Charles-Edward Amory Winslow

Winslow was Professor of Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine from 1915 to 1945, and the first director of its J.B. Pierce Laboratory from 1932 to 1957. In the 1920s, he formulated the false dichotomy between "infectious" and "chronic" diseases, and proposed to abandon the traditional public health emphasis on communicable diseases and meddle in the public's lifestyles instead: "In the early years organic heart disease is largely a result of acute communicable diseases and focal infections, and in middle life of venereal disease; while in old age the factors of true senile degeneration play a major role. It is in the main, however, to personal hygeine and preventive medical care that we must look for the immediate control of this major factor in the death rate. Food, fresh air, exercise and rest, the clearance of the bowels and the avoidance of drugs and poisons - it is these elements in daily healthy living which must form our first direct line of defense against the onset of degenerative disease." (Public health at the crossroads. Am J Public Health 1926;16(11):1075-1085.)

C.E.A. Winslow was a director of the Health-Education League of Boston circa 1908-1910. Fellow directors included Ellen S. Richards, whose nephew, Junius, was later a director of Phillip Morris' predecessor, Benson & Hedges, and whose vice president, Dr. H. S. Pomeroy, was the author of a 1906 anti-smoking screed.

Winslow was also an insufferable publicity-hound with crackpot theories, much like his successors such as John Banzhaf and Stanton Glantz. "Dr. C.E.A. Winslow, Professor of Public Health at Yale University, said he believed that posture was a neglected cause of tuberculosis and that a high percentage of clerks and telegraphers contracted the disease." William H. Welch and Harry L. Hopkins, then Director of the New York Tuberculosis Association and future constant advisor to President Roosevelt, also spoke at the meeting of the New York City Tuberculosis Association. (Tuberculosis Work Described by Coler. New York Times Nov. 21, 1924.)

Winslow became the Anna M.R. Lauder Professor of Public Health at Yale College in 1915. In 1914, the Anna M.R. Lauder Chair of Public Health was established by the Lauder family of Pittsburgh and Greenwich, Conn., who donated $400,000 upon Mrs. George Lauder's death. (Lauder Gift to Yale. New York Times, June 20, 1914.) George Lauder Sr. was the first cousin of Andrew Carnegie, who was closely associated with him for thirty years as a director in the Carnegie Companies and a confidential advisor. (Mrs. George Lauder Dies. New York Times Nov. 20, 1913.) George Lauder Jr. graduated from Yale in 1900, and was a director of the Manhattan Ear and Eye Hospital and Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. He and his sisters, Mrs. James C. Greenway and Elizabeth Lauder, gave a new building to the Yale Medical School. He died of pneumonia at age 37. (George Lauder Jr. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1915; George Lauder, Jr., Ph.B. 1900. Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 188.) James C. Greenway, Skull & Bones 1900, was George Lauder Jr.'s classmate.

Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20 / Internet Archive

Mrs. George Lauder Jr. was the sister of Henry Cottrell Rowland MD, Yale 1898. He "engaged in allied publicity and propaganda work in the United States 1916-18;" and "was a special agent of the Intelligence Department, U.S. Navy, in France, Feb.-May 1918, then continued propaganda work in this country until end of the war." His Yale relatives went back to great-great-grandfather Rev. David S. Rowland 1743, and he was a great-nephew of William S. Rowland, Skull & Bones 1836, and a brother of John T. Rowland, Skull & Bones 1911. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1932-1933, pp. 206-208.)

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1932-1933 / Yale University Library (pdf, 271 pp)

Centralizing the New York City Health Establishment, 1914

"A plan of organization for the Health Federation of the City of New York, as association of about 150 private organizations actively interested in the promotion of public health, was adopted at a meeting of representatives of many of those organizations in the Academy of Medicine yesterday afternoon. The plan included the establishment of an advisory body to be known as the Central Council of Public Health, which will hold conferences at the call of the federation.

