors, and above all with their wives!" he said. In April 1933, when the Interior Ministry expelled all Jewish scientists from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Otto and other directors were spared. In 1937, Max Warburg was chased from the Kaiser Wilhelm board -- which was, by then, performing nasty racial research masquerading as science -- but Otto remained.
"Otto's survival in Nazi Germany aroused considerable controversy in the scientific community. In 1935, Hitler had a polyp removed from his vocal cords. Afterward, he dreaded that he would develop cancer and hoped Otto might devise a cure. Indeed, during his career, Otto would make notable strides in cancer research, showing the carcinogenic nature of food additives and cigarette smoke and demonstrating how cancer cells are destroyed by radiation. He became so obsessed with environmental carcinogens that he would not eat store-bought bread and had his own organic garden to produce fruits and vegetables. Otto displayed a certain arrogant idealism during the Third Reich. Outspokenly critical of the Nazis, he retained a Hungarian Jew, Erwin Haas, as his technician until 1938. When the Gestapo challenged Haas, Otto replied that he thought the anti-Jewish laws applied solely to German Jews!
"In 1941, Otto lost his post briefly because of his Jewish ancestry, but a few weeks later received a personal order from Hitler's Chancellery to resume work on his cancer research. Otto's Reichswehr friends got Goring to take a second look at his genealogy, which produced a convenient finding that Otto was just one-quarter Jewish. Otto was content to profit from this sleazy maneuvering. As Otto's biographer, Hans Krebs, later wrote, "Warburg's willingness to let his Jewish blood be diluted in this way, and thus to make a pact with the Nazis, incensed colleagues outside Germany."
"In 1944, Otto won a second Nobel Prize for his enzyme work, but Hitler decreed that Germans couldn't accept Nobel Prizes. Because he had narrowly missed winning in the late 1920s, had won in 1931, and had won but couldn't accept the award in 1944, Otto entered that rarified circle of scientists who have been considered three times for the Nobel Prize. He justified his decision to stay in Nazi Germany by claiming that he was performing extremely important cancer research that would save lives and that he couldn't transfer his research operation abroad.
"At war's end, Otto didn't shrink from instructing the advancing Soviets about his own importance. "Do you know who I am?" he said. "The famous Nobel Prize winner, Professor Otto Warburg from Berlin." Once the Soviets let American troops into Berlin, Eric scouted out Otto, who remained in hiding. In a dramatic reunion, Otto walked out of a dark underground passage. For a few seconds, he actually exhibited human emotion, telling Eric tearfully, "I always knew the war would really be over only when you stood before me." Then Otto reverted to his workaholic self, telling Eric that he needed forty liters of petrol to pick up scientific instruments. When Eric said this was forbidden, Otto scoffed. "I couldn't care less; all I want is the 40 liters of petrol." Eric obliged him. Until Otto died in 1970, Eric showed a great solicitude for him. In his last letter to Eric, Otto wrote, "I shall get the third Nobel Prize for us, because in one or two years we shall have resolved the problem of cancer."Otto Warburg biography / Nobel website
"To conclude the discussion on the prime cause of cancer, the virus-theory of cancer may be mentioned. It is the most cherished topic of the philosophers of cancer. If it were true, it would be possible to prevent and cure cancer by the methods of virology, and all carcinogens could be eaten or smoked freely without any danger, if only contact with the cancer virus would be avoided.
"It is true that some virus-caused cancer occur[s] in animals, but no one sure human virus-cancer has been observed so far, whereas innumerable substances cause cancer without viruses in animals and man. Thus viruses do not meet the demands of Pasteur, that it must be possible to trace the prime cause in every case of the disease. Therefore science classifies viruses as remote causes of cancer, leading to anaerobiosis, the prime cause, that meets the demands of Pasteur.
"Many may remember how anaerobiosis as prime cause of cancer was recently disputed emphatically, when one single cancer - the slow Morris hepatomas - was believed (wrongly) to lack in fermentation. In contrast the virus theory is adhered to although all cancers of man are lacking virus-origin. This means the surrender of the principles of Pasteur and the relapse into bygone times of medicine."
In fact, numerous cancers are now known to have actually been caused by viruses, which no one had cared to look for. So his claims against viral causation rested on the pretense that absence of evidence is the same as evidence of absence. And his pet theory of anaerobiosis merely confuses the effect of selection pressure favoring anaerobic metabolism, especially in the poorly supplied centers of tumors, with causation.
