Cooper was a correspondent of Mary Lasker from 1970 to 1992. He was Director of the National Heart and Lung Institute from 1968 to 1974; Assistant Secretary for Health of DHEW from 1975 to 1977; Dean of Cornell University Medical College from 1977 to 1980; and Chairman of the Board and CEO of The Upjohn Co. from 1980 to April 1993. He was also a Trustee of the Naylor Dana Institute of the American Health Foundation between February 1979 and April 1981.
Cooper was "a former St. Louis University student, resident, and faculty member" of St. Louis University. The Theodore S. Cooper Surgical Research Institute at SLU was established by his bequest.History - Surgery / St. Louis University
Donald Fredrickson, Director of the National Institutes of Health from 1975 to 1981, originally recruited Cooper to the National Heart Institute "to run the Artificial Heart-Myocardial Infarction Program." South African surgeon Dr. Christiaan Barnard beat them to the first heart transplant in 1967. (The First Heart Transplant in Man, by Donald S. Fredrickson, Apr. 26, 1997.)Fredrickson / National Institutes of Health (pdf, 1p)
Cooper was a member of the Joint Committee on Tobacco and Health of the National Cancer Institute, consisting of members from the National Cancer Institute; the tobacco companies, Tobacco Institute and Tobacco Research Council (later the CTR), and the Tobacco Research Fund of the American Medical Association.Joint Committee on Tobacco and Health, 1969 / UCSF-Legacy
Report of the National Heart and Lung Institute Panel on Hyperlipidemia and Premature Atherosclerosis, June 12-13, 1970. This conference was "held at the invitation of Dr. Theodore Cooper," then Director of the NHLI. The panel included William Friedewald of the Framingham Heart Study, who advocated for trumping up the supposed danger in the general population (as opposed to a small minority of extremely abnormal persons), and his crony William Castelli; and Robert I. Levy, who succeeded Cooper as NHLI Director from 1975 to 1981, and was a Trustee of the AHF between 1984 and 1986. "[I]t is of interest that an ad hoc committee, convened by WHO in Geneva several weeks after the Bethesda meeting, recommended international use of a classification of hyperlipoproteinemia consisting of the five major Types described in attachment II." It was Donald Fredrickson's system that was adopted by WHO.1970 Hyperlipidemia and Premature Atherosclerosis Report / National Institutes of Health (pdf, 22pp)
Proposed Rulemaking Requiring Health Warning in Cigarette Advertising, Official Transcript of Proceedings Before the Federal Trade Commission, July 1, 1969. Surgeon General William H. Stewart, NCI Director Kenneth Endicott, National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences Director (and former TIRC member) Paul Kotin, National Heart Institute Director Theodore Cooper, and National Clearing House for Smoking and Health Director Daniel Horn came as a group, headed by Stewart. Other participants included former Surgeon General Luther L. Terry; a group from the American Heart Association including Cooper's crony Donald Frederickson; and representatives of the American Cancer Society, National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association (the former name of the American Lung Association, and anti-smoking group Smoke Watchers International. They were not under oath.1969 FTC Cigarette Labeling Hearing / UCSF-Legacy
Task Force on Arteriosclerosis, National Heart and Lung Institute press release, Dec. 10, 1971. Ernst L. Wynder of the AHF was a member.Task Force on Arteriosclerosis, 1971 / UCSF-Legacy (pages out of order)
President Nixon spoke with William P. Rogers, Dr. Theodore Cooper, Dr. Paul Dudley White [Eisenhower's personal physician -cast], and others concerning the US-Soviet Cooperative Program on Disease (June 27, 1972, Conversation No. 743-1).Nixon Conversation, 1972 / Social Security Administration (rtf)
Cooper's name was on the 1973 "List of Proposed Membership Ad Hoc Committee on Smoking and Health," an entity of the National Cancer Advisory Board intended to generate anti-smoking legislation on tar and nicotine. Other names included Emerson Foote of the ACS, James S. Gilmore of Gilmore Broadcasting, Gio Gori of the NCI, Daniel Horn of the National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health, Dr. Charles Kensler of Arthur D. Little Inc. management consultants, Mary Lasker, Jonathan Rhoads, Laurance Rockefeller, Benno Schmidt, former Surgeon General Luther Terry, and Ernst Wynder of the American Health Foundation. A Tobacco Institute report on the first meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee said that, "About the only things that the group could agree on generally were that there is not enough solid evidence to warrant setting a maximum allowable level and that a great deal more money will be needed - especially for the NCI's Tobacco Working Group - before there is a scientific basis for setting such level." (Tobacco Institute Newsletter, Special Report, Feb. 12, 1973.)1973 Ad Hoc Committee on Smoking and Health / UCSF-Legacy
"Meeting with Dr. Cooper, National Heart and Lung Institute," Oct.