"The membership of this council was limited to fifteen persons. The members announced yesterday were Dr. John H. Huddleston, Chairman; Bailey B. Burritt, Acting General Director of the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor; Dr. Charles Loomis Dana, Chairman of the Public Health, Hospital, and Budget Committee of the New York Academy of Medicine, and of the Public Health Committee of the City Club; Homer Folks, Miss Pauline Goldmark of the Governing Board of the Consumers' League, James Jenkins, Jr.; Dr. Edward L. Keyes, Jr.; Dr. Philip Van Ingen, Medical Advisor of the New York Milk Committee; Miss Lillian D. Wald, Chairman of the Committee on Public Health of the Settlements; Prof. C.E.A. Winslow, and E.H. Lewinski-Corwin, Executive Secretary." Dr. Lee K. Frankel, Sixth Vice President of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and Dr. Haven Emerson of the NYAM were also present. (Health Federation Work. New York Times, Feb. 5, 1914.)

Frankel and Emerson were later members of the advisory committee of the Yale Institute of Human Relations, chaired by William H. Welch, S&B 1870. In 1926, Frankel called for the centralization of all the voluntary health agencies in the country. Emerson was a member of the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors of the American Society for the Control of Cancer (predecessor of the American Cancer Society) in 1923 and 1936.

Winslow was elected a director of the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1916. (Call Surgery Only Remedy for Cancer. New York Times, May 19, 1916.) He was a member of the Public Health Administration group of the Hygiene Reference Board of the Life Extension Institute in 1916 as well. It was founded in the boardroom of the Guaranty Trust Company in 1913, with anti-smoker Irving Fisher, Skull & Bones 1888, as its chief instigator.

American Red Cross Mission to Russia, 1917

Winslow was a member of the American Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917, which was headed by Frank Billings. "Poor Mr. Billings believed he was in charge of a scientific mission for the relief of Russia... He was in reality nothing but a mask -- the Red Cross complexion of the mission was nothing but a mask," admitted Cornelius Kelleher, assistant to William Boyce Thompson, head of the US Federal Reserve Bank, who funded the charade. The seven medical members of the mission quit and returned to the US. Other participants included lawyer Thomas Day Thacher, Skull & Bones 1904, member of the advisory committee of Yale's Institute of Human Relations (and son of Thomas Thacher S&B 1871); George W. Hill, President of the American Tobacco Company; James W. Andrews, then the auditor of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co.; and Harry L. Hopkins, who was assistant to the general manager of the Red Cross in Washington, DC. (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton. Chapter V - The American Red Cross Mission in Russia - 1917.)

Ch. V - Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution / Reformed-Theology

C.-E.A. Winslow, Harry L. Hopkins, and Louis I. Dublin participated in the reorganization of the New York City Health Department (Dr. Harris Appoints New Bureau Heads. New York Times, Jan. 24, 1928).

Centralizing the US Health Establishment, 1926-29

"A plan for the union of the voluntary health associations into one compact body to wage a campaign against all diseases was made tonight by Dr. Lee K. Frankel of New York, Chairman of the National Health Council, at the first American Health Congress, which opened its six-day meeting here tonight... Thirty-five hundred delegates were registered at the convention this afternoon. Seven thousand were expected by Wednesday. Societies taking part are the American Child Health Association, the American Heart Association, the American Nurses' Association, the American Public Health Association, American Red Cross, American Social Hygiene Association, American Society for the Control of Cancer, Conference of the State and Provincial Health Authorities of North America, National Committee for Mental Hygiene, National Committee for the Prevention of Blindness, National League of Nursing Education, National Organization for Public Health Nursing, National Tuberculosis Association, United States Children's Bureau, United States Public Health Service and Women's Foundation for Health.

"Among the speakers scheduled are Secretary Herbert C. Hoover, Surgeon General Hugh S. Cumming, Health Commissioners Louis I. Harris of New York City, Health Commissioner H.M. Bundesen of Chicago, Dr. George E. Vincent, President of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Dr. William F. Snow, General Director of the American Social Hygiene Association." (Asks Single Agency on Nation's Health. Dr. Frankel Proposes Merging All Organizations Fighting Disease. Would Include Red Cross. New York Times, May 18, 1926, p.9.)