And, although his theory is no longer respectable even at the National Cancer Institute, it lives on as the darling of cancer-cure quacks - and of the buffoons who pretend to be smokers' right advocates. The United Pro Choice Smokers' Rights Newsletter, which features the same clique that dominates FORCES (Rosalind Marimont, Wanda Hamilton, Martha Perske, et al.) peddles Otto Warburg's old garbage to us in its modern reincarnation as the "Antineoplastic Vitamin B-17" aka the Laetrile scam. Their link to "Cancer Fighting Foods" goes to a reprint of Ernst I. Krebs Jr.'s 1970 article in the Journal of Applied Nutrition.United Pro Choice Smokers Rights Newsletter
It had originally been proposed that Otto Heinrich Warburg share the 1926 Nobel Prize with Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, to whom it was awarded "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma." But the "nematode" that he claimed caused cancer in the stomachs of rats turned out not to exist, and this debacle helped the infection-denialists in the chemical carcinogenesis camp. "Fibiger's work immediately led the Japanese pathologist Yamagiwa Katusaburo to produce cancer in laboratory animals by painting their skins with coal-tar derivates, a procedure soon adopted by Fibiger himself." (Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger. WhoNamed It, accessed 10-16-09.) "Fibiger fulfilled a large number of official missions and took part in the direction of numerous institutions," including serving as President of the Danish Medical Association's Cancer Commission and the National Radium Committee. (Johannes Fibiger. Nobelprize.org.)Fibiger bio / Whonamedit.com
p53 Regulates Mitochondrial Respiration. S Matoba, J-G Kang, WD Patino, A Wragg, M Boehm, O Gavrilova, PJ Hurley, F Bunz, PM Hwang. Science 2006 16 Jun;312(5780):1650-1653. "The energy that sustains cancer cells is derived preferentially from glycolysis. This metabolic change, the Warburg effect, was one of the first alterations in cancer cells recognized as conferring a survival advantage. Here, we show that p53, one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancers, modulates the balance between the utilization of respiratory and glycolytic pathways. We identify Synthesis of Cytochrome c Oxidase 2 (SCO2) as the downstream mediator of this effect in mice and human cancer cell lines. SCO2 is critical for regulating the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) complex, the major site of oxygen utilization in the eukaryotic cell. Disruption of the SCO2 gene in human cancer cells with wild-type p53 recapitulated the metabolic switch toward glycolysis that is exhibited by p53-deficient cells. That SCO2 couples p53 to mitochondrial respiration provides a possible explanation for the Warburg effect and offers new clues as to how p53 might affect aging and metabolism." Not noted in this abstract is the fact that the E6 protein of oncogenic strains of the human papillomavirus, the polyoma virus large T antigen, the adenovirus E1B 55KD protein, and the X protein of hepatitis B virus (HBx), all bind to the p53 protein and inactivate it.Matoba et al. / Science 2006
Beyond aerobic glycolysis: transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis. RJ DeBerardinis, A Mancuso, E Daikhin, I Nissim, M Yudkoff, S Wehrli, CB Thompson. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 Dec 4;104(49):19345-19350. "The function of the TCA cycle and oxidative metabolism in tumor cells has been the subject of discussion and controversy. This stemmed in part from Warburg's claim that the root cause of cancer was a permanent impairment of oxidative metabolism. However, the data here reveal a complete TCA cycle allowing some [2-13C]glutamate to be formed during culture with [1,6-13C2]glucose (Fig. 2A). Citrate oxidation was limited by efflux from the mitochondria to supply fatty acid synthesis."DeBerardinis - Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 full article / PubMed Central
Glutamine metabolism is essential for human cytomegalovirus infection. JW Chambers, TG Maguire, JC Alwine. J Virol 2010;84:1867-1873. "Human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were more viable than uninfected cells during glucose starvation suggesting that an alternate carbon source was used. We have determined that infected cells require glutamine for ATP production whereas uninfected cells do not. This suggested that during infection glutamine is used to fill the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). In agreement, glutamine uptake and ammonia production increased in infected cells, as did the activities of glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, the enzymes needed to convert glutamine to alpha-ketogluterate to enter the TCA cycle. Infected cells starved for glutamine beginning 24 hours post infection failed to produce infectious virions. Both ATP and viral production could be rescued in glutamine starved cells by TCA intermediates alpha-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate and pyruvate, confirming that in infected cells a program is induces allowing glutamine to be used anaplerotically. Thus HCMV infection activates the mechanisms needed to switch the anaplerotic substrate from glucose to glutamine to accommodate the biosynthetic and energetic needs of the viral infection and to allow glucose to be used biosynthetically."Chambers / J Virol 2010 abstract
Siegmund Warburg, another of Eric's relatives, was a militant anti-smoker who habitually used tantrums to intimidate people. He was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb and his firm SG Warburg and Co. represented Kuhn, Loeb in London. Cummins Engine Company was one of their clients.