10, 1973. "Mr. Kornegay opened the meeting by expressing the tobacco
industry's interest in maintaining communications with members of all
branches of government. He indicated that we had met recently with Dr.
Frank Rauscher, Director of the NCI, and that we were planning to meet
next week with Dr. C.C. Edwards. The purpose of all of these meetings
was to establish and maintain a dialogue between the tobacco industry
and responsible representatives of the federal government... He stated
further that the industry was deeply concerned with the irresponsible
public statements which are occasionally [sic!] made by representatives
of some of the health agencies;..."
National Heart and Lung Institute announcement of screening and enrollment for the MRFIT heart disease study, March 27, 1974. It falsely claims that "80%" supposedly have one or more alleged "risk factors" of high blood pressure or cholesterol, or smoke. "Planning and organizing for this study have been in progress over the past 18 months by a Steering Committee of the Principal Investigators under the Chairmanship of Dr. Oglesby Paul, Vice President for Health Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago." Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation was one of the participating centers. The original announcement was mailed Jan. 31, 1972, and screening began in 1973.MRFIT Announcement, NHLI 1974 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper participated in the 3rd World Conference on Smoking and Health in 1975. Other participants included AHF Trustee Lane Adams, Ernst L. Wynder, his old crony Donald Fredrickson, and a long list of other anti-smoking activists.3rd World Conference on Smoking and Health, 1975 / UCSF-Legacy
In the preface by Cooper to the Cumulative Index to the 1964-75 "The Health Consequences of Smoking" reports, Cooper claims that "the scientific evidence is clear and unavoidable" as well as "complete." Never mind that it is devoid of crucial research on infection.Cumulative Index, 1976 / National Institutes of Health (pdf)
"Statement of Theodore Cooper, MD, Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, accompanied by Dr. David Sencer, Director, Center for Disease Control; Dr. Frank J. Rauscher, Director National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; Dr. Robert I. Levy, Director, National Heart and Lung Institute, National Institutes of Health;and Mr. Gene R. Haislip, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Legislation (Health), Department of Health Education and Welfare, a panel." Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, US Senate, on S.2902, "To amend Title V of the Public Health Services Act to establish a National Health Research and Advisory Commission, and for other purposes," titled "Cigarette Smoking and Disease," Feb. 19, 1976 (p. 183). Cooper lies that smoking costs society "$11 1/2 billion," among other things. The moronic Horace Kornegay of the Tobacco Institute and others subsequently seized upon his nitpicking distinction between "causes" and "risk factors" as if it was an adequate refutation of the lie that "smoking causes heart disease," and made no efforts to investigate the role of infection.Cooper Statement, 1976 / UCSF-Legacy
From "Our Future Health," by Vitamin C quack Dr. Linus Pauling: "There is no doubt that cardiovascular disease and cancer are related to the diet. Dr. Theodore Cooper, who was then Assistant Secretary for Health in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, stated in Congressional hearings in 1976 that 'While scientists do not yet agree on the specific causal relationships, evidence is mounting and there appears to be general agreement that the kinds and amount of food and beverages we consume and the style of living common in our generally affluent, sedentary society may be the major factors associated with the cause of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases." [However, this "general agreement" was due to the longtime control of the health establishment by the anti-germ theory health fascists -cast].Pauling / National Institutes of Health (pdf)
"The leadership situation in 1975 and 1976 was remarkably stable compared with the turbulence of 1973 and 1974. The assistant secretary of health since February 1975 has been Theodore Cooper, MD, a former director of the National Heart and Lung Institute. Frederickson, the NIH director, had been president of the Institute of Medicine (of the National Academy of Sciences), and also a long-time veteran of the Heart Institute. A cooperative relationship between the NIH director and the assistant secretary has been accompanied by cooperative relations between Frederickson, on the NIH side, and [Frank] Rauscher and [Benno] Schmidt, on the cancer side..." (From "Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971." By Richard Rettig. Joseph Henry Press, 1977. Chapter 11, The National Cancer Act of 1971, pp 309-310.)Cancer Crusade pp. 309-310 / National Academy Press