"Just south of the Pennsylvania Station in New York, occupying the block between Thirtieth and Thirty-first Streets, stands an 18-story building, 370 Seventh Avenue, in which more public health organizations are represented than are to be found at any other spot in the world.... Here are gathered the American Child Health Association, the American Heart Association, the American Public Health Association, the American Social Hygiene Association, National Committee for Mental Hygiene, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, National Organization for Public Health Nursing, National Tuberculosis Association and the Woman's Foundation for Health." These were organized into the National Health Council, whose officers included William F. Snow, general director of the American Social Hygiene Commission, its President; James L. Fieser, chairman of domestic operations of the American Red Cross, its Vice President; C.E.A. Winslow, Recording Secretary; Linsly R. Williams, managing director of the New York Academy of Medicine; and Thomas C. Edwards, executive officer.

Other organizations, "closely allied but not members of the council," also occupied these premises. "On three floors of the building, in addition to the larger organizations named above, are to be found" the American Nurses' Association, Child Health Demonstration Committee, Circle for Negro Relief, the Women's Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation, National Council of Women of the United States, National League of Nursing Education, National Probation Association, New York State Nurses' Association, and the Presidents' Committee of Fifty on College Hygiene. "For the benefit of these, as well as its own members, the National Health Council has established services such as public information, accounting, shipping, and mimeographing." It also maintained a health library of 30,266 books and pamphlets for the use of its members and interested professionals and students.

"Nor does the council stop here. Its aims - to simplify relations between health agencies where their interests meet or clash - made affiliation desireable with institutions other than those named, whose differing activities utterly prevented their occupying quarters in the same building in New York. Included as advisory members, therefore, the council has the American Red Cross, the United States Children's Bureau and the United States Public Health Service -- all institutions with official governmental status. Another group, known as associate members, includes the American Home Economics Association and the American Society for the Control of Cancer.... There is some point at which most of these organizations touch one another, unknown, perhaps, to most of the vast army in the field throughout the nation but apparent at headquarters." (National Health Work Is Centred. New York Times, Feb. 3, 1929.)

C.E.A. Winslow received $5,000 and Simon Flexner of Johns Hopkins received $1,000 from the estate of Mrs. Frances R. Biggs, widow of former State Health Commissioner Hermann M. Biggs. The largest bequest, $100,000, was to the fund for maintenance of the Hermann Michael Biggs Professorship of Preventive Medicine at New York University. The New York Academy of Medicine got an oil painting of Dr. Biggs, valued at $25. (N.Y.U. Gets $100,000 By Mrs. Biggs's Will. New York Times, May 17, 1932.)

Winslow was on the Public Health Advisory Committee of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. and Louis I. Dublin. Parran and IHR advisory committee member Harvey Cushing were on the Medical Advisory Committee, and William Green was on its advisory committee. Harry L. Hopkins, Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, was a Committee member.

Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration

"A committee has been formed to make known, especially among alumni and close friends of the University, the work of Yale in medicine and public health, as headed by Dr. Harvey Cushing as general chairman and with Dean Stanhope Bayne-Jones [S&B 1910, of the first Surgeon General report on smoking] as chairman, and and Fuller F. Barnes of Bristol, Conn.; William McCormick Blair [S&B 1907] of Chicago, George Parmly Day and Thomas W. Farnam of Yale University, Dr. Norman E. Freeman of Philadelphia, Harry C. Knight of New Haven, Dr. Fred T. Murphy of Detroit, Professor C.E.A. Winslow of Yale University and Dr. Milton C. Winternitz of Yale University as members." Their new facilities included the ultracentrifuge. (Yale Will Expand Its Medical School. New York Times, May 14, 1939.)

Winslow died Jan. 9, 1957, at the age of 79. "Dr. Winslow founded the Yale Department of Public Health in 1915 and served as department chairman until his retirement. He had influenced international health policies and advances through the World Health Organization and, earlier, through the health section of the League of Nations. He was a member of the American Red Cross mission to Russia in 1917 and general medical director of the League of Red Cross Societies in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1921." He was editor of the American Journal of Public Health since 1944 [however, back in those days, most of its articles dealt purely with American Public Health Association business, and it wasn't until the 1960s that it began to deal with health issues -cast]. "Dr. Winslow was born in Boston on Feb. 4, 1877, the son of Erving and Catherine Reignolds Winslow. His mother was a famous actress. He received a B.S. degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1898 and an M.S. from M.I.T. in 1910. He received an honorary degree of Doctor of Public Health from New York University in 1918. He was on the M.I.T. faculty from 1902 to 1910 and at City College of New York from 1910 to 1914 before going to Yale, where he held the rank of Anna M.R. Lauder Professor of Public Health." He began Yale's program of community public health surveys soon after joining the faculty. (Dr. Winslow, 79, of Yale Is Dead. New York Times, Jan. 9, 1957.) His father, Erving Winslow, served on the U.S. Sanitary Commission during the Civil War, and was the head of the Anti-Imperialist Society. (Erving Winslow (1839-1922) Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society.)