Burk's obituary from a quack website: "In Germany he had investigated nitrogen fixation with Otto Meyerhof and also befriended Otto Warburg, both Nobel Prize winners, and their students. He maintained a forty-year friendship with Warburg, 'my greatest mentor,' and perhaps the world's greatest biochemist, who worked with him in Bethesda, Maryland, on photosynthesis in 1949. From 1950 up until 1969, the year before Warburg's death, Burk spent most summers in Berlin and translated many of Warburg's 'most important contributions on cancer and photosynthesis...' (2). In 1953, he became a foreign member of Warburg's Institute."
"On November 18, 1974, after his retirement, Burk founded the Dean Burk Foundation 'devoted to research on health, nutrition, and chronic and degenerative diseases including cancer.' Two major reports (called 'Briefs') were published. One focused on vitamin B-17 and also alluded briefly to vitamin B-15 and vitamin B-13... [sic].
"The other major focus during his retirement years was on the link between fluoridation and cancer. As a result of Dr. Burk's expert views on conventional as well as nonconventional cancer therapies, he became a sought-after speaker before nonmainstream health groups during the late 1960s and an embarassment to his superiors at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), who advocated only the traditional medical cancer therapies of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments. The NCI therefore attempted to muzzle Burk when he was invited to speak to many groups on nonorthodox treatments he was acquainted with that had shown promise. Clinton R. Miller, legislative advocate in Washington, D.C. for the National Health Federation (NHF), knew that Burk was being harassed by the NCI -- the notoriety of the maverick head of Cytochemistry was very well known -- and lobbied the NCI through Congress to release Burk to speak to health groups. The NCI refused to approve Burk's talks, but they did not **positively** disapprove his appearances, a distinction bureaucrats might be expected to make. On Sunday, July 16, 1969, during his weekend, for example, Burk delivered a talk on 'Healthier Cigarettes and Cancer Prevention,' to the International Association of Cancer Victims and Friends, Inc. in Los Angeles. The NCI frowned with disapproval; the IACVF groups clamored for more." (In Memorium -- Dean Burk (1904-1988). HL McKinney. Flouride 1989 July;22:3.)Burk obituary / bruha.com
Concerning Burk's supposed "muzzling:" His snide introduction to his lecture at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on July 6, 1969, demonstrates how smugly unaccountable he was: "Before I begin I must make it abundantly clear that the facts, views and interpretations I shall present this afternoon do not necessarily coincide with those of the administrators of the National Cancer Institute, all honorable gentlemen in the sense of Mark Anthony, and, by virtue of their positions, of course possessed of infinite wisdom, which I am not; what I can offer, however, is, on the one hand, much longer staff service in the National Cancer Institute (over thirty years) than any of them, and, on the other hand, far more personal and direct experimental studies from the laboratory bench, that final arbitor of all things scientific." [Sic - not in the real world of cancer treatment, where marvels in petrie dishes that don't pan out are a dime a dozen -cast]
His pretenses about creating a "healthier cigarette" are emptier still. Those who delude themselves that this approach is the answer appear to be too stupid to realize that, by the time the smoke has been diluted and filtered into nothingness, they might as well not have lit the cigarette at all! And apart from this specious pretense, his introduction amounted to nothing more than a standard anti-smoking rant.Introductory Remarks / tobacco document
And here is a "For the Record" memo of a discussion with Burk by Carl G. Baker, the Acting Director of the National Cancer Institute, which dealt with the issue of equity as well as scientific points: "I told him I was concerned also about his personally agreeing to test filters and perhaps other material and devices, including those from profit making organizations, on two counts: (1) We have established in conjunction with the Tobacco Working Group a critical set of criteria for testing devices and modifications proposed by individual inventors and organizations. However, we have told all of them that we will not accept their devices or modifications for testing until after we have obtained baseline data in the selected assay systems and are ready to enter all the (reasonable) devices or inventions for evaluation at the same time to ensure equity. This equitable treatment is threatened to be upset by Dr. Burk since he, as a member of the NCI, is telling a few individuals that he will assay their devices. I asked him whether he had developed any means for equitable treatment of all those who might wish to have their materials tested. (2) I stated that I was particularly concerned about this since it also appeared that he was performing what might be considered developmental research for profit making organizations with the taxpayers' money and even in some cases selectively providing an endorsement of a product by a Government employee. His answer was that he was obtaining certain information and materials from these individuals which helped him in his own research; therefore, he did not see that this was a problem. Again, I felt that I had not quite communicated the main points." (For the Record. Carl G. Baker, M.D., Acting Director, National Cancer Institute, Dec. 22, 1969.)Baker, 1969 / tobacco document
