Members of the Order have been involved in the oil industry since before it began. When New York lawyer George H. Bissell (a Dartmouth graduate) organized the Pennsylvania Rock-Oil Company in 1854, he sent his sample to Benjamin Silliman Jr., Skull & Bones 1837, Professor of Chemistry at Yale University, for analysis. Through Silliman, other New Haven investors got involved, and they shortly took over the venture, and renamed it the Seneca Oil Company in 1858. (The Drake Oil Well. By Carron Garvin-Donohue and Jill Birgenthal. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1979.) "In 1854, the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company, the first oil company in America, was founded. Obtaining land in the southeast corner of Crawford County from a lumber company, the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company sent samples of oil trenched from this land to Yale University for study. While the study yielded promising results for the potential uses of oil, including lighting, the depression of 1857 temporarily halted their plans. During that time, several of the company's stockholders reorganized under the name of the Seneca Oil Company. Leasing the land from the Rock Oil Company, they were now ready to begin an experiment trying to drill for oil. Edwin L. Drake was hired as the manager for the Seneca Oil Company by James Townsend that same year. Townsend had invested heavily in stock in the Rock Oil Company and had led the reorganization of the Seneca Oil Company." (Drake's Oil Well. explorePAhistory.com.) Benjamin Silliman's sister Julia was married to Rev. Edward W. Gilman, brother of Daniel Coit Gilman, S&B 1852.Drake's Oil Well / explorePAhistory.com
Drake's employer James Mulford Townsend (1825-1901), President of the City Savings Bank of New Haven, was not a member of The Order, but his two sons, a nephew and a grandson became members. (James M. Townsend Dead. New York Times, Nov. 21, 1901.) William Kneeland Townsend, S&B 1871, became a US Circuit Court judge and a professor in the Yale law school. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 750.) James Mulford Townsend, S&B 1874, was a corporate lawyer for the Du Pont Powder Company. At the time of his death, he was being sued as a personal attorney and executor of a will bequeathing himself $800,000, and the heirs only $100,000. (James M. Townsend Dead. New York Times, Nov. Nov. 1, 1913; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1910-1915, p. 610.) (James Mulford Townsend B.A. 1908. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1949-1950, pp 82-83.)[WK Townsend] Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 750 / Google Books
Horace Ellsworth Andrews, Ph.B. 1882: "Horace Ellsworth Andrews was born in Cleveland Ohio, February 14, 1863. He was the second son of Samuel Andrews, who had come from Oaksey, England, shortly after his marriage to Mary Cole, to go into business in America. Mr. Andrews was the first discoverer of the Pennsylvania oil wells, and at once associated himself with his friend, Mr. John D. Rockefeller, and they became the founders of the present Standard Oil Company." After graduating from Yale, his son Horace took charge of his father's affairs in Cleveland. After 1885, he began investing in street railways, and was a director of many lines in New York, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Texas, and in Cuba. (Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 1155.)Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20 / Internet Archive
William Rockefeller's son, Percy Avery Rockefeller, was Skull & Bones, 1900. Oliver Burr Jennings, a 10% partner of Standard Oil in 1870, was not a member of The Order; but two sons, the first cousins of Percy Rockefeller, were. Walter Jennings, S&B 1880, was a director of the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, president of the National Fuel Gas Company, and a trustee of the New York Trust Company [out of whose 26 trustees in Jan. 1933, 7 bore the names of Bonesmen] and the Continental Trust Company; and a governor of New York Hospital 1916-33. He was a brother-in-law of Dr. Walter B. James, S&B 1879. (Walter Jennings Dies in the South. New York Times, Jan. 10, 1933; Yale University Obituary Record of Graduates 1932-1933, pp. 42-43.) Oliver Gould Jennings, S&B 1887, was on the boards of Bethlehem Steel, United States Industrial Alcohol Company, McKesson & Robbins, Inc., Kingsport Press, Signature Company, National Fuel Gas Company, and Grocery Store Products, Inc. (Oliver Jennings, Capitalist, Dead. New York Times, Oct. 14, 1936.) The Right Reverend Chauncey Bunce Brewster, S&B 1868, retired Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Connecticut, pronounced benediction at his funeral. (Oliver G. Jennings Buried in Fairfield. New York Times, Oct. 17, 1936; Bulletin of Yale University Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1936-1937, pp. 42-43.) O.B. Jennings's daughter, Helen, married Dr. Walter Belknap James, S&B 1879, a trustee and major benefactor of Columbia University, and former president of the New York Academy of Medicine. Benjamin Brewster Jennings, the grandson of O.B. Jennings and Benjamin Brewster of the 1890 Standard Oil Trust, was a trustee of the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, and Chairman of the Board of Managers of Memorial Hospital. O.G. Jennings' son, Lawrence Kirktland Jennings, married Elizabeth Sage Holter, daughter of Edwin O. Holter (S&B 1894), treasurer of the New York Heart Association. (Nuptials of Miss Holter. New York Times, Mar. 5, 1944.)Obituary Record 1932-1933 / Yale University Library (pdf, 271 pp)
Under questioning by the Attorney General, John D. Rockefeller Sr. released the names of Standard Oil Trust holders who redeemed their certificates. They included William T. Wardwell, O.H. Payne, and Charles Pratt. (Standard Oil's Secrets. New York Times, Oct. 13, 1898.)
In 1927, John D. Rockefeller's grandson, John Rockefeller Prentice, was tapped for Skull & Bones, 1928, and his cousin, John Sterling Rockefeller, the grandson of William Rockefeller and son of William Rockefeller, Yale 1892, was tapped for Scroll & Key. (Senator's Son Gets Final Tap at Yale. New York Times, May 20, 1927.)
Allen Wardwell's father, William T. Wardwell (1827-1911), was born in Bristol, R.I. and moved to Michigan when he was nine. Four years later, he was sent to become a clerk for his uncle, Samuel W. Hawes, who was in the oil business in Buffalo, N.Y., where he eventually went into the oil business for himself. In 1875, his business was taken in by the Standard Oil Company, and he became the treasurer of the Devoe Manufacturing Company, a subsidiary of Standard. "Up to the early eighties Mr. Wardwell was a staunch Democrat. Then he became a Prohibitionist, devoting much energy and money to the advance of this cause. In 1886 he was a candidate for the Mayoralty of New York City on the Prohibition ticket, and for Governor of the State on the same ticket in 1900. He belonged to nearly every prominent temperance or prohibition organization in the country. He was for years a Director of the National Temperance Society, was Treasurer of the American Temperance Union, and Secretary of the National Prohibition Committee. For years he was one of the chief financial backers of The True Reform and other papers devoted to the cause of temperance." He was also the chief financial backer of the Red Cross Hospital, of which he was president at the time of his death. (Wm. T. Wardwell Dies Suddenly. New York Times, Jan. 4, 1911.) William T. Wardwell was a director of the Colonial Trust Company (Display Ad 18. New York Times, Oct. 14, 1897 p. 10, and Jan. 4, 1904 p. 13). He was one of the incorporators of the American National Red Cross in 1905.
William T. Wardwell's son, Allen Wardwell (1873-1953), was a member of Scroll & Key. (Yale Senior Societies. Boston Daily Globe, May 25, 1894.) He chose the music and wrote a waltz for a fraternity musical burlesque, "Mr. Bonaparte." H.W. Sage '95 and A.G.C. Sage '96 were also on the play committee. (Interesting Yale Doings. New York Times, May 13, 1895.) Allen Wardwell served as a Major in the American Red Cross in Russia (Wed Under Red Terror. New York Times, Dec. 26, 1918.) He was vice president of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce. (Campaign to Revive Trade With Russia. New York Times, Jun. 24, 1926.) He was a member of the Active Campaign Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer when it received an unconditional gift of $100,000 from John D. Rockefeller Jr. for its congress at Lake Mohonk in 1926. Allen Wardwell's second wife, Helen Rogers, was a niece of Francis Lynde Stetson, and Wardwell was an executor of Stetson's estate. (Married. New York Times, Oct. 15, 1903; Stetson Will Gives Estate to Williams. New York Times, Dec. 15, 1920.) He was a partner of Stetson, Jennings and Russell, which became Davis Polk Wardwell Gardiner & Reed, the counsel of the Guaranty Trust. His son, Edward R. Wardwell, was a member of Skull & Bones, 1927. (Other Wedding Plans. New York Times, Apr. 15, 1930.) Allen Wardwell was vice president of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce in 1929, and Reeve Schley was president. Both were directors and members of the executive committee. (Marxists.org.) Wardwell accompanied Averell Harriman in his mission to Moscow in 1941, then headed Russian War Relief Inc. in 1942. Davis Polk Wardwell et al. partner Henry C. Alexander of J.P. Morgan & Co. was vice chairman, and partner Frank Polk was a member of the executive committee. (Wardwell to Head Russian Aid Drive. New York Times, May 24, 1942.) Thomas J. Watson, president of International Business Machines Inc., was also on the board of directors. (Gen. Haskell is Elected. New York Times, Jun. 4, 1942.) Allen Wardwell was a director of the Bank of New York in 1953. (Display Ad 43. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1953 p. 39.) Allen Wardwell's law partner, Lansing P. Reed, S&B 1904, was a director of the Guaranty Trust from 1924 to 1933.American-Soviet Trade / Marxists.org
Mr. and Mrs. Oliver G. Jennings, Rockefeller publicist Ivy L. Lee, and Allen Wardwell were members of the campaign committee to raise money for the United Hospital Fund in 1919. Other fund raisers included Guaranty Trust / Central Trust directors/trustees Cornelius N. Bliss [Jr.], Adrian Iselin Jr., J.P. Morgan, Percy R. Pyne, George Emlen Roosevelt, James Speyer, and Albert H. Wiggin, and the wives of Speyer and Oliver Harriman; also Mrs. C.B. Alexander; M.N. Buckner (S&B 1895); Mrs. Benjamin Brewster (S&B 1882); W.V. Griffin; Ogden L. Mills; William Fellowes Morgan; Mrs. Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888); Carll Tucker; Frank S. Witherbee (S&B 1874); and A. Zinsser. The distribution committee included Otto T. Bannard (S&B 1876), Cornelius N. Bliss, and James Speyer. (Hospitals Seek $1,000,000. New York Times, Oct. 25, 1919.)