Cooper's 1978 Lasker Award for Public Service, "For implementing in 1972 the National High Blood Pressure Education Program which has contributed significantly to the cut in deaths from stroke, kidney and heart diseases" [Sic. Actually, stroke deaths had been in decline since the 1950s, and deaths from ischemic heart disease began to decline in the mid-1960s -cast].Cooper 1978 Lasker Award / Lasker Foundation
Letter from Ernest Pepples, Vice President of Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company, to Theodore Cooper as Dean of Cornell University Medical College, affirming B&W's interest in making a $1 million endowment grant to the Medical College, May 24, 1979.Pepples to Cooper, 1979 / UCSF-Legacy
"Reagan's 16-member health policy advisory group includes includes
two former asst. sectys. for health - Theodore
Cooper, recently named Upjohn exec VP, and Charles
Edwards, Scripps Medical Institute president. Others include former
Pharmaceutical Mf'rs. Assn. president Joseph Stelter; James Cavanaugh,
Allergan senior VP for science and planning; Alain Enthoven, Stanford
public and private management prof; former AMA Legislative Council
chairman William Felch, and American Pharmaceutical Assn. board
chairman Mary Runge. Chairman of the Reagan group is William Walsh,
president and medical director of the People-to-People Foundation
(Project Hope). Edwards is also a former Becton-Dickinson senior VP for
medical affairs and research; Enthoven is a former president of Litton
Medical Products, and Cooper will assume his Upjohn post Oct. 1 after
completing his tenure as Cornell medical dean. Cavanaugh is a former
deputy asst. secty. for health and served the Ford Administration as
White House deputy chief of staff. Cooper is a former director of the
Natl. Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Edwards served as FDA
commissioner. Other members of the Reagan health team are Rita
Campbell, Hoover Institution senior fellow; Isaac Ehrlich, SUNY
(Buffalo) economics prof; Clark Havighurst, Duke law prof; Helen
Jameson, asst. administrator, Rochester (Minn.) Methodist Hospital;
Cotton Lindsay, Emory economics prof; Wade Mountz, president,
Norton-Children's Hospitals, Louisville, Ky.; Lee Shelton, health
services, Health 1st, Atlanta, and Robert Shira, Tufts senior VP."
(Research Notes. The Blue Sheet, Aug. 20, 1980; and: GOP Creates Health
Policy Advisory Panel. By
Mary Jane Fisher. The National Underwriter Aug. 23, 1980 (pp. 1 & 24.)
Cooper was a member of the "Planning Study for an Ongoing Study of Costs of Environment-Related Health Effects." Other members included Philip J. Landrigan, Joshua Lederberg, Frederick Mosteller, and Arthur Upton. Cooper was one of the leaders of the Workshop on Interagency Coordination. He also attended Lederberg's workshop on risk assessment and the open meeting.Committee, Cost of Environmental Health Effects, p. iii / National Academy Press, 1981
Cooper was a director-at-large of the American Lung Association (ALA Annual Report 1981-82, p. 20).American Lung Association Annual Report 1981-82 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper was a member of the Advisory Council on Education for Health of the American Council of Life Insurance / Health Insurance Association of America, which produced the hate propaganda, "Where There's Smoke There's Fire: The Cost and Dangers of Your Employees Who Smoke," 1983, p. 10. Other members included Robert I. Levy and NBC Today Show medical consultant Dr. Arthur Ulene."Where There's Smoke," 1983 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper was on the Panel on Alternatives of the 1984 Institute of Medicine Study on the Organizational Structure of the National Institutes of Health. Others involved included Lester Breslow; Edward Brandt; Joseph Califano; Vincent de Vita; William Foege; Ruth Kirschstein, J. Michael McGinnis; Henry Pitot, Julius Richmond; Dorothy Rice; Benno Schmidt; Richard Schweiker; James Shannon; Theodor Sterling, David Satcher, Reuel Stallones, Daniel C. Tosteson, Arthur C. Upton, and James Wyngaarden.IOM Study on NIH, 1984 / Universal Library
Cooper was a member of the Board of Trustees of the National
Committee on Quality Health Care. "Commitee President David Winston
is a powerful force within the organization. He was one of the founding
members of the Committee and because of his extensive background in
health policy issues and close connections with the White House,
commands a great deal of respect. Winston served as health policy
advisor to Reagan in California and in Washington. He was a minority
staff director of the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources."