Of course, Burk could walk away smirking because his credulous followers would merely concoct myths about his supposed oppression by the authorities to rationalize his behavior. Those people are as corrupt and deceitful in all their dealings as they are in their bogus "science." And he was certainly treated with kid gloves in comparison to the way that Bernice Eddy had been treated for speaking out about SV40 in polio vaccines. As for why some people were treated better than others, remember the famous anecdote about who was in control:
"The budget prospects for NIH in fiscal 1971, moreover, appeared as bleak as the previous year.... Most of the NIH research institutes, especially those supporting basic research, faced further budget reductions. The acute distress being experienced by the life-science community was diagnosed in clinical detail in February by three NIH officials. The implied prescription was more money, but prospects for therapy being administered in a timely manner were not good.
"The National Cancer Institute fared much better than did the NIH as a whole. The 1971 budget request was for $202 million, up $20 million over the expected appropriation for fiscal 1970. But Mary Lasker was not satisfied. She invited Robert Marston and Robert Berliner to luncheon at Deeda Blair's home in March. Cryptically, as the two NIH officials were leaving, she asked, "You don't mind if we get you some more money for cancer, do you?" Neither man quite knew what she had in mind. What she had in mind became more apparent when the House appropriations subcommittee, in July, recommended $227 million for NCI. The Senate, three months later, recommended $235 million. The fiscal 1971 appropriations bill, signed into law on January 11, 1971, represented a compromise of $230 million." (Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971. By Richard Rettig. Princeton University Press, 1977.)
See how today's health establishment praises the pseudo-science of Nazi Germany - not only because they hold exactly the same values and health prejudices as the Nazis, but because they use the same corrupt and fraudulent methodologies to rationalize them!
"The medical fraternity of the notorious Third Reich emerge here in unconventional guise, not only as the champions of wholegrain bread, soya beans (popularly denominated "Nazi beans"), and extensive medico-botanical gardens at Dachau and Auschwitz, but also as the guys who launched a powerful antismoking campaign, waged war on cancer (in pursuit of its "final solution"), identified many workplace causes of cancer, and imposed bans on asbestos and carcinogenic pesticides. Nazi researchers were the first to prove conclusively that smoking was the major cause of lung cancer. Indeed, as early as 1936 - the year that the young Richard Doll was attending the lectures in Frankfurt of the SS radiologist Professor Hans Holfelder - they had gathered sufficient statistical evidence to prove the cancerous hazards of what they labelled "passive smoking" (passivraucher). Furthermore, suggests Proctor, it is probably as a result of the preventive measures that the Nazi regime undertook with regard to smoking - health education and the banning of "lung masturbation" in trams, trains, and public buildings - that significantly lower rates of smoking related mortality from cancer occurred among German women after the war compared with US women." (Roger Cooter, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, reviewing The Nazi War on Cancer, by Robert N. Proctor. BMJ 2000 11 Mar;320:721.)
"The most original aspect of Schairer and Schöniger's study is their analysis of how lung cancer rates correlate with smoking behavior. Following closely the method pioneered by Muller, the authors sent questionnaires to the relatives of 195 lung cancer victims, inquiring into the smoking habits of the deceased. Going beyond Müller, however, they sent an additional 555 questionnaires to the families of patients who had died of other kinds of cancer -- 320 stomach, 108 colon, 60 prostate, 35 esophagus, and 32 tongue - the assumption being that smokers would be more likely to develop certain kinds of cancers than others. Questionnaires were also sent to 700 male residents of Jena aged 53-54, the average age at death of the lung cancer victims, to determine smoking habits among a population seemingly free of cancer." The paper was "Lungenkrebs und Tabakverbrauch," Zeitschrift für Krebsforschung 1943;54:261-269. (The Campaign Against Tobacco. In: The Nazi War on Cancer. By Robert N. Proctor, page 215.)