Allen Wardwell 2d and Reeve Schley 3d were ushers for James Cox Brady (Scroll & Keys 1957), a descendant of tobacco financier Anthony N. Brady, who married Joan Babcock, a great-great-granddaughter of Samuel D. Babcock. Nicholas F. Brady was best man for his brother. (Wedding June 27 For Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 2, 1957; L.I. Nuptials Held for Joan Babcock. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1957.)
Dan Wende Lufkin was the founder of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette with William H. Donaldson, S&B 1953. Lufkin is the great-grandson of Chauncey S. Lufkin, "manager for half a century of all of the producing branches of the Standard Oil Company, and discoverer and developer of the Rumanian oil fields... Mr. Lufkin, from 1889 until the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust, was the world expert of the Rockefeller corporation." He died in Lima, Ohio. His son, Elgood C. Lufkin, was president of the Texas Oil Company (Chauncey S. Lufkin, Well Finder of Standard, Dead. Boston Daily Globe, Feb. 23, 1918). Elgood C. Lufkin graduated from MIT as a mechanical engineer in 1888. He became a vice president of the Texas Company in 1909, and was a director of the Peoples Bank of Buffalo, N.Y. (Ad. 38. Bankers' Magazine, Dec. 1910;81(6):XIX), and later of the newly-formed Mercantile Trust & Deposit Company, of 115 Broadway, New York, whose directorate was "exceptionally strong and represents some of the strongest business and financial interests in the United States" (Display Ad 3. New York Times, Sep. 25, 1917 p. 2; The Mercantile Trust Company. Bankers' Magazine, Nov. 1919;99(5):693.). He became chairman of the board of the Texas Company in 1920, until resigning in 1926. He was later a director of the Equitable Trust Company of New York (Display Ad 127. New York Times, Jan. 3, 1930 p. 38; Elgood C. Lufkin, Oil Leader, Dead. New York Times, Oct. 10, 1935; Mrs. Elgood C. Lufkin. New York Times, Jan. 2, 1942.) The Equitable acquired Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette and its money management arm, Alliance Capital Management, L.P., in 1985.
Another son of Chauncey S. Lufkin, Chauncey Forbush Lufkin, graduated from Yale in 1915 and joined the Texas Company. Later he was director of the Sales Analysis Institute and an account executive at Geffen, Dunn & Co. He married Margaret Wende of Buffalo, and they were the parents of Peter Wende Lufkin, S&B 1949; Clarence F. Lufkin Jr., S&B 1951; and Dan Wende Lufkin, S&B 1953. (Chauncey Lufkin, A Publisher, 62. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1956; Deaths. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1977.) Dan Lufkin married a granddaughter of William Russell Grace, the founder of W.R. Grace & Co. One of Dan Lufkin's marriage announcements says that he is the grandson of Dr. and Mrs. Hamilton Wende of Buffalo, and the other that he is the grandson of Dr. and Mrs. Ernest Wende. Ushers included his classmate Baird C. Brittingham and Lawrence M. Nobel Jr. (Elise G. Blagden Will Be Married to Dan Lufkin. New York Times, Nov. 13, 1960; Elsie Grace Blagden Is Married Here. New York Times, Jan. 15, 1961.) [Brittingham's investment counseling company handled the Nobel Foundation's U.S. investments. Mrs. Lufkin's mother's brother-in-law's wife was a niece of George C. Clark, the first president of the American Society for the Control of Cancer.] Dr. Ernest Wende was the health Commissioner of Buffalo, N.Y. (Ernest Wende: A Memoir. By Adelbert Moot. Buffalo Historical Society, Apr. 18, 1916.) Hamilton H. Wende was district manager of Texas Oil in Buffalo (Texas Oil to Pay Men training. New York Times, Jul. 17, 1940), until he was appointed chief of the new facilities section of the marketing division in the Office of Petroleum Coordinator. (In Federal Oil Posts. New York Times, Nov. 14, 1942.) Torkild Rieber, the chairman of Texas Oil in 1940, resigned after his ties to German attorney Dr. Gerhard Westrick were exposed. (Chapter 5, I.T.T. Works Both Sides of the War. In: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. By Antony C. Sutton.) George Emlen Roosevelt, Lansing P. Reed, and other members of the Guaranty Trust are implicated in this exploit.Sutton, Ch. 5, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler / Reformed-Theology
"A new species of pastor flourished in the church of Luther and Calvin, the church of 'holy poverty.' In Minneapolis, toward 1888, the young preacher Frederick T. Gates had met with much success in raising huge sums of money among certain flour magnates for churches and universities. At a meeting with Rockefeller, Gates's mixture of fanatical zeal and business sense had cast its spell over the oil baron, who at this time was beginning to suffer the embarassment of his grotesque wealth: his earnings could scarcely be spent or even reinvested adequately, and at the same time they brought upon him the universal reproaches, the ignominy of a long succession of public trials, castigations and persecution. Now Gates showed himself a counselor able to guide Rockefeller both in this world and the next, as his confidential business agent he negotiated for him several remarkable transactions, such as the purchase of the limitless iron ore fields of the Merritt brothers ('the seven iron men') in Minnesota, which were bought during an emergency for a bagatelle; at the same time Gates, as the mentor of Rockefeller's soul, directed his prodigious investments in public charities which begun in 1890, were conducted upon a scale befitting the man's princely power, and most certainly fitted him to scale Heavan's walls. For the support of the college in Chicago, which had been languishing since 1856, Rockefeller was induced to subscribe $600,000 alone on condition that the pork-packers and dry-goods merchants of the Western metropolis contribute together an equal sum." And the attitude of the smug Baptist preachers who hoped to benefit: "'People charge Mr. Rockefeller with stealing the money he gave to the church,' said the pastor of the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church, Cleveland, 'but he has laid it on the alter and thus sanctified it.'" (Chapter Fourteen, The Robber Barons, by Matthew Josephson. Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934.) However, what they got for their moral corruption was a secular humanist institution anyhow. The flour magnates whom Gates elisted to help found the University of Chicago included the Pillsbury family, whose sons later became members of Skull & Bones.The Robber Barons, Ch. 14 / Yamaguchy
Frederick T. Gates' mother-in-law, Cordelia C. (Tague) Cahoon, widow of Lyman H. Cahoon who died in 1868, operated a millinery store in Racine, Wis., where she had lived since 1848. (Obituary. Racine Daily Journal, Jun. 20, 1899.) Her husband was born in the Rockefeller family's old home territory of Cuyoga County, N.Y. (Sprague Database, accessed 9-25-08.) Their son, Frederick Lamont Gates, graduated from Yale in 1909 and got his M.D. at Johns Hopkins in 1913. He was connected with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1913 to 1929, when he became a research fellow and lecturer in the Department of Physiology at Harvard. He was a member of the China Medical Board from 1916-1929. He died mysteriously in Boston from a fractured skull and brain hemorrhage, for which no explanation is given. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1932-1933, pp. 122-123.) His brother, Franklin Herbert Gates, Elihu 1912, was associated with the Chase National Bank from 1920-1932, as a second vice president since 1926.Lyman H. Cahoon / Sprague Database.org
Founding officers of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research: Dr. William H. Welch, Professor of Pathology at Johns Hopkins University, President; Dr. T.M[itchell] Prudden, Professor of Pathology at Columbia University, Vice President; Dr. L. Emmet Holt, Clinical Professor of Children's Diseases at Columbia, Secretary; Dr. C.A. Herter, Professor of Pathological Chemistry at the University of New York and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, Treasurer. Directors: Dr. H[erman] M. Biggs, director of laboratories for the Board of Health, New York City; Dr. Theobald Smith, Professor of Comparative Pathology at Harvard University; and Dr. Simon Flexner, Professor of Pathology at the University of Pennsylvania. (Mr. Rockefeller Gives $200,000 to Science. New York Times, June 2, 1901, p.1.)