David A. Winston was vice president of American Health Capital Inc. Karl D. Bays, Chairman and CEO
American Hospital Supply Corp.; Michael
DeBakey; and Winfield C. Dunn, D.D.S. Senior
Vice President Hospital Corporation of America were also trustees.
(Memo from Rick Sullivan to Pete Sparber, Oct. 30, 1984.)
"A distinguished panel comprised of former Assistant Secretaries for Health and presidents of major national public health organizations was convened in March 1986 by the Public Health Service (PHS) to consider past, current and future directions for PHS disease prevention and health promotion policies." The former Assistant Secretaries for Health included Cooper, Merlin K. DuVal, Roger O. Egeberg, and Julius B. Richmond. William Foege represented the American Public Health Association. Their interest was in the usual health fascist manipulation of the public, not infection. (Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Prevention Policy Review Group Summary of Meeting -- March 27, 1986. MMWR 1987 Mar 6;36(8):117-120.)Prevention Policy Review Group, 1986 / Centers for Disease Control
Cooper bio, from Appendix D of the book "Confronting AIDS: Update 1988" (National Academy Press, 1988), notes that Cooper is also a member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health, the Army Science Board, and the Advisory Council on Hazardous Substances Research and Training.Cooper bio / National Academy Press 1988
Cooper was a member of the US Department of Health and Human
Council on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in 1989, along with
anti-smoking warhorses former Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee and former Surgeon General Julius B. Richmond; Alan W. Cross, Skull & Bones
1966; and Robert Rodale,
Chairman of Rodale Press.
Secretary's Council on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 1989 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper was a member of a nine-member advisory committee to search for a successor to NIH Director James Wyngaarden. DHHS Assistant Secretary for Health James Mason was the chairman. (Open Search Promised For New NIH Director. By Jeffrey Mervis. The Scientist 1989 Jun 26;3(13):3.)Search Committee for NIH Director / The Scientist 1989
The Presidential Economic Delegation to Poland appointed by President GHW Bush included Theodore Cooper, Chairman & CEO of The Upjohn Co.; William Donaldson, chairman and CEO of Donaldson Enterprises (and a director of Philip Morris, which was not noted); and William Ruckelshaus, Chairman and CEO of Browning-Ferris Industries (also former EPA Administrator and a director of Cummins Engine Co., which was not noted); and Robert Galvin, Chairman of Motorola Corp. (Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater, Nov. 15, 1989).1991 Presidential Economic Delegation to Poland / Bush Library
"Article: Shalala joins NIH advisory panel. ID:ART-19910522.10From May 22, 1991 (Vol. VI, No. 18) Chancellor Donna E. Shalala has been invited by U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Louis W. Sullivan to join a 16-member panel that advises the director of the National Institutes of Health. The Advisory Committee to NIH Director Bernadine P. Healy meets twice a year to consider policies and make recommendations concerning program development, resource allocation, NIH administrative regulation and policy and other aspects of NIH policy. The appointment is effective immediately and will run through September, 1994. This advisory panel is 'an important voice at an important time,' observed UW Graduate School Associate Dean Marvin E. Ebel. 'They may consider the overall pattern of NIH funding, as well as questions about the treatment of both direct and indirect costs.' The panel is made up of 11 representatives of academic and private research and five public members. Continuing members of the comittee include: Theodore Cooper, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the Upjohn Co.; Philip Leder, professor and chair of the Department of Genetics, Harvard University School of Medicine; Rodney Nichols, executive president of Rockefeller University; and Ruby Hearn, vice president for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation."