After World War II, the American Cancer Society embraced the Nazis' pseudo-science and took up the persecution where the Nazis left off. All of the anti-smokers' claims, and particularly their passive smoking lies, are based on Nazi-era pseudo science - on nothing but lifestyle questionnaires, which ignore the role of infection. This type of study is INHERENTLY DEFECTIVE, because they will ALWAYS falsely blame other things for diseases that are really caused by infection. They are guilty of flagrant scientific fraud for ignoring more than fifty studies, which indicate that HPV causes at least a quarter of non-small cell lung cancers, and that this is at least ten times more lung cancers than those charlatans pretend are caused by secondhand smoke. For socioeconomic reasons, passive smokers as well as smokers are more likely to have been exposed to this virus, so their defective studies are cynically designed to falsely blame passive smoking for lung cancers caused by HPV.
The Conspiracy of Silence About HPV and Lung Cancer - links to all passive smoking studies cited by the anti-smoking charlatans, particularly including the Surgeon General, showing that all of them are nothing but lifestyle questionnaires.
HPV Causes Lung Cancer - links to the 50-plus studies on HPV and lung cancer.
The Percentage of Cancer Caused By Infection
Today's health Nazis are likewise guilty of using this same fraud of deliberately using defective studies in order to falsely blame smoking and passive smoking for other diseases that are also actually caused by infection, to which smokers, passive smokers and non-smokers are not equally exposed.
The Big Lie of "David vs Goliath" - The Nazis' propaganda campaign was long ago surpassed by the American Cancer Society's - which was ring-led by unscrupulous liars from the U.S. Office of War Information, Clifton R. Read and William B. Lewis.
"'Yes, there are many donations from America,' he said wistfully, 'but there is a curious thing about most of these gifts since the war. They stipulated explicitly that the funds must be used by the 'new generation.' A recent gift by the Rockefeller Foundation and one by Dr. Sophie A. Nordhoff, of Washington, D.C., have such clauses. This excludes us older men, who have many decades of experience, from the benefit of such donations. The pioneers who have devoted their lives to the advancement of science and who have made many a notable discovery are, so to speak, left out in the cold, while their young and inexperienced assistants get all the technical facilities and equipment." ([Interview with Professor Dr. Jacob Wolff, German Cancer expert.] Whiff By Officer Ground for Raid. By S.D. Weyer, I.N.S. Indiana Evening Gazette, Aug. 29, 1923.)
Chapter Four, Standard Oil Fuels World War II. In: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, by Antony Sutton.Sutton, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler Ch. 4 / Reformed Theology
Note that the Rockefeller Foundation funded not only Otto Warburg, but also the American Cancer Society's predecessor, American Society for the Control of Cancer, and the Harvard School of Public Health (the leading purveyors of the specious ideologies of "healthy foods" and the imaginary dangers of particulates) as well. And it was Rockefeller's stooge, Sen. Royal S. Copeland of New York, who introduced the bill creating the U.S. National Cancer Institute in 1937. (Senate Votes For $1,450,000 Cancer Center. Washington Post, Jul. 23, 1937.)
Robert N. Proctor claims that "The Nazi war on cancer has been ignored because we do not seem to be comfortable with the idea that people with rotten ethical ideas could have been 'ahead of their time' in spheres of medicine and public health." THIS IS A LIE - it has been ignored because the health ideologies of which he is an advocate are based on the same rotten and corrupt pseudo-science used in Nazi Germany. AND, they have been shoved down the public's throats by demagogues with the same "rotten ethical ideas," who are constantly promoted by their media accomplices as supposed paragons of virtue!
Furthermore, the Nazis could try to hide behind the excuse of ignorance, while the American Cancer Society and its fellow travelers CANNOT! And the worst thing about the health establishment, the thing that is the most in need of reform, is that it has been controlled by ideologues of the Nazi persuasion for the last seven decades!<= Back to E.M. Warburg Pincus & Co.