Simon Flexner got his MD from the University of Louisville in 1899. In 1890, at the suggestion of his younger brother Abraham Flexner, he went to Johns Hopkins to study pathology under William Henry Welch. "In the years between 1901 and 1913 the Rockefeller philanthropies were organized on an increasingly regular basis. The General Education Board was established in 1903 with Wallace Buttrick as its president. In 1909 the China Medical Board was organized, and in the same year the Sanitary Commission to Eliminate Hookworm Disease was launched. In 1913 the International Health Commission (later Board) was founded with Wickliffe Rose as its director, and the Rockefeller Foundation, which had been operating for nearly a decade under John D. Rockefeller's direct supervision, was incorporated. Flexner became a trustee of the Foundation in 1913, along with John D. Rockefeller Jr., Frederick L. Gates, Henry Pratt Judson, Starr J. Murphy, Jerome D. Greene, Wickliffe Rose and Charles O. Heydt. Later, Charles William Eliot of Harvard and A. Barton Hepburn joined the Board." In 1928, on the grounds of duplication of effort and lack of supervision by the Foundation, it was completely reorganized, and the Division of Natural Sciences was created. Its successive directors were Max Mason, Hermann A. Spoerr, and Warren Weaver. (A Guide to Selected Files of the Professional Papers of Simon Flexner at the American Philiosophical Society, by Margaret Miller.)Simon Flexner papers / American Philosophical Society
"As Dr. Welch gradually retired, Father [Simon Flexner] stepped into his shoes as the leader of the American scientific medical establishment. Under successive governors he served as chairman of the Public Health Council of the State of New York, an advisory body to the Board of Health that had administrative powers of its own. For my brother and me, it was particularly delightful that the very low number of our automobile license plate indicated a high state official who it was wise for the police not to tangle with." (Maverick's Progress. An Autobiography. By James Thomas Flexner. Fordham University Press, 1996.) Simon Flexner married into the Maryland aristocracy. His wife, Helen Thomas, was the daughter of James Carey Thomas, one of the founding trustees of JHU. Her sister, M. Carey Thomas, was one of the feminist financiers of the Medical School.JT Flexner / C-Span
The Rockefeller Institute funded Otto Heinrich Warburg at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Germany. Simon Flexner invited him to lecture at RIMR in 1924, and his papers show correspondence from 1924 until 1931.
Flexner's correspondence with William Rogers Embree from 1917 to 1936 includes a "letter expressing concern that the press charged Rockefeller Foundation dominated certain departments of New York City administration, 9/22/17." Embree later left the Rockefeller Foundation to become chairman of the Rosenwald Foundation, established by Julius Rosenwald of Sears, Roebuck.Simon Flexner papers (Embree) / American Philosophical Society
Philip Morris director Howard S. Cullman told Paul M. Hahn, President of the American Tobacco Company, about a phone call he received from Simon Flexner's nephew, James Flexner. Cullman said Flexner said that he was "outraged at the connotation of the mousetrap we have been put in in what he calls the fictitious relation of skin cancer via painting the backs of mice," and "thinks scientifically reputable men should knock down the hoax of the connotation and its implications that have been given wide publicity in the Reader's Digest, Time and Life." (Cullman to Hahn, Jan. 7, 1954.)Cullman to Hahn, Jan. 7, 1954 / UCSF-Legacy
Jerome Davis Greene "was born in Yokohama, Japan, on Oct. 12, 1874, the son of Rev. Daniel Crosby Greene and Mary Jane Forbes Greene. His parents were the first missionaries sent to that country by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions of the Congregational Church." He was graduated from Harvard in 1896, was private secretary to President Charles W. Eliot from 1901 to 1905, and was secretary of the Harvard Corporation from 1905 until 1910, when he resigned to become business manager of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City. He left in 1912 to work on the organization of the Rockefeller Foundation, and became its first executive officer in 1913. He resigned in 1917 to become a partner of Lee, Higginson & Co., which dissolved in 1932. He was secretary of the Harvard Corporation again from 1934 to 1943, when he retired. (Jerome Greene of Harvard Dies. New York Times, Mar. 30, 1959.) He was an Overseer of Harvard University 1917-1923, during the period that its School of Public Health was being created.
"He was a student in William H. Welch's laboratory at Bellevue in 1885 and was widely known for the establishment of his private laboratory on the top floor of his large house on Madison Avenue in New York. He served on the faculty and staffs of several New York City medical schools and hospitals and was instrumental in the organization of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research." (The Christian A. Herter Collection. Johns Hopkins Medical Archives.) He and Emmett Holt named William H. Welch, S&B 1870, to head John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s new institute. Mrs. Herter was a daughter of David Dows.The Christian A. Herter Collection / Johns Hopkins Archives
Christian A. Herter (1895-1966) was the son of Dr. Christian Herter's brother, Albert. He graduated from Harvard in 1915. Herter and fellow 1915 Harvard graduates Junius A. Richards and Devereux Josephs were ushers at the wedding of Henry S. Sturgis, Harvard '16, to Gertrude Lovett, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Lovett. (Marriage Announcement 2. Boston Daily Globe, Jun. 20, 1916.) Herter was attached to the American Embassy in Berlin in 1916 as Secretary of the American Legation in Brussels, in league with the Committee for the Relief of Belgium, which denied reports that supplies were being diverted for other uses (Last Man Out Tells of Belgian Relief. New York Times, Apr. 8, 1917). He married Mary Caroline Pratt, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Pratt, the Standard Oil heirs, a few months later. In 1929, he was elected to non-resident membership of the Council on Foreign Relations, along with Guaranty Trust directors who were later involved in funding the Nazis through I.T.&T. (Foreign Council Elects. New York Times, Dec. 14, 1929.) He was elected to the Board of Overseers of Harvard University in 1940, along with Roy E. Larsen, the President of Time, Inc. (Harvard Board Chosen. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1940.) Among other government positions, he was a US Representative from Massachusetts from 1943 to 1953, "where he played an influential role in making the Marshall Plan a reality;" was Governor of Massachusetts; Undersecretary of State under John Foster Dulles, 1957-59, and Secretary of State, 1959-61. (Herter, Christian Archibald. Bioguide, US Congress; Centennial of the Birth of Christian A. Herter. US Senate, April 4, 1995.)Herter, Christian A. / US Congress Bioguide
Henry James was a son of William James, the philosopher, and a nephew of Henry James, the novelist. His great-grandfather Henry James migrated from Ireland to Albany, N.Y. in 1793 and made a fortune as a merchant. He graduated from Harvard in 1899 and its law school in 1904. He was a lawyer in Boston until 1912, when he succeeded Jerome D. Greene as business manager of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. He was elected a vice president and trustee, and held these posts until a few months before his death. He was an advisor at the Peace Conference in Paris in 1918. In 1932, he was elected president of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America, a non-profit created in 1918 by the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He was a director of the New England Telephone and Telegraph Co., the Fiduciary Trust Company of New York; an Overseer of Harvard University, 1922-28 and 1929-35, and a member of the Harvard Corporation since 1935. His first marriage was to Olivia Cutting, which ended in divorce. In 1938, he married Dorothea Draper Blagden. (Henry James, Head of Annuity Board. New York Times, Dec. 15, 1947.)
"As early as 1914, Rose, with the enthusiastic backing of Dr. Buttrick, Dr. Simon Flexner, and Dr. Welch, began to develop the idea of a school of public health. At a conference attended by nineteen leading physicians and educators, with Mr. Gates in the chair, Rose made a statement which Dr. Welch admitted later 'deeply stirred' him. In consequence, consequence, Rose and Welch were appointed a committee to prepare a report, and Rose were appointed a committee to prepare a report, and Rose outlined his understanding of the conference in these words:
'The discussion seemed to develop substantial agreement on the following points: (1) that a fundamental need in the public health service in this country at the present time is of men adequately trained for the work; (2) that a distinct contribution toward meeting this need could be made by establishing at some convenient place a school of public health of high standard; (3) that such an institution, while maintaining its separate identity and autonomy, should in the interest of both economy and efficiency be closely affiliated with a university and its medical school; (4) thst the nucleus of this school of public health should be an institute of hygiene; (5) that a plan for this institute should be formulated with a view to its beginning not on the scale of its ultimate character, but rather on that of its minimum requirements; that it should be given opportunity to grow within its own sphere as an institute of hygiene and to expand into full stature as a school of public health by drawing upon the medical school, the school of engineering, and the other departments of the university, and by utilizing for purposes of demonstration and practical experience all the facilities of the city and state department of health and of the U.S. Public Health Service.'" (School of Public Health. By Wickliffe Rose, 1915. Manuscript, The Rockefeller Foundation Files.)
(The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation By Raymond Blaine Fosdick.