Erving Winslow Papers / Massachusetts Historical Society

Lest anyone think that Winslow's direct influence is diminished today, in the inaugural issue of the Centers for Disease Control's online compendium of health fascist drivel, "Preventing Chronic Disease," Jan. 2004, its editor-in-chief offers an ode of praise to him and his vision of public health as social engineering. (Welcome to Preventing Chronic Disease, by Lynne S. Wilcox.)

Wilcox, 2004 / Centers for Disease Control (pdf, 2pp)
Table of Contents, January 2004 / Preventing Chronic Disease

The journal's editorial board includes ETS study author Ross Brownson; anti-smoking warhorses Jeffrey Harris, who lied to Congress that smoking is an economic burden; and former Wisconsin state epidemiologist Patrick Remington. Its featured articles are on the exploits of anti-smoking activists, who give lip service to "community" involvement while ignoring the evidence that the community doesn't want them.

Editorial Board / Preventing Chronic Disease

The J.B. Pierce Laboratory

The J.B. Pierce Laboratory was founded at Yale in 1924. John Barlett Pierce, who died in 1917, founded the Pierce Steam Heating Co., which merged with American Radiator Co. in 1892, and is now part of American Standard. The Pierce Foundation provided the funding for the Bureau of Research of ASHVE, a predecessor organization of ASHRAE (the American Society of Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineeers). The associate director of Pierce from 1974 to 1989, Jan A.J. Stolwijk, was a member of the Science Advisory Board of the EPA's ETS report.

About Us / The John B. Pierce Laboratory
The History of Heating and Ventilation Control / ASHRAE (pdf, 6pp)

The executors and trustees of Pierce's will were Clarence M. Woolley and Frank M. Peters of New York, and Rolland J. Hamilton of Chicago. (John B. Pierce Left Million to Employees. The New York Times, Jul. 10, 1917.) Woolley was involved in the US business support of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1918 (Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton. Chapter IV, Guaranty Trust Goes to Russia). Charles A. Coffin, the founding president and chairman of the board of General Electric until 1922, was also involved, as a member of the American League to Aid and Cooperate with Russia; and as a director of the American International Corporation, whose getaway after bilking US taxpayers of billions of dollars was handled by Albert D. Lasker as head of the Shipping Board. After Coffin died in 1926, Woolley took his place as a director of GE.

Ch. 9, Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution / Reformed Theology

The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research

In 1937, Charles A. Coffin's unmarried daughter, Alice S. Coffin, and his son-in-law, Starling W. Childs, established the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research at Yale. Frederic Collin Walcott, S&B 1891, was the first chairman of the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund in 1937, and Stanhope Bayne-Jones, S&B 1910 and Dean of the Yale School of Medicine, was the first chairman of its Board of Scientific Advisors. Bayne-Jones was the overseer of the 1964 Surgeon General Report on smoking.

About the Fund / The Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, Yale University

Harry Lloyd Hopkins

Hopkins was mainly involved in social welfare work; however, in 1922, he became general director of the New York Tuberculosis Association, which expanded and absorbed the New York Heart Association.

Harry L. Hopkins (1890-1946) / National Park Service
Harry L. Hopkins Papers / Georgetown University

C.-E.A. Winslow, Harry L. Hopkins, and Louis I. Dublin participated in the reorganization of the New York City Health Department (Dr. Harris Appoints New Bureau Heads. New York Times, Jan. 24, 1928).

As Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, Hopkins was a member of the Committee on Economic Security, 1934. IHR advisory committee member William Green was a member of its Advisory Committee; Harvey Cushing was on the Medical Advisory Committee, along with future Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr. Parran, C.-E.A. Winslow, and Louis I. Dublin were on the Public Health Advisory Committee.

