Winslow was Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine from 1915 to 1945, and the first director of its J.B. Pierce Laboratory from 1932 to 1957. In the 1920s, he formulated the false dichotomy between "infectious" and "chronic" diseases, and proposed to abandon the traditional public health emphasis on communicable diseases and meddle in the public's lifestyles instead: "In the early years organic heart disease is largely a result of acute communicable diseases and focal infections, and in middle life of venereal disease; while in old age the factors of true senile degeneration play a major role. It is in the main, however, to personal hygeine and preventive medical care that we must look for the immediate control of this major factor in the death rate. Food, fresh air, exercise and rest, the clearance of the bowels and the avoidance of drugs and poisons - it is these elements in daily healthy living which must form our first direct line of defense against the onset of degenerative disease." (Public health at the crossroads. Am J Public Health 1926;16(11):1075-1085.)
C.E.A. Winslow was a director of the Health-Education
League of Boston circa 1908-1910. Fellow directors included Ellen
S. Richards, whose nephew, Junius,
was later a director of Phillip Morris' predecessor, Benson &
Hedges, and whose vice president, Dr. H. S. Pomeroy, was the author of
a 1906 anti-smoking screed.
Winslow was also an insufferable publicity-hound with crackpot theories, much like his successors such as John Banzhaf and Stanton Glantz. "Dr. C.E.A. Winslow, Professor of Public Health at Yale University, said he believed that posture was a neglected cause of tuberculosis and that a high percentage of clerks and telegraphers contracted the disease." William H. Welch and Harry L. Hopkins, then Director of the New York Tuberculosis Association and future constant advisor to President Roosevelt, also spoke at the meeting of the New York City Tuberculosis Association. (Tuberculosis Work Described by Coler. New York Times Nov. 21, 1924.)
Winslow became the Anna M.R. Lauder Professor of Public Health at
Yale College in 1915. In 1914, the Anna M.R. Lauder Chair of Public
Health was established
by the Lauder family of Pittsburgh and Greenwich, Conn., who donated
$400,000 upon Mrs. George Lauder's death. (Lauder Gift to Yale. New
York Times, June 20, 1914.) George Lauder Sr. was the first cousin of
Andrew Carnegie, who was closely associated with him for thirty years
as a director in the Carnegie Companies and a confidential advisor.
(Mrs. George Lauder Dies. New York Times Nov. 20, 1913.) George Lauder
Jr. graduated from Yale in 1900, and was a director of the Manhattan
Ear and Eye Hospital and Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. He and
his sisters, Mrs. James C. Greenway and Elizabeth Lauder, gave a new
building to the Yale Medical School. He died of pneumonia at age 37.
(George Lauder Jr. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1915; George Lauder, Jr.,
Ph.B. 1900. Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20,
p. 188.) James C. Greenway,
Skull & Bones 1900, was George Lauder Jr.'s classmate.
Mrs. George Lauder Jr. was the sister of Henry Cottrell Rowland MD,
Yale 1898. He "engaged in allied publicity and propaganda work in the
United States 1916-18;" and "was a special agent of the Intelligence
Department, U.S. Navy, in France, Feb.-May 1918, then continued
propaganda work in this country until end of the war." His Yale
relatives went back to great-great-grandfather Rev. David S. Rowland
1743, and he was a great-nephew of William S. Rowland, Skull &
Bones 1836, and a brother of John T. Rowland, Skull & Bones 1911.
(Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the
Year 1932-1933, pp. 206-208.)
"A plan of organization for the Health Federation of the City of New York, as association of about 150 private organizations actively interested in the promotion of public health, was adopted at a meeting of representatives of many of those organizations in the Academy of Medicine yesterday afternoon. The plan included the establishment of an advisory body to be known as the Central Council of Public Health, which will hold conferences at the call of the federation.