"1918 Because the Foundation's successful hookworm campaign reveals the urgency for trained public health leaders, RF identifies public health education as one of its principal areas of interest, and builds and endows the first school of public health at Johns Hopkins University. Foundation President George E. Vincent calls it 'the West Point of public health.'" (The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 1913-1919. The Rockefeller Foundation.)The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 1913-1919 / The Rocklefeller Foundation
"1921 RF endows a second and third school of public health in the U.S. at Harvard University and the University of Michigan, and launches an ambitious plan to circle the globe with schools. Spending more than $25 million over the next two decades, RF helps establish schools in Prague, Warsaw, London, Toronto, Copenhagen, Budapest, Oslo, Belgrade, Zagreb, Madrid, Cluj (Romania), Ankara, Sofia, Rome, Tokyo, Athens, Bucharest, Stockholm, Calcutta, Manila and S„o Paulo. The total contribution to schools of public health amounts to $357 million in current dollars." In 1925, they began to "study the influence of films on public opinion" as well. (The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 1920-1929. The Rocklefeller Foundation.)The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 1920-1929 / The Rocklefeller Foundation.
Peyton Rous, who discovered in 1911 that a virus caused a sarcoma of chickens, joined the Rockefeller Institute in 1909. However, he gave up this research at the beginning of World War I to do work on blood transfusion. He had to wait until 1966 to receive a Nobel prize for his groundbreaking earlier work.Francis Peyton Rous, by Renato Dulbecco / National Academy Press
In the meantime, Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger was awarded the Nobel prize in 1926, "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma." But the "nematode" that he claimed caused cancer in the stomachs of rats turned out not to exist, and this debacle helped the infection-denialists in the chemical carcinogenesis camp, who continue to revere him. Interestingly, it had been proposed that Otto Warburg share that year's prize with him. According to his official Nobel biography, "Fibiger fulfilled a large number of official missions and took part in the direction of numerous institutions," including serving as President of the Danish Medical Association's Cancer Commission.Fibiger bio / Whonamedit.com
1932: "Despite mounting evidence for Rous' viral theory of cancer, there was considerable resistance among medical researchers to its acceptance, who argued that Rous had discovered a condition peculiar to birds and benign tumors, rather than malignant cancers. It was not until the 1950s that subsequent research in virology changed the situation and led to its inculcation as a central element in the theory of cancer origins." (Peyton Rous Papers 1909-1970. American Philiosophical Society.) IT STILL HAS NOT BEEN ACCEPTED AMONG THE HEALTH FASCISTS WHO HAVE THE MONOPOLY ON POLITICAL POWER, and who still freely sacrifice science to further their political agenda.Peyton Rous Papers / American Philiosophical Society (pdf)
Rous was affiliated with the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research between 1940 and 1963. The fund was established in 1937 by Alice S. Coffin and Starling W. Childs for their daughter, who died of cancer. Its first chairman was Frederic Collin Walcott, Skull & Bones 1891, a former Senator from Connecticut and a friend of Starling Childs. The first chairman of its Board of Scientific Advisors was Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Skull & Bones 1910 and Dean of the Yale School of Medicine (1935-1940). Starling Winston Childs, Skull & Bones 1976, is presumably a relative. The Childs family owns a large amount of forest land in Connecticut.About the Fund / The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, Yale University
James B. Murphy, a former assistant to Rous at the Rockefeller Institute, and member of the American Society for the Control of Cancer and the American Cancer Society, took over research as Rous retired. "In the 1930s his research concluded that cancer was caused by a somatic mutation and that the Rous virus was best thought of as a transmissible mutagen." (James B. Murphy Professorship in Oncology, Johns Hopkins University.) Fortunately, the current holder of the Professorship, Richard F. Ambinder, does not subscribe to this! With pictures of a contrite Murphy and a triumphant Ambinder.James B. Murphy Professorship / Johns Hopkins University
Murphy was a director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1936. In 1938, Murphy and Dr. Mont R. Reid replaced James Ewing and Francis Carter Wood as members of the National Advisory Cancer Council of the National Cancer Institute. (Named to Cancer Council. New York Times, Dec. 11, 1938, p. 30.)ASCC, 1936 / UCSF-Legacy
In 1949, the board of scientific directors of the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory was created. Dr. Leslie C. Dunn, head of the genetics department of Columbia University, was named president; Dr. James B. Murphy of Rockefeller University, vice president. (Dr. L.C. Dunn Is Named Science Board Head. New York Times, Aug. 27, 1949.)
Harold Fowler McCormick and Frederick T. Gates were inaugural trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1909. McCormick's first wife was Edith McCormick, the fourth daughter of John D. Rockefeller Sr. (Harold Fowler McCormick. Wikipedia, accessed Apr. 19, 2008.) The McCormicks had endowed the Journal of Infectious Diseases in 1903, with Ludwig Hektoen as editor.
The Rockefeller Foundation was incorporated in New York State and John D. Rockefeller Jr. was elected president in 1913. "Health becomes an RF priority at the first meeting of the Board when Frederick Gates, longtime advisor to John D. Rockefeller, Sr., argues that 'disease is the supreme ill in human life.'" It mades a grant to Johns Hopkins University "to extend its model 'full-time' system of basic medical education to clinical departments of medicine, surgery and pediatrics. Other specialties are added later." (The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 1913-1919. The Rocklefeller Foundation.)
John D. Rockefeller, John D. Rockefeller, Junior, Frederick T. Gates, Harry Pratt Judson, Simon Flexner, Starr J. Murphy, Jerome D. Greene, Wickliffe Rose, and Charles O. Heydt were the incorporators in 1918 of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. Charles E. Hughes was a witness. It was consolidated with the Rockefeller Foundation in 1929. The directors and trustees until the first annual meeting were James R Angell, Trevor Arnett, John W. Davis, David L. Edsall, Simon Flexner, Raymond B. Fosdick, Jerome D. Greene, Ernest M. Hopkins, Charles P. Howland, Vernon Kellogg, John D. Rockefeller Jr., Julius Rosenwald, Anson Phelps Stokes, Frederick Strauss, Augustus Trowbridge, George E. Vincent (President of the Rockefeller Foundation), George H. Whipple, Ray Lyman Wilbur, William Allen White, Arthur Woods (Acting President of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial), and Owen D. Young. Thomas M. Debevoise and Winthrop W. Aldrich were counsel. (Rockefeller Foundation Charter, The Rockefeller Foundation.) Thomas M. Debevoise was one of the founders of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1913, and was an officer and fundraiser of the ASCC until 1927.Rockefeller Foundation Charter / The Rockefeller Foundation
Winthrop Williams Aldrich was the son of Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (1841-1915), Republican U.S. Senator from Rhode Island from 1881 to 1911. [Nelson W. Aldrich's other children included Richard Steere Aldrich, Abby Greene Aldrich who married John D Rockefeller Jr., Stuart Morgan Aldrich, William Truman Aldrich, Elsie Aldrich who married Stephen Maurice Edgell then Nelson Stewart Campbell; Lucy Truman Aldrich, and Edward Burgess Aldrich.] Elsie Aldrich was a social friend of President Taft's family and of Stanhope Bayne-Jones. (Mr. and Mrs. Taft Dine With Miss M. Boardman. Washington Post, Mar. 4, 1912.)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_W._Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich was the president of the Equitable Trust Company. He was John D. Rockefeller's brother-in-law. He was a director of the Bankers Trust Company of New York from 1922 until 1930. The Rockefellers sold their holdings because directors of national banks could not also be directors of trust companies, and Aldrich became president of the Chase National Bank upon its merger with the Equitable. (Rockefellers Sell $30,000,000 Stock. New York Times, May 2, 1930.) He was elected a director of A.T.&T. in 1930. (A.T. & T.'s Banking Directorate. New York Times, Aug. 24, 1930.) He was among the Chase directors who left American Express due to the Banking Act of 1933 (Five New Directors in American Express. New York Times, May 5, 1934). He was Chairman of the Campaign Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1926, when John D. Rockefeller Jr. made an unconditional gift of $100,000, plus an additional $10,000 toward expenses for a congress of cancer specialists at Lake Mohonk, and a director of the ASCC 1936-37.ASCC, 1936 / UCSF-Legacy
Winthrop W. Aldrich and William V. Griffin of Time Inc. were trustees of the United Hospital Fund in 1930, when John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Edward S. Harkness both contributed $25,000 (2 Gifts of $25,000 Aid Hospital Drive. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1930.) Winthrop W. Aldrich and William H. Zinsser were on the advisory committee of the United Hospital Fund in 1947, when Roy E. Larsen of Time Inc. was re-elected president of the fund for the sixth time in 1947. Mrs. Frank Adair and T.J. Ross were among the vice presidents, and James S. Adams was a member of the board. (United Hospital Fund Brought in $1,756,191. New York Times, Mar. 12, 1947.)
Winthrop W. Aldrich, Artemus L. Gates (S&B 1918), and William C. Potter, chairman of the board of the Guaranty Trust Company, were three of the twelve directors of the Discount Corporation of New York (Display Ad. New York Times, Jan. 14, 1938).