Letter from Cooper to Meyer Friedman, MD, Medical Director of the Meyer Friedman Institute at Mount Zion Medical Center of the University of California - San Francisco, Oct. 25, 1991, on Upjohn support of "Type A Counseling" and heart disease study. Other funding sources included WR Sears & Co. and the Kaiser Foundation.Cooper to Friedman, 1991 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper was appointed a director of the Bulgarian-American Enterprise Fund by President GHW Bush. Edgar D. Jannotta of William Blair & Co. was a fellow director. (Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on the Bulgarian-American Enterprise Fund, Nov. 8, 1991.)Bulgarian-American Enterprise Fund / Bush Library
Cooper was on the 1991 Advisory Board of the Advisory Council on Social Security, whose main policy goal was to make smokers pay for everything. (Commitment to Change: Foundations for Reform. Advisory Council on Social Security, Dec. 1991.)1991 Report of the Advisory Council on Social Security / UCSF-Legacy
(Term limits run strong in 14 states; few elected officials openly resist idea - and some endorse it. By Bill McAllister, Washington Post, Oct. 26, 1992.) "[Rep. John] Dingell supported legislation this year that would have extended Upjohn's patent on Ansaid, an anti-arthritic drug. The measure would have allowed the pharmaceutical company to continue to generate millions of dollars in sales by extending its monopoly rights to the drug. As Dingell was championing that measure in the House, his wife, Deborah Dingell, a General Motors executive, was putting together a coalition of business and union groups to fight the term-limit proposal in Michigan. Chief among its members was Upjohn chairman and chief executive Theodore Cooper. 'Such a cozy deal,' said Steve Mitchell, a Republican campaign consultant who is running the term-limit campaign here. He said the legislation was worth $300 million to Upjohn. The company PAC and other pharmaceutical firm PACs had given $115,000 in campaign contributions to Dingell and four others." [Deborah Dingell is president of the General Motors Foundation, and is on the Prevention Research Advisory Council of the Lasker Foundation's Research!America lobbying group -cast]Term Limits, 1992 / MIT
Cooper was on the Board of Trustees of the Scientists' Institute for Public Information. Other Trustees included E. Edward David (later of the Washington Advisory Group), William T. Golden, Beatrix Hamburg (wife of Carnegie Corp. president David A. Hamburg), William R. Hearst III, and Mathilde Krim. (April 20, 1993 letter from Barbara Allen of SIPI to Francis D. Gomez of Philip Morris, begging money.)Allen to Gomez, 1993 / UCSF-Legacy
Cooper died of cancer in April 1993. (Who's News Upjohn CEO Search Panel May Need Seven Months. Wall Street Journal, May 19, 1993.)Upjohn CEO Search / Mississippi State University
Cooper was Chairman of the Board and CEO of Upjohn until April 14, 1993. Fellow directors included Frank C. Carlucci of The Carlyle Group and a Trustee of the Rand Corporation; William D. Mulholland, former Chairman of the Board and CEO of the Bank of Montreal; Daryl F. Grisham, a former director of GD Searle and Company and Trustee of Northwestern University; and William E. LaMothe, former Chairman of the Board and CEO of Kellogg Company, director of Allstate Insurance Companies, Kellogg Co., and Sears Roebuck, and Trustee of the WK Kellogg Foundation Trust.Upjohn 1994 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
In 1995, Upjohn merged with the Swedish company Pharmacia, which had
bought the assets of Advanced Tobacco Products Inc., in 1987. Pharmacia
manufactured Nicotrol for McNeil Consumer Products, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson.
Then Pharmacia & Upjohn merged with Monsanto, took the name
Pharmacia, and spun off the agricultural division as Monsanto. In 2003,
Pharmacia was bought by Pfizer, Inc.,
and the name Pharmacia was dropped.