Committee on Economic Security / Social Security Administration

Leona Baumgartner

Leona Baumgartner was the first woman to serve as Commissioner of Health of New York City. "As a college student, Dr. Baumgartner had not planned to enter public health. She went to Yale to study for a Ph.D. degree in bacteriology and immunology. Two great teachers, C.E.A. Winslow and Dr. Milton O. Winternitz, persuaded her that she belonged elsewhere than in the laboratory." She joined the Health Department in 1937. (Her Vigil: City's Health. New York Times, May 7, 1957.)

In 1946, Baumgartner was a sponsor of the New York Heart Association fund raising campaign. Other sponsors included W. Averell Harriman; Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Sr.; Mrs. Albert D. Lasker; James S. Adams; Harold L. Bache, the nephew of Jules S. Bache; Devereux C. Josephs; Ralph T. Reed; Frank Stanton; and Thomas J. Watson Sr. Hugh Cullman and Emerson Foote were chairmen of Commerce and Industry committees. (Display Ad 46. New York Times, Jan. 31, 1946 p. 12.)

In 1958, Baumgartner was a member of New York City Mayor Wagner's new Health Research Council. Other members included James S. Adams of Lazard Freres & Co.;Devereux C. Josephs, chairman of the board of the New York Life Insurance Company and a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust; Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, president of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Mrs. Mary Lasker, president of the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation; Dr. Robert K. Merton, Professor of Sociology at Columbia University; Gerard Piel, publisher of Scientific American; Anna M. Rosenberg, public and industrial relations consultant, Anna M. Rosenberg Associates (who married Paul G. Hoffman a few years later); Dr. Warren Weaver, vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation; and Bethuel M. Webster, counsel to the Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. (New City Research Agency To Finance Health Studies. By Peter Kihss. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 1; Members of Health Council. New York Times, Sep. 17, 1958 p. 22.) She was a member of Mayor Wagner's commission on hospital costs with Mrs. Albert D. Lasker in 1959. (City Orders Survey of Hospital Costs. By Edith Evans Asbury. New York Times, Feb. 13, 1959.)

Leona Baumgartner was a Founding Sponsor of John Banzhaf's group, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) in 1968. She was the second wife of Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir, the founder of the Centers for Disease Control (Alexander Langmuir Dies at 83; Helped Start U.S. Disease Centers. By Lawrence K. Altman. New York Times, Nov. 24, 1993.) He was the nephew of former Lazard Freres partner Dean Langmuir. Dr. and Mrs. Alexander D. Langmuir made a special contribution to furnish the new offices of Action on Smoking and Health in 1980. (ASH Newsletter, 1980 Nov-Dec.)

ASH Newsletter, 1980 Nov-Dec. / tobacco document

Baumgartner was a member of the Physicians Committee for Health Care for the Aged Through Social Security, which was created to lobby for Medicare and disbanded after they succeeded. Other members of the organization included Dr. Martin Cherkasky, Dr. Michael DeBakey, and Philip R. Lee. Its chairman was Caldwell B. Esselstyn, father of Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr., Skull & Bones 1956. (Memo from Harry R. Hinton of the American Medical Association, to Earle Clements of the Tobacco Institute, re Physicians Committee for Health Care for the Aged Through Social Security- 1962, and their current positions; May 22, 1969.) Medicare is the government program that made cardiologists rich. It was the single largest cause of the steady increase in health care costs which began in 1965.

Papers of the Physicians Committee for Health Care for the Aged Through Social Security / Social Security Administration
Harry R. Hinton to Earle C. Clements, May 22, 1969 / tobacco document

In 1974, Baumgartner was on the Board of Directors of the American Association for World Health, Inc., the US Committee for the World Health Organization. Fellow directors include Mrs. Oswald Bates Lord (Mary Pillsbury Lord, whose husband was a member of Skull & Bones Class of 1926), the mother of Winston Lord, S&B 1959 and former chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the mother-in-law of Bette Bao Lord; Walter G. James, Vice President for Public Education of the American Cancer Society; George Baehr of the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York; and Howard A. Rusk.

American Association for World Health, 1974 / tobacco document

<= Back to The Health Establishment and the Order of Skull & Bones

cast 06-13-11