Mrs. Winthrop W. Aldrich was the sister of Mrs. Sheldon Whitehouse (Mary Crocker Alexander); their father was Charles B. Alexander, counsel, a director, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Equitable Life, and grandson of a founder of Princeton Theological Seminary. Their grandfather, San Francisco banker Charles Crocker, was associated with Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington and Mark Hopkins. (Miss Alexander to Wed S. Whitehouse. New York Times, Jul. 30, 1920; C.B. Alexander, 77, Noted Lawyer, Dies. New York Times, Feb. 8, 1927.) Mr. and Mrs. Aldrich and Mr. and Mrs. Laurance S. Rockefeller were guests of Robert E. Strawbridge Jr. [vice chairman of the Memorial Cancer Center Fund Campaign and member of the Board of Managers of Memorial Hospital] (Fan Ball At Plaza Aids Cancer Fund. New York Times, Dec. 14, 1950.) Mrs. Aldrich was on the board of directors of the United Hospital Fund in 1952. (Hospital Fund Elects. New York Times, May 7, 1952.) Mrs. Winthrop Aldrich was a fund-raiser for the American Heart Association. (8th Annual Ball For Heart Fund Is Planned Here. New York Times, Apr. 1, 1963; 10th Heart of America Ball Will Be Held on May 5. New York Times, Apr. 11, 1965.)
"Fosdick had started his junior year at Princeton after completing his freshman and sophomore years at Colgate University. Princeton had been a substantial step-up for Fosdick, the son of a teacher from Buffalo in New York State, but one that he had actively sought out. He found Colgate lacking in the necessary resources, while he knew Princeton to be well endowed, as well as being run by Wilson who gave 'challenging courses in jurisprudence and constitutional law.' His family was poor, yet somehow the money was found and in September 1903 Fosdick was at Princeton; on his third day there that he met [Woodrow] Wilson. The meeting – the two crossed paths whilst walking across the campus – is described in Fosdick's memoirs and elsewhere, seems unremarkable, except for one important detail. It was Fosdick's deliberate act of deference – doffing his hat to Wilson – something not practiced at Princeton, but an act that undoubtedly appealed to the new president of Princeton's sense of self-importance, that brought Fosdick into Woodrow Wilson's orbit. 'I wish you would drop in to see me', Wilson had told Fosdick, thus launching their long relationship... Fosdick graduated from Princeton in 1905, and then completed a year of post-graduate work before studying law at New York Law School, much to Wilson's apparent dismay; but his association with Wilson did not stop there. In 1912, during the presidential campaign, Wilson personally appointed Fosdick to be secretary and auditor of the finance committee of the National Democratic Committee. Fosdick recalls that he complied with Wilson's request 'without a moment's hesitation'; despite being a Republican he believed that in Wilson 'the country would find inspiring leadership of a new and unique kind... (The Invisible Man of the New World Order: Raymond B. Fosdick (1883-1972). By Will Banyan, Sep. 2005.)The Invisible Man of the New World Order / Martin Frost.ws
In 1910, Fosdick married Winifred Finlay, the daughter of George D. Finlay, who was a director of the P. Lorillard Tobacco Company in the 1890s, and one of the executors of Pierre Lorillard's will. She shot their two children, ages 10 and 16, and herself. (Mrs. Fosdick Kills 2 Children and Self. New York Times, Apr. 5, 1932.) Fosdick's brother, Harry Emerson Fosdick, was pastor of the Rockefeller-funded Riverside church in New York from 1926-1946. (Rockefeller and the New World Religion. By Daniel Taylor. Old-thinker news, Dec. 2, 2007.)
From 1910 to 1913, Fosdick was Commissioner of Accounts for the city of New York. In 1913 he was retained by the Bureau of Social Hygiene, funded by John D. Rockefeller. From 1915 to 1916, Fosdick was a member of the New York City Board of Education. During World War I, he was a Special Representative of the War Department in France, and a Civilian Aide to General Pershing during the Paris Peace Conference. "In 1919 and 1920, Fosdick served as Under-Secretary-General for the League of Nations until it became clear that the United States was not going to ratify the League of Nations covenant. He returned to the Bureau of Social Hygiene and resumed his work on American police systems. In 1933 he served on the Liquor Study Committee and later wrote the book Toward Liquor Control, published in 1933. From 1920 through 1936, Fosdick was a member of the Curtis, Fosdick, and Belknap law firm. He was elected president of the Rockefeller Foundation and assumed the position on 1 July 1936. Fosdick worked at the Rockefeller Foundation until his retirement in 1948. He died in Newtown, Connecticut on 19 July 1972." (The Papers of Raymond Blaine Fosdick (1883-1972) from the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University.)
Raymond B. Fosdick headed the Commission on Training Camp Activities of the "Council of National Defense," whose purpose was to shut down the sex trade and impose prohibition on the U.S. military. (Barring Sex Diseases from the American Army. New York Times, October 28, 1917.)(excerpt from) Barring Sex Diseases from the American Army / The Mead Project, by Dr. Lloyd Gordon Ward, Brock U.
Charles Prentice Howland was a member of his father's law firm, Howland & Murray, and its succesors, Howland, Murray & Prentice and Murrray, Prentice & Howland from 1920-1921, and of Rushmore, Bisbee & Stern (with Henry Root Stern, Yale 1903). He was a director of the Mortgage Bond Company of New York from 1908-1932; a trustee of Johns Hopkins University 1926-1932. He was on the executive committee of the General Education Board since 1919, and of the Rockefeller Foundation since 1928; president of the Public Education Association of New York City 1909-1925 and a trustee until 1931. He was also involved with numerous foreign policy groups. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1932-1933, pp. 78-80.)Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1932-1933 / Yale University Library (pdf, 271 pp)
John Howland, Skull & Bones 1894, brother of Charles P. Howland, was a member of the Board of Scientific Directors of the Rockefeller Foundation for Medical Research. He was professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins since 1912; and, in 1914, along with Dr. William S. Halsted, Yale 1874, and Dr. Theodore C. Janeway, Yale 1891, "took over the direction of the William H. Welch Endowment for Clinical Education and Research." He was also a director of the Russell Sage Institute. (Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1925-1926, pp. 159-161.)Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1925-1926 / Yale University Library (pdf, 350 pp)
Theodore Caldwell Janeway graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1895. When the New York University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College was organized in 1898, he became the instructor and lecturer on medical diagnosis until 1906. When Mrs. Russell Sage endowed the Russell Sage Institute of Pathology, he became associate professor of medicine at Columbia in 1907, then the Bard Professor of Medicine in 1909. He was engaged in the reorganization of Presbyterian Hospital, and became senior attending physician in 1911. Also in 1911, he became a member of the board of scientific directors of the Rockefeller Institute. In 1914, he became professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, and physician in chief at John Hopkins Hospital. His father was Dr. Edward Gamaliel Janeway, Rutgers 1860, professor and dean of the University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College. His grandfather, George Jacob Janeway, was a physician as well. (Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 752; Dr. Theo. C. Janeway Dies in Baltimore. New York Times, Dec. 28, 1917.)Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20 / Internet Archive
His son, Edward Gamaliel Janeway, Yale 1922, married Elinor White, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander M. White. Ward Cheney, Skull & Bones 1922, was best man. [She was the sister of Ogden White.] (Janeway-White. New York Times, May 24, 1925.) He was a self-employed Wall Street investment broker until World War II, when he joined the Navy. After the war, he moved to Londonderry, Vt. and became a state legislator. (Edward G. Janeway, 84, Dies; Former Senator in Vermont. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1986.)