"Advanced Tobacco Products, Inc., d/b/a Advanced Therapeutic
Products, Inc. since 1992 (the Company), was formed in April
1983. Through September 1987, the Company was engaged in the
manufacturing and marketing of a smoke-free cigarette. In September
1987, the Company sold substantially all its assets to Pharmacia &
Upjohn, Inc. (Pharmacia
& Upjohn), a worldwide pharmaceutical company."
"In 1987, the Company sold all of its nicotine technology to
entities owned or controlled by Pharmacia AB ("Pharmacia"), a worldwide pharmaceutical company headquartered in Sweden that
manufactured the Nicorette chewing gum and the nicotine transdermal
patch. Since 1987, the Company has worked jointly with Pharmacia to
develop a nicotine vaporizer product for smoking cessation which
commenced clinical and pivotal trials in late 1990." (Advanced Tobacco
Products 1994 Form 10Q.)
"Prior to organizing Datapoint Corporation in 1968, Mr. Ray was
Program Manager of the Dynatronics Division of General Dynamics
Corporation, Manager of Engineering for International Data Systems
Corporation, and Project Engineer for Texas Instruments Inc. Mr. Vimond
was President and Chief Executive Officer of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco
International, Inc., from 1980 to 1982... From 1970 to 1977, Mr.
Vimond was employed primarily in consumer products marketing executive
positions by various subsidiaries of Johnson & Johnson Inc... Dr.
Hill was Vice President, Technology, of International Flavors &
Fragrances, Inc. from 1979 through 1983." (Advanced Tobacco Products,
Inc. Form S-1 Preliminary Prospectus, Jan. 10, 1984, p. 25.)
In 1985, company officials met with officials of BAT, but BAT did
not get involved. (Visit to Advanced Tobacco Products, San Antonio,
Texas, Feb. 19, 1985; Nicotine Addition to Smoke from Filters. By C.C.
Greig, BAT (UK&E) Ltd.)
In 1987, the FDA ruled that their non-combustible product, FAVOR, could not be
introduced into interstate commerce "since FAVOR
was a new drug within the meaning of the FDA and had not been approved
for use by the FDA." (Regulatory letter, Daniel L. Michels, Director
Office of Compliance, Center for Drugs and Biologics, U.S. DHHS, to J.
Philip Ray, Feb. 9, 1987.)
The anti-smokers used this as a pretext to petition the FDA to refuse to approve low-nicotine cigarettes. (Petition of the American Heart Association, American Lung Association, and the American Cancer Society, acting as the Coalition on Smoking OR Health, requesting Clarification of Low Tar and Low Nicotine Cigarettes as Drugs under the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act, Apr. 25, 1988, pp. 90-92.)Petition of the Coalition on Smoking OR Health, Apr. 25, 1988 / UCSF-Legacy
DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Mr. James E. Turner, age 47, has been a Director of the Company since November 1986 and a consultant to the Company since its inception. Mr. Turner was one of the founders and the Business Manager of NCC Group, Ltd., a research and development limited partnership which was a predecessor of the Company. Mr. Turner is also a consultant to Pharmacia & Upjohn.
Mr. J. H. Uptmore, age 65, has been a Director of the Company since
August 1987. Mr. Uptmore has been the President and Chairman of
the Board of J. H. Uptmore & Associates, Inc., a construction
contracting and development company, since 1974.
Mr. J. W. Linehan, age 53, has been Director of the Company since
June 1991 and President, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial
Officer and Secretary of the Company since July 1, 1990. Since
August 1, 1995, Mr. Linehan has been
President and Chief Executive Officer of Linehan Engineering, Inc., an independent engineering company wholly owned by him. Mr. Linehan was a Vice President, a director and a principal shareholder of GE Reaves Engineering, Inc., an engineering and consulting company, from May 1990 through July 31, 1995. Mr. Linehan was a Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Secretary, a director and a principal shareholder of NET FONE, INC., an alternative long distance telephone company, from April 1991, and President from June 1993, to May 1994. Mr. Linehan's prior experience
also includes Owner and Chief Operating Officer of Texas Trunk Co., Inc., a military hardware manufacturer, a consultant at Arthur Andersen LLP, a public accounting and consulting firm, and President of BIOGLAS Corporation, a manufacturer of support material for the biotechnology industry.