"The membership of this council was limited to fifteen persons. The
members announced yesterday were Dr. John H. Huddleston, Chairman;
Bailey B. Burritt, Acting General Director of the Association for
Improving the Condition of the Poor; Dr. Charles Loomis Dana, Chairman
of the Public Health, Hospital, and Budget Committee of the New York
Academy of Medicine, and of the Public Health Committee of the City
Club; Homer Folks, Miss Pauline Goldmark of the Governing Board of the
Consumers' League, James Jenkins, Jr.; Dr. Edward L. Keyes, Jr.; Dr.
Philip Van Ingen, Medical Advisor of the New York Milk Committee; Miss
Lillian D. Wald, Chairman of the Committee on Public Health of the
Settlements; Prof. C.E.A. Winslow, and E.H. Lewinski-Corwin, Executive
Secretary." Dr. Lee K. Frankel,
Sixth Vice President of the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and Dr. Haven Emerson of the NYAM
were also present. (Health Federation Work. New York Times, Feb. 5,
Frankel and Emerson were later members of the advisory committee of
the Yale Institute of Human Relations, chaired by William H. Welch,
S&B 1870. In 1926, Frankel called for the centralization of all the
voluntary health agencies in the country. Emerson was a member of the
Executive Committee and the Board of Directors of the American Society
for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer
in 1923 and 1936.
Winslow was a member of the American Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917, which was headed by Frank Billings. "Poor Mr. Billings believed he was in charge of a scientific mission for the relief of Russia... He was in reality nothing but a mask -- the Red Cross complexion of the mission was nothing but a mask," admitted Cornelius Kelleher, assistant to William Boyce Thompson, head of the US Federal Reserve Bank, who funded the charade. The seven medical members of the mission quit and returned to the US. Other participants included lawyer Thomas Day Thacher, Skull & Bones 1904, member of the advisory committee of Yale's Institute of Human Relations (and son of Thomas Thacher S&B 1871); George W. Hill, President of the American Tobacco Company; James W. Andrews, then the auditor of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.; and Harry L. Hopkins, who was assistant to the general manager of the Red Cross in Washington, DC. (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton. Chapter V - The American Red Cross Mission in Russia - 1917.)Ch. V - Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution / Reformed-Theology
C.-E.A. Winslow, Harry L. Hopkins, and Louis I. Dublin participated in the reorganization of the New York City Health Department (Dr. Harris Appoints New Bureau Heads. New York Times, Jan. 24, 1928).
"A plan for the union of the voluntary health associations into one compact body to wage a campaign against all diseases was made tonight by Dr. Lee K. Frankel of New York, Chairman of the National Health Council, at the first American Health Congress, which opened its six-day meeting here tonight... Thirty-five hundred delegates were registered at the convention this afternoon. Seven thousand were expected by Wednesday. Societies taking part are the American Child Health Association, the American Heart Association, the American Nurses' Association, the American Public Health Association, American Red Cross, American Social Hygiene Association, American Society for the Control of Cancer, Conference of the State and Provincial Health Authorities of North America, National Committee for Mental Hygiene, National Committee for the Prevention of Blindness, National League of Nursing Education, National Organization for Public Health Nursing, National Tuberculosis Association, United States Children's Bureau, United States Public Health Service and Women's Foundation for Health.
"Among the speakers scheduled are Secretary Herbert C. Hoover, Surgeon General Hugh S. Cumming, Health Commissioners Louis I. Harris of New York City, Health Commissioner H.M. Bundesen of Chicago, Dr. George E. Vincent, President of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Dr. William F. Snow, General Director of the American Social Hygiene Association." (Asks Single Agency on Nation's Health. Dr. Frankel Proposes Merging All Organizations Fighting Disease. Would Include Red Cross. New York Times, May 18, 1926, p.9.)