Dr. Edward G. Janeway the elder (1841-1911) was a Commissioner in the New York City Health Departnment from 1875 to 1881. He was appointed curator of Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1866, and Professor of Pathology and Anatomy 1876-1879, Professor of Diseases of the Mind 1881-1886, and Professor of Medicine until 1892, when he went to the New York University Medical School in the same capacity. He was Dean from 1898 to 1905. He married Frances Strong Rogers, daughter of Rev. E.P. Rogers, in 1870. (Dr. E.G. Janeway, Diagnostician, Dead. New York Times, Feb. 11, 1911.) Dr. Edward G. Janeway paid $44,000 out of the $87,000 purchase price of a seat on the New York Stock Exchange for his son-in-law, William T. Wisner 2d. Dr. Janeway's net estate was $401,440, including $250,000 in New York City real estate. His stock holdings included $31,906 of Pennsylvania Railroad, $16,940 of General Electric, $15,641 of Consolidated Gas, $9,000 of Baltimore & Ohio, $9,375 of Union Pacific, $10,250 of Santa Fe, $11,900 of United States Steel, and $12,500 of United New Jersey Canals. (Dr. Janeway Bought a Seat for Wisner. New York Times, Dec. 12, 1912.) He was the author of: Primary Carcinoma of the Lung. Med Record 1883;23:215. (Smoking and Disease: Etiological Perspective. Testimony of Milton B. Rosenblatt to the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, March 18, 1965.) He was on the Faculty of Medicine when New York University Medical College was formed from the merger of New York Medical College and Bellevue Hospital Medical College by William C. Whitney et al.Rosenblatt 1965 / UCSF-Legacy
Mrs. Edward G. Janeway (Frances Strong Rogers) was a daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Platt Rogers, Yale 1837. He was pastor of the South Reformed Church in New York City until 1881. (Obituary. New York Times, Oct. 25, 1881; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale College, June 1880 to June 1890, p. 87.)Rev. Ebenezer P. Rogers / New York Times
Arthur Hale Woods, Harvard 1892, was born in Boston in 1870. He was a schoolmaster at Groton from 1895-1905; then a reporter for the New York Sun, and in the lumber business in Mexico and cotton converting business, Boston, until 1907. He was Deputy Police Commissioner 1907-1909, and Commissioner 1914-1918. He was appointed Associate Director of the Committee on Public Information for Foreign Propaganda in February 1918. He was formerly vice president, Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, a director of the Bankers Trust Company of New York, a trustee of the International Education Board and the Rockefeller Foundation, Chairman and Trustee of the Spelman Fund of New York, and Rockefeller Center. He died in 1942. (Arthur Hale Woods. Arlington National Cemetary Website, accessed Jul. 4, 2009.) He ordered wiretaps of over 350 telephones while he was Police Commissioner, including a law office in the Equitable Life Assurance building that was involved in am international munitions deal. (Seymour Wires Tapped on Order Given By Woods. New York Times, May 18, 1916.) His widow was the former Helen Morgan Hamilton, a great-great granddaughter of Alexander Hamilton and a niece of J. Pierpont Morgan. She later married former Fed banker W. Randolph Burgess
Woods was one of the early tenants at 1 Beekman Place (Arthur Woods Buys Maissonette. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1930). It was was built for John D. Rockefeller Jr. by Webster B. Todd Sr.'s construction firm while his father, John R. Todd, was designing Rockefeller Center. [The Todds were the father and grandfather of E.P.A. Administrator Christine Todd Whitman.] Its other early tenants included William J. Donovan, who founded the O.S.S.; David K.E. Bruce, who headed the O.S.S. in London; and John D. Rockefeller III. (A Rockefeller Co-op and Its 460-Foot-Long Garage. New York Times, Oct. 1, 2000; Acquire Beekman Place Suites. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1930; Colonel Donovan Buys Cooperative. New York Times, Jun. 21, 1930.) Other tenants included Edith M.K. and Maude A.K. Wetmore, daughters of the late U.S. Sen. George Peabody Wetmore, Skull & Bones 1867, whose fortune came from the "China trade" (3 Large Apartments Sold. New York Times, May 13, 1930); Mrs. Joseph E. Willard, daughter of the Confederate spy and mother-in-law of Kermit Roosevelt of C.I.A. fame, also Charles A. Blackwell of Redmond & Co., Herbert Satterlee, and Howard P. Homans (Mrs. Joseph E. Willard Buys 31 Rooms in 1 Beekman Place. New York Times, May 28, 1930); Archibald B. Roosevelt (Cooperatives Sold. New York Times, Jun. 5, 1930); and George de Cuevas (Buys Suite in 1 Beekman Place. New York Times, Jun. 11, 1930).
The Rockefeller Foundation decided to establish a permanent headquarters for its War Relief Commission in one of the neutral countries of Europe. Warwick Greene was appointed to head this commission in Europe. His assistants were William J. Donovan of Buffalo, Reginald C. Foster of Boston, and Harper D. Topping of New York. Its representatives in the war area area had been Wickliffe Rose, Ernest P. Bicknell, Henry James Jr., Eliot Wadsworth, Jeremiah Smith Jr., and Frederic C. Walcott. (Greene Heads War Relief. New York Times, Mar. 18, 1916.)
"The Harvard School of Public Health, established last year as the result of the endowment received last year from the Rockefeller Foundation, which will ultimately amount to more than $2,000,000, will open Monday for the first time. During the first half year, Roger I. Lee, Professor of Hygiene, will serve as acting dean of this school in the absence abroad of Dr. David L. Edsall, Dean of the Medical School. The faculty of the school will include Drs. Richard P. Strong, Milton J. Rosenau, Lawrence J. Henderson, George C. Whipple, Cecil K. Drinker and Professor Edwin B. Wilson." The Harvard Theological School also opened that year. It was "formed last June by agreement between the Harvard authorities and the Trustees of Andover Theological Seminary," with Rev. Willard L. Sperry as Dean. (Harvard Will Open Two New Departments. New York Times, Sep. 24, 1922.)
Dr. John H. Knowles was Chairman of the Harvard Overseers Committee to Visit the Harvard Medical School and School of Dental Medicine in 1975-1976 and 1976-1977. Other committee members included Mr. A. Lee Loomis Jr. (1975-1976); Dr. Charles C. Edwards, Senior Vice President of Becton Dickinson (also former FDA Commissioner and member of Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation); Vice-Chairman Maurice Lazarus of Federated Department Stores; William T. Golden, Corporate Director and Trustee; Mrs. Eppie Lederer, aka "Ann Landers;" and Dr. Emanuel M. Papper, Vice President for Medical Affairs and Dean of the School of Medicine of the University of Miami (who was a correspondent of Florence Mahoney between 1961 and 1970). Outgoing dean Robert Ebert is pictured on the cover with his successor, Dr. Daniel C. Tosteson, and page 16 notes Julius Richmond leaving the faculty to serve as Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General. (The Harvard Medical School Dean's Report, 1976-1977, pp. 19-20.)Harvard Medical School Dean's Report, 1976-1977 / UCSF-Legacy
"Prevention of disease means forsaking the bad habits which many people enjoy — overeating, too much drinking, taking pills, staying up at night, engaging in promiscuous sex, driving too fast, and smoking cigarettes — or, put another way, it means doing things which require special effort — exercising regularly, going to the dentist, practicing contraception, ensuring harmonious family life, submitting to screening examinations. The idea of individual responsibility flies in the face of American history which has seen a people steadfastly sanctifying individual freedom while progressively narrowing it through the development of the beneficient state. On the one hand, Social Darwinism maintains its hold on the American mind despite the best intentions of the neo-liberals. Those who aren't supine before the Federal Leviathon proclaim the survival of the fittest. On the other, the idea of individual responsibility has been submerged to individual rights — rights, or demands, to be guaranteed by government and delivered by public and private institutions. The cost of sloth, gluttony, alcoholic intemperance, reckless driving, sexual frenzy, and smoking is now a national, and not an individual, responsibility. This is justified as individual freedom — but one man's freedom in health is another man's shackle in taxes and insurance premiums. I believe the idea of a "right" to health should be replaced by the idea of an individual moral obligation to preserve one's own health — a public duty if you will. The individual then has the "right" to expect help with information, accessible services of good quality, and minimal financial barriers. Meanwhile, the people have been led to believe that national health insurance, more doctors, and greater use of high-cost, hospital-based technologies will improve health. Unfortunately none of them will." (The Responsibility of the Individual. By John H. Knowles. In: Doing Better and Feeling Worse: Health in the United States. 1977, John H. Knowles, ed.)The Responsibility of the Individual / Google Books
It was originally published in Daedalus 1977 Winter;106(1):57-80. In 1977, the Rockefeller Foundation made a $34,000 grant-in-aid to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences "for preparation and publication of an issue of Daedalus on limits and directions of scientific inquiry." (Rockefeller Foundation 1977 Annual Report.)1977 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 162 pp)
Since 1947, the Rockefeller Foundation had only funded research by Dr. Barry Commoner et al. at Washington University - St. Louis, on the Tobacco Mosaic virus; "not primarily because of an interest in the virus per se but because studies of the duplication and action of this virus might yield basic information concerning the duplication and development of the cells of the plant host." (Rockefeller Foundation 1954 Annual Report.) In 1960, the Rockefeller Foundation gave a $5,000 grant to the New York Academy of Medicine for the expenses of symposium on tobacco and health, held in the spring of 1960. (Rockefeller Foundation 1960 Annual Report.) Other sponsors included the New York City Cancer Committee and the New York State Cancer Society, "the latter two being affiliates of the American Cancer Society." Attendance was restricted to the panelists and the members and guests of the two sponsoring organizations. Contributors included all the big names in anti-smoking, including Auerbach, Dorn, Garfinkel, Hammond, Hoffmann, Wynder); the anti-germ theory investigators of the Framingham (Dawber, Kahn, Kannel) and Seven Countries heart disease studies (Keys and 3 co-authors). Four founding members of the Tobacco Industry Research Council Scientific Advisory Board (Bing, Comroe, Kotin, and Reimann) and Yerushalmy supposedly represented all important points of view, none of which included germ theory. (Tobacco and Health. G. James, T. Rosenthal, eds. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1962.)Tobacco and Health 1962 / UCSF-Legacy
The Rockefeller Foundation purchased $1,000,000 in corporate obligation notes from the Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., Dec. 2, 1974. It also held 10,000 shares of common stocks in R.J. Reynolds Industries, worth $648,245. (Rockefeller Foundation 1974 Annual Report.) It held RJ Reynolds stock in other years of that decade as well.1974 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 249 pp)
Rockefeller & Co. comprised "the investments of about 75 living descendants of John D. Rockefeller Sr., the family patriarch and oil magnate. Today Rockefeller & Company has about $1 billion to look after, 'and a majority of that belongs to the family'... The remainder belongs to a number of institutions, many of which have benefited from Rockefeller support." (Ex-Rowe Price Officer Heads Rockefeller & Co. New York Times, Apr. 11, 1983.)Ex-Rowe Price Officer Heads Rockefeller & Co. / UCSF-Legacy
J. Murray Logan, Chairman of the Investment Policy Committee, Rockefeller & Co., was a trustee of Johns Hopkins University and a member of the JHU Committee on Tobacco, 1990. Logan was born in Baltimore in 1935, and graduated from JHU in 1959. He was a securities analyst at Merrill Lynch Pierce Fenner & Smith from 1959-1962; a partner of Wood Struthers & Winthrop 1962-1970; vice president of EFC Management Corp., Los Angeles, 1970-1973; vice president of Faulkner, Dawkins & Sullivan Inc. 1973-1975; managing partner of L-R Global Partners [Logan Rockefeller] and chairman of the investment policy committee of Rockefeller & Co., Inc., from 1975 to 1997. (J. Murray Logan. Marquis Who's Who, 2006.) Logan died in 2006. He was a partner in various other Rockefeller partnerships. (Logan, J. Murray. New York Times, Jan. 11, 2006.)Logan , J. Murray / New York Times