Mrs. Brenda Ray, age 47, has been a Director of the Company since
March 1989. Mrs. Ray was a research and lab assistant in the
development of the Company's nicotine vapor inhalation technology from
1979 until 1985. Mrs. Ray has been Chairman and CEO of the
Generis Group, Inc., an interactive multimedia company, since January
1991. She has been President of Brenda Ray, Inc. since 1985. [J.P. Ray
filed the patent for the device in 1980.]
Mr. David A. Monroe, age 43, has been a Director of the Company
since March 1989. Mr. Monroe has been President and CEO of PTEL
Corporation and is General Manager of Texas Instruments, PhotoTelesis
Division, formerly PhotoTelesis Corporation, a government electronics
manufacturing company founded in 1985. Mr. Monroe's prior experience
includes Founder & Chief Technical Officer of Image Data
Corporation, a communications technology
company, and Vice-President of Research & Development and Vice-President, Product Line Manager, at Datapoint Corporation, a computer equipment manufacturer.
Ownership: Brenda Ray 21.2%; James E. Turner 6.03%; J.H. Uptmore
2.37%; David A. Monroe 1.72%; J.W. Linehan 1.58%; Officers and
directors as a group, 32.90%.
Pharmacia & Upjohn, Inc. manufactures the Nicorette Chewing Gum,
the Nicotrol/Nicorette Patch, the Nicotrol/Nicorette Nasal Spray and
the Nicotrol/Nicorette Inhaler. ATP receives product payments of 3% of
sales of the Inhaler to wholesale distributors. Pharmacia & Upjohn
launched its Inhaler commercially in Denmark in September 1996, in
Sweden in December 1996, in Italy in February 1997 and in the
Netherlands in July, 1997, under the trade name of the Nicorette
In September 1992, ATP obtained an exclusive worldwide license to
certain dry powder nicotine inhaler technology from Duke University
which was developed at Duke University, and was issued a U.S. patent in
1995. (ATC 1997 Form 10K)
In 2003, ATP was acquired by IVAX Corporation.
Phillip Frost, M.D., Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief
Executive Officer since 1987, was the Chairman of the Department of
Dermatology at Mt. Sinai Medical Center of Greater Miami, Miami Beach,
Florida from 1972 to 1990. "He is Chairman of the Board of
Directors of Whitman Education Group, Inc. (proprietary education),
Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of North American Vaccine, Inc.
(vaccine research and development), Vice Chairman of the Board of
Directors of Continucare Corporation (integrated health care), and a
director of Northrop Grumman Corp. (aerospace). He is Vice Chairman of
the Board of Trustees of the University of Miami and a member of the
Board of Governors of the American Stock Exchange."
Jack Fishman, Ph.D, Adjunct Professor at The Rockefeller University
and director of Research of Strang Cornell Cancer Research Laboratory,
was President from 1988 to 1991, Chief Scientific Officer from
1991-1995, and Vice Chairman of the Board from 1991 to 1997.
Neil Flanzraich, Vice Chairman and President since May 1998, was a
shareholder and Chairman of the Life Sciences
Legal Practices Group of Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe from 1995 to 1998. "From 1981 to 1994, he served in various capacities at Syntex Corporation (pharmaceuticals), most recently as its Senior Vice President, General Counsel
and a member of the Corporate Executive Committee. From 1994 to 1995, after Syntex Corporation was acquired by Roche Holding Ltd., he served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Syntex (U.S.A.) Inc., a Roche subsidiary. He is Chairman of the Board of Directors of North American Vaccine, Inc. (vaccine research and development), and is a director of Whitman Education Group, Inc. (proprietary education)." [Nicotine patch developer Alejandro Zaffaroni left Syntex in 1968 and formed Alza with help from Heller Ehrman.]
The biggest tock owners were Philip Frost 15.56%, Jane Hsiao 3.13%,
and Jack Fishman 1.92%.