"Just south of the Pennsylvania Station in New York, occupying the block between Thirtieth and Thirty-first Streets, stands an 18-story building, 370 Seventh Avenue, in which more public health organizations are represented than are to be found at any other spot in the world.... Here are gathered the American Child Health Association, the American Heart Association, the American Public Health Association, the American Social Hygiene Association, National Committee for Mental Hygiene, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, National Organization for Public Health Nursing, National Tuberculosis Association and the Woman's Foundation for Health." These were organized into the National Health Council, whose officers included William F. Snow, general director of the American Social Hygiene Commission, its President; James L. Fieser, chairman of domestic operations of the American Red Cross, its Vice President; C.E.A. Winslow, Recording Secretary; Linsly R. Williams, managing director of the New York Academy of Medicine; and Thomas C. Edwards, executive officer.
Other organizations, "closely allied but not members of the council," also occupied these premises. "On three floors of the building, in addition to the larger organizations named above, are to be found" the American Nurses' Association, Child Health Demonstration Committee, Circle for Negro Relief, the Women's Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation, National Council of Women of the United States, National League of Nursing Education, National Probation Association, New York State Nurses' Association, and the Presidents' Committee of Fifty on College Hygiene. "For the benefit of these, as well as its own members, the National Health Council has established services such as public information, accounting, shipping, and mimeographing." It also maintained a health library of 30,266 books and pamphlets for the use of its members and interested professionals and students.
"Nor does the council stop here. Its aims - to simplify relations between health agencies where their interests meet or clash - made affiliation desireable with institutions other than those named, whose differing activities utterly prevented their occupying quarters in the same building in New York. Included as advisory members, therefore, the council has the American Red Cross, the United States Children's Bureau and the United States Public Health Service -- all institutions with official governmental status. Another group, known as associate members, includes the American Home Economics Association and the American Society for the Control of Cancer.... There is some point at which most of these organizations touch one another, unknown, perhaps, to most of the vast army in the field throughout the nation but apparent at headquarters." (National Health Work Is Centred. New York Times, Feb. 3, 1929.)
C.E.A. Winslow received $5,000 and Simon Flexner of Johns Hopkins received $1,000 from the estate of Mrs. Frances R. Biggs, widow of former State Health Commissioner Hermann M. Biggs. The largest bequest, $100,000, was to the fund for maintenance of the Hermann Michael Biggs Professorship of Preventive Medicine at New York University. The New York Academy of Medicine got an oil painting of Dr. Biggs, valued at $25. (N.Y.U. Gets $100,000 By Mrs. Biggs's Will. New York Times, May 17, 1932.)
Winslow was on the Public Health Advisory Committee of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. and Louis I. Dublin. Parran and IHR advisory committee member Harvey Cushing were on the Medical Advisory Committee, and William Green was on its advisory committee. Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, was a Committee member.Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration
"A committee has been formed to make known, especially among alumni
and close friends of the University, the work of Yale in medicine and
public health, as headed by Dr. Harvey
Cushing as general chairman and
with Dean Stanhope Bayne-Jones [S&B 1910, of the first Surgeon General report on smoking] as
chairman, and and Fuller F. Barnes of Bristol, Conn.; William McCormick Blair
[S&B 1907] of Chicago, George Parmly Day and Thomas W. Farnam of
Yale University, Dr. Norman E. Freeman of Philadelphia, Harry C. Knight
of New Haven, Dr. Fred T. Murphy
of Detroit, Professor C.E.A. Winslow
of Yale University and Dr. Milton
C. Winternitz of Yale University as
members." Their new facilities included the ultracentrifuge. (Yale Will
Expand Its Medical School. New York Times, May 14, 1939.)
Winslow died Jan. 9, 1957, at the age of 79. "Dr. Winslow founded
the Yale Department of Public Health in 1915 and served as department
chairman until his retirement. He had influenced international health
policies and advances through the World Health Organization and,
earlier, through the health section of the League of Nations. He was a
member of the American Red Cross mission to Russia in 1917 and general
medical director of the League of Red Cross Societies in Geneva,
Switzerland, in 1921." He was editor of the American Journal of Public
Health since 1944 [however, back in those days, most of its articles
dealt purely with American Public Health Association business, and it
wasn't until the 1960s that it began to deal with health issues -cast].