From the Rockefeller Foundation 1991 Annual Report: HEALTH SCIENCES GRANTS Emory Umversity, Atlanta, Georgia $50,000 For use by the Carter Center toward the planning costs of a program aimed at reducing tobacco use in developing countries."1991 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 123 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 1995 Annual Report: "1996 Conferences Health Rending to Tobacco: A Donor Consultation. Maureen Law, director general, Health Sciences International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada."1995 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 132 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 1997 Annual Report: "University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa: $10,000 toward the costs of a conference, 'The Economics of Tobacco Control Toward an Optimal Mix." Notorious anti-smoker William H. Foege became a member of the Board of Trustees.1997 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 76 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 1999 Annual Report: "American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois $100,000 to support participation of delegates from Asia and Africa to the 11th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health... National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC $150,000 for use by its Institute of Medicine to produce a report on the global impact of tobacco on health... Foundation-administered project: $60,000 for a meeting to discuss strategies to build communications for social change in tobacco control. Foundation-administered project: $45,800 to conduct a two-day conference to discuss and develop a program that would partner North and South community based groups working on tobacco control... Television Trust for the Environment, London, U K $150,000 toward the costs of a multimedia television senes entitled, 'Life' that will address key health equity themes such as access to essential drugs, intellectual property rights, women's health and tobacco control... Foundation-administered project: $50,000 for a meeting to discuss ways to heighten public awareness of the problems associated with tobacco use, facilitate efforts to educate policymakers on tobacco control; and strengthen community-based tobacco control efforts in sub Saharan Africa... Television Trust for the Environment, London, U K $150,000 toward the costs of a multimedia television series entitled Life that will address key health equity themes such as access to essential drugs, intellectual property nghts, women's health and tobacco control." Notorious anti-smoker William Foege was a member of the Board of Trustees.1999 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 87 pp)
"The Rockefeller Foundation will support local tobacco research and anti-smoking initiatives aimed at poor inhabitants of developing countries, the foundation announced on May 31. 'The international health community cannot ignore the rising toll from the tobacco epidemic in developing countries,' said Dr. Lincoln Chen, the foundation’s executive vice president. 'To avert tomorrow’s tragedy, we must act today.' The 'Trading Tobacco for Health' initiative will provide up to $10 million over the next five years, mostly to programs in Southeast Asia. The initiative will focus on tobacco’s disproportionate impact on the poor and ways to counter that impact. Programs will include efforts to reduce the number of youth who start smoking; support for smoke-free public spaces; and an examination of the impact of tobacco on the livelihoods of the poor. (Paying tobacco's price - Smoking takes toll on world's poor. Philanthropy Journal, Jun. 6, 2000.)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 2000 Annual Report: "GLOBAL HEALTH WATCH Action on Smoking and Health Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand $300,020 for activities related to the development of the Southeast Asian Tobacco Control Alliance a collaboratlve regional tobacco-control network. Action on Smoking and Health Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand $53,550 for a workshop to foster the skills and knowledge of the actors within the tobacco-control field in southeast Asia. Adventist Development and Relief Agency International, Silver Spring, Maryland $198,692 for use by its Cambodia office for a commumty-based intervention project to increase the role Buddhist monks in minimizing tobacco use within Cambodia. Consumers International, London, United Kingdom $30,000 for use by its Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific for a workshop on tobacco consumption and control, held in Durban, South Africa, Nov. 13-17, 2000... Essential Information, Washington, DC $75,000 to support a pilot project to initiate tobacco control partnerships between US and developing country groups... Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland $356,064 for use by its Institute for Global Tobacco Control for capacity building and research/surveillance activities in Southeast Asia... University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois $402,436 for use by its Health Research and Policy Centers to support the development of a research and technical-assistance program on the economics of tobacco use and control in Southeast Asia. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland $205,500 for use by its Country Office in Cambodia to provide technical assistance to government and nongovernmental organizations involved in tobacco control in Cambodia... Public Interest Projects, New York, New York $38,500 toward the costs of a research project on tobacco control and trade issues." Notorious anti-smoker William Foege was a member of the Board of Trustees.2000 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 78 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 2001 Annual Report: "Trading Tobacco For Health Essential Information, Washington, D C $300,000 to expand its activities related to North-South nongovernmental partnerships for tobacco control Foundation-administered project: $40,000 to explore models of philanthropy for tobacco control, with a particular focus on Southeast Asia. Foundation-administered project: $95,000 to explore various approaches for effective transition from tobacco to other sustainable livelihoods in developing countries in Asia. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts $88,540 for use by its School of Public Health for an economic study, in collaboration with the University of California, Berkeley, on the linkage between smoking and poverty in China. Hong Kong Tuberculosis, Chest and Heart Diseases Association, Wanchai, Hong Kong, China $64,030 for activities related to the Asia Pacific Conference on Tobacco or Health held in Hong Kong, October 2001. International Union Against Cancer, Geneva, Switzerland $179,135 for development in collaboration with the Tobacco Control Resource Centre, of an electronic interactive distance-learning primer on tobacco control in developing countries. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom $365,000 for use by its Centre on Globalisation Environmental Change and Health for a collaborative research program on the political economy of the tobacco industry in Southeast Asia. Ministry of Health, Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam $99,600 for use by its Vietnam Committee on Smoking and Health for a pilot communications project to decrease the exposure of women and children to secondhand smoke at home and for general support. University of Science Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia $450,000 for use by its National Poison Centre to establish a clearinghouse on tobacco control information with particular relevance to the Southeast Asia region." "African Career Awards... Mary Magdalene Opondo, Kenya $31,919 to enable her to conduct postdoctoral research at the University of Nairobi on the gender implications of contract farming in the tobacco.growing areas of Kenya." Notorious anti-smoker William Foege was a member of the Board of Trustees.2002 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 84 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 2002 Annual Report: "TRADING TOBACCO FOR HEALTH International Development Enterprises, Lakewood, Colorado: $176,000 toward the costs of a project that will improve the capacity of its Vietnamese partners to undertake a social marketing tobacco-control program. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: $25,000 for use by its Research for International Tobacco Control program to convene a meeting of donors involved in tobacco control research in developing countries, held in Ottawa, November 2002. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland: $383,430 for use by the Institute for Global Tobacco Control in its Bloomberg School of Public Health toward the costs of a training and technical-assistance program on tobacco control epidemiology and surveillance in Southeast Asia. Television Trust for the Environment, London, England: $67,850 to produce a documentary film on the impact of tobacco on lives and livelihoods in Malawi, thereby illustraling broader issues of the "value chain" of tobacco production. Thai Health Promotion Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand: $514,120 for a small-grants program to support research an surveillance and the economics of tobacco in Southeast Asia. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois: $496,655 for use by its Health Research and Policy Centers toward the costs of a research and technical-assistance program on the economics of tobacco use and control in Southeast Asia. University of Science Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: $98,865 for use by its National Poison Centre for a meeting an tobacco control in the Southeast Asia region, held in Penang, Malaysia, September 2002. Women's Media Centre of Cambodia, Phnom Penh. Cambodia: $154,460 for use by its Media Campaign Department for a public-education effort on the harm associated with tobacco use, particularly among Khmer women, children and families. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland: $321 ,485 for use by its Country Office in Cambodia to continue to provide technical assistance to government and nongovernmental organizations involved in tobacco control in Cambodia. Notorious anti-smoker William Foege was a member of the Board of Trustees.2002 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 84 pp)
From the Rockefeller Foundation 2003 Annual Report: "Tobacco Control: Adventist Development and Relief Agency International, Silver Spring, Maryland: $328,010 for use by its Cambodia office for continuation of the Smoke-Free Buddhist Monks project and for its expansion into the community and to additional provinces. Essential Information, Washington, D.C.: $250,000 to expand its North-South global partnerships program for tobacco control in developing countries. Foundation-administered project: $100,000 for consultancies in connection with the Foundation’s Trading Tobacco for Health program in Southeast Asia. International Union Against Cancer, Geneva, Switzerland: $250,000 for the establishment of an online resource for developing-country tobacco control groups that want to counter tobacco promotion campaigns in their countries. Ministry of Health, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: $60,000 for use by its Public Health Department to analyze policy options and potential models for the establishment of a health promotion foundation in Malaysia. Ministry of Health, Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam: $300,000 for use by its Vietnam Committee on Smoking and Health to expand its communications project aimed at decreasing the exposure of women and children to secondhand smoke at home. National Public Health Institute, Finland, Helsinki, Finland: $59,675 to support the participation and training of delegates from Southeast Asia and other developing countries at the 12th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health. PATH Canada, Ottawa, Canada: $200,000 toward the costs of strengthening and expanding tobacco control in Vietnam through integration of tobacco control into existing programs and expansion of the number of key agencies involved in tobacco control. Thai Health Promotion Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand: $1,318,760 to enable it to serve as the hub for Southeast Asian Tobacco Control Alliance activities, continue its regional collaborative tobacco control research program and create an ASEAN fellowship program for this field. University of Science Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: $280,880 for use by its National Poison Centre to advance tobacco control in Malaysia through the establishment of a research network and a national council for tobacco control." Notorious anti-smoker William Foege was a member of the Board of Trustees.2003 Annual Report / Rockefeller Foundation (pdf, 106 pp)
William H. Foege, Presidential Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Foege and J. Michael McGinnis are responsible for one of the biggest frauds ever perpetrated, their supposed "Actual Causes of Death in United States," 1993, which is based on ignoring the role of infection in order to falsely blame smoking and lifestyle. He has been a trustee since at least 2000.
Ann M. Fudge, Former Chairman & CEO, Young & Rubicam Brands, New York, New York. She has been a trustee since 2006. "Ms. Fudge received a B.A. degree from Simmons College and an M.B.A. from Harvard University. Ms. Fudge served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Young & Rubicam from 2003 to 2006. Prior to joining Young & Rubicam, Ms. Fudge worked at General Mills and at General Foods, where she served in a number of positions including president of Kraft General Foods’ Maxwell House Coffee Company and president of Kraft's Beverages, Desserts and Post Divisions. Ms. Fudge is a director of Catalyst and The Rockefeller Foundation and is on the board of overseers of Harvard University." She has been a director of General Electric since 1999. (GE director bio, 2008.) In 1990 she was an executive vice president of General Foods USA. (Philip Morris 1991 Annual Report, p. 29; Tma Daily News Report, Apr. 9, 1991.) In 1994, she was employed by Kraft USA, a Philip Morris company. (Schedule A Itemized Receipts, Philip Morris, Oct. 1995, p. 39.) In 2004, she was a featured speaker at the Time/ABC News "Summit on Obesity," sponsored by the health fascist Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, with additional support by Aetna, Inc.Philip Morris 1991 Annual Report / UCSF-Legacy
Rajat Gupta, Former Managing Director, McKinsey & Company, New York, New York. He has been a trustee since 2006.
Margaret Hamburg, Vice President for Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. Her father was president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1982 to 1997.
Thomas J. Healey, Healey Development, LLC, New York, New York. He was assistant secretary of the Treasury under President Reagan, and has been an an Advisory Director of Goldman, Sachs & Co. and a senior fellow at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. In 1987 he was vice president, real estate department, Goldman Sachs and Co. in New York City. He graduated from Georgetown University (B.A., 1964) and Harvard University (M.B.A., 1966). He was born September 14, 1942, in Baltimore, MD.
Antonia HernŠndez, President and Chief Executive Officer, California Community Foundation, Los Angeles, California.
Alice Huang, Senior Councilor for External Relations, Faculty Associate in Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. She is the wife of David Baltimore.
Strive Masiyiwa, Chief Executive Officer, Econet Wireless International, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Jessica Tuchman Mathews: "She served on the editorial board of the Washington Post from 1980 to 1982, covering energy, environment, science, technology, arms control, health, and other issues. Later, she became a weekly columnist for the Washington Post, writing a column that appeared nationwide and in the International Herald Tribune. From 1982 to 1993, she was founding vice president and director of research of the World Resources Institute, an internationally known center for policy research on environmental and natural-resource management issues... She was a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations from 1993 to 1997 and served as director of the Council's Washington program." Since 1997 she has been president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. (Carnegie bio, accessed 3-16-08.)
Diana Natalicio, President The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas.
Sandra Day O'Connor, Associate Justice, Retired, Supreme Court of the United States, Washington, D.C.
James F. Orr, III, Board Chair, Rockefeller Foundation. President and Chief Executive Officer, LandingPoint Capital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Mamphela Ramphele, Chairperson Circle Capital Ventures, Cape Town, South Africa. In 2000, Ramphele was one of the managing directors of the World Bank, and was to represent the bank "at the forthcoming World Conference on Tobacco or Health, in Chicago, USA, where the policy recommendations in Curbing the epidemic and some of the analytic work supported by the Bank in countries around the world will be discussed." "The Bank is a strong partner in WHO's Tobacco Free Initiative and a core member of the Inter-Agency United Nations Task Force on Tobacco Control which chaired by WHO... in 1999, the World Bank published Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control, which argues strongly that tobacco contol is a severe public health problem for which there are clear justifications for government intervention... One indicator of the importance we give to tobacco control is that Curbing the epidemic is being published in 12 languages with help from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO, the Pan American Health Office, and other partners - an all-time record for any World Bank publication." (Global Health Policy. By Eduardo A. Goryan and James Christopher Lovelace, The Lancet 2000 Aug 19;356:679-680.)Global Health Policy - The Lancet 2000 / UCSF-Legacy
David Rockefeller, Jr., Director and former Chair Rockefeller & Co., Inc., New York, New York.
Judith Rodin has been President of the The Rockefeller Foundation, New York, New York, since 2005, and a director of Citigroup since 2004. Rodin was a member of the Committee on Substance Abuse and Habitual Behavior in 1978, when she was at the Department of Psychology at Yale. The Committeee and the National Institute of Drug Abuse cosponsored a symposium entitled "Cigarette Smoking as a Dependence Process," published in 1979 as NIDA Research Monograph No. 23. In 1982, it produced "Reduced Tar and Nicotine Cigarettes: Smoking Behavior and Health" (National Academy Press, 1982.) Other members included former CBS president Frank Stanton and CASBS director Gardner Lindzey. She participated in the IOM Invitational Conference on Smoking and Behavior, "Health and Behavior: A Research Agenda Interim Report No. 1, Smoking and Behavior" in 1980, with David Hamburg and numerous other anti-smoking activists. She was Provost of Yale University 1992-1994, President of the University of Pennsylvania 1994-2004. Rodin's published research is primarily about body weight.Reduced Tar and Nicotine Cigarettes, 1982 / UCSF-Legacy
Dr. John W. Rowe: "Dr. John Rowe is currently a Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. From 2000 until his retirement in late 2006, Dr. Rowe served as Chairman and CEO of Aetna, Inc, one of the nation's leading health care and related benefits organizations. Before his tenure at Aetna, from 1998 to 2000, Dr. Rowe served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Mount Sinai NYU Health, one of the nation's largest academic health care organizations. From 1988 to 1998, prior to the Mount Sinai-NYU Health merger, Dr. Rowe was President of the Mount Sinai Hospital and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Before joining Mount Sinai, Dr. Rowe was a Professor of Medicine and the founding Director of the Division on Aging at the Harvard Medical School, as well as Chief of Gerontology at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital... He was Director of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Aging and is co-author, with Robert Kahn, Ph.D., of Successful Aging (Pantheon, 1998). Currently, Dr. Rowe leads the MacArthur Foundation’s Initiative on An Aging Society and chairs the Institute of Medicine's Committee on the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans." The goal of this outfit is to shove their pet hypotheses of genes and caloric restriction down everyone's throats.Publications / Glenn Laboratories, Harvard University
Raymond W. Smith, Chairman, Rothschild, Inc., New York, New York. Former Chairman and CEO of Bell Atlantic. "Prior to the formation of Bell Atlantic, Ray served as Director of Budget and Finance at AT&T and Chief Executive Officer of Bell of Pennsylvania and Delaware... Over the years, Ray has served on the boards of Bell Atlantic, The Carnegie Corporation, Westinghouse, CBS, Corestates Financial, First Union, US Airways, and others. He is also Chairman of Rothschild, North America, Inc. and Chairman of Verizon Ventures." (Arlington Capital Partners bio.)
Vo-Tong Xuan, Rector, Angiang University, Long Xuyen City, An Giang, Vietnam<= The Health Establishment and the Order of Skull & Bones