"Dr. Winslow was born in Boston on Feb. 4, 1877, the son of Erving and
Catherine Reignolds Winslow. His mother was a famous actress. He
received a B.S. degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
1898 and an M.S. from M.I.T. in 1910. He received an honorary degree of
Doctor of Public Health from New York University in 1918. He was on the
M.I.T. faculty from 1902 to 1910 and at City College of New York from
1910 to 1914 before going to Yale, where he held the rank of Anna M.R.
Lauder Professor of Public Health." He began Yale's program of
community public health surveys soon after joining the faculty. (Dr.
Winslow, 79, of Yale Is Dead. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1957.) His
father, Erving Winslow, served on the U.S. Sanitary Commission during
the Civil War, and was the head of the Anti-Imperialist Society.
(Erving Winslow (1839-1922) Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society.)
Lest anyone think that Winslow's direct influence is diminished today, in the inaugural issue of the Centers for Disease Control's online compendium of health fascist drivel, "Preventing Chronic Disease," Jan. 2004, its editor-in-chief offers an ode of praise to him and his vision of public health as social engineering. (Welcome to Preventing Chronic Disease, by Lynne S. Wilcox.)Wilcox, 2004 / Centers for Disease Control (pdf, 2pp)
The journal's editorial board includes ETS study author Ross Brownson; anti-smoking warhorses Jeffrey Harris, who lied to Congress that smoking is an economic burden; and former Wisconsin state epidemiologist Patrick Remington. Its featured articles are on the exploits of anti-smoking activists, who give lip service to "community" involvement while ignoring the evidence that the community doesn't want them.Editorial Board / Preventing Chronic Disease
The J.B. Pierce Laboratory was founded at Yale in 1924. John Barlett
Pierce, who died in 1917, founded the Pierce Steam Heating Co., which
merged with American Radiator Co. in 1892, and is now part of American
Standard. The Pierce Foundation provided the funding for the Bureau of
Research of ASHVE, a predecessor organization of ASHRAE (the American
Society of Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineeers). The
associate director of Pierce from 1974 to 1989, Jan A.J. Stolwijk, was
a member of the Science Advisory Board of the EPA's
The executors and trustees of Pierce's will were Clarence M. Woolley
and Frank M. Peters of New York, and Rolland J. Hamilton of Chicago.
(John B. Pierce Left Million to Employees. The New York Times, Jul. 10,
1917.) Woolley was involved in the US business support of the Bolshevik
Revolution in 1918 (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony
C. Sutton. Chapter IV, Guaranty Trust Goes to Russia). Charles A.
founding president and chairman of the board of General Electric until
1922, was also involved, as a member of the
American League to Aid and Cooperate with Russia; and as a director of
the American International Corporation, whose getaway after bilking US
taxpayers of billions of dollars was handled by Albert D. Lasker as
head of the Shipping Board. After Coffin died in 1926, Woolley
took his place as a director of GE.
In 1937, Charles A. Coffin's unmarried daughter, Alice S.
Coffin, and his son-in-law, Starling W. Childs,
established the Jane Coffin
Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research
at Yale. Frederic Collin
Walcott, S&B 1891, was the first chairman of the Jane Coffin
Memorial Fund in 1937, and Stanhope
S&B 1910 and Dean of the Yale School of Medicine, was the first
chairman of its Board of Scientific Advisors. Bayne-Jones was the
overseer of the 1964 Surgeon General Report on smoking.
Hopkins was mainly involved in social welfare work; however, in 1922, he became general director of the New York Tuberculosis Association, which expanded and absorbed the New York Heart Association.Harry L. Hopkins (1890-1946) / National Park Service
C.-E.A. Winslow, Harry L. Hopkins, and Louis I. Dublin participated in the reorganization of the New York City Health Department (Dr. Harris Appoints New Bureau Heads. New York Times, Jan. 24, 1928).
As Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, Hopkins was a member of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934. IHR advisory committee member William Green was a member of its Advisory Committee; Harvey Cushing was on the Medical Advisory Committee, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. Parran, C.-E.A. Winslow, and Louis I. Dublin were on the Public Health Advisory Committee.Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration
Leona Baumgartner was the first woman to serve as Commissioner of Health of New York City. "As a college student, Dr. Baumgartner had not planned to enter public health. She went to Yale to study for a Ph.D. degree in bacteriology and immunology. Two great teachers, C.E.A. Winslow and Dr. Milton O. Winternitz, persuaded her that she belonged elsewhere than in the laboratory." She joined the Health Department in 1937. (Her Vigil: City's Health. New York Times, May 7, 1957.)
In 1946, Baumgartner was a sponsor of the New York Heart Association
fund raising campaign. Other sponsors included W. Averell Harriman;
Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Sr.; Mrs. Albert D. Lasker; James S.
Adams; Harold L. Bache, the nephew of Jules S. Bache; Devereux C.
Josephs; Ralph T. Reed; Frank Stanton;
and Thomas J. Watson Sr.
Cullman and Emerson Foote were chairmen of
Commerce and Industry
committees. (Display Ad 46. New York Times, Jan. 31, 1946 p. 12.)
In 1958, Baumgartner was a member of New York City Mayor Wagner's new Health Research Council. Other members included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres & Co.;Devereux C. Josephs, chairman of the board of the New York Life Insurance Company and a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust; Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, president of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Mrs. Mary Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation; Dr. Robert K. Merton, Professor of Sociology at Columbia University; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American; Anna M. Rosenberg, public and industrial relations consultant, Anna M. Rosenberg Associates (who married Paul G. Hoffman a few years later); Dr. Warren Weaver, vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation; and Bethuel M. Webster, counsel to the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. (New City Research Agency To Finance Health Studies. By Peter Kihss. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 1; Members of Health Council. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 22.) She was a member of Mayor Wagner's commission on hospital costs with Mrs. Albert D. Lasker in 1959. (City Orders Survey of Hospital Costs. By Edith Evans Asbury. New York Times, Feb. 13, 1959.)
Leona Baumgartner was a Founding Sponsor of John Banzhaf's group,
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) in 1968. She
was the second wife of Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir,
the founder of the Centers for Disease Control (Alexander Langmuir Dies
at 83; Helped Start U.S. Disease Centers. By Lawrence K. Altman. New
York Times, Nov. 24, 1993.) He was the nephew of former Lazard Freres
partner Dean Langmuir. Dr. and
Mrs. Alexander D. Langmuir made a special contribution to
furnish the new offices of Action on Smoking and
Health in 1980. (ASH Newsletter, 1980 Nov-Dec.)
Baumgartner was a member of the Physicians Committee for
for the Aged Through Social Security, which was created to lobby for
Medicare and disbanded after they succeeded. Other members of the
organization included Dr. Martin
Cherkasky, Dr. Michael DeBakey, and Philip R. Lee. Its chairman was Caldwell B.
Esselstyn, father of Caldwell B.
Esselstyn Jr., Skull & Bones 1956. (Memo from Harry R. Hinton
American Medical Association, to Earle Clements of the Tobacco
Institute, re Physicians Committee for Health Care for the Aged Through
Social Security- 1962, and their current positions; May 22, 1969.)
Medicare is the government program that made cardiologists rich. It was
the single largest cause of the steady increase in health care costs
which began in 1965.
In 1974, Baumgartner was on the Board of Directors of the American Association for World Health, Inc., the US Committee for the World Health Organization. Fellow directors include Mrs. Oswald Bates Lord (Mary Pillsbury Lord, whose husband was a member of Skull & Bones Class of 1926), the mother of Winston Lord, S&B 1959 and former chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the mother-in-law of Bette Bao Lord; Walter G. James, Vice President for Public Education of the American Cancer Society; George Baehr of the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York; and Howard A. Rusk.American Association for World Health, 1974 / tobacco document