"Among his many accomplishments, Graham (1883-1957), the Bixby Professor of Surgery and head of the Department of Surgery, performed the first successful pneumonectomy -- the removal of a lung -- for the treatment of lung cancer.... In January 1929, Dr. Gilmore [the patient, an obstetrician from Pittsburgh], had had pneumonia of the right lower lobe that required several weeks before full recovery. He was then well until July 1932, when he experienced general discomfort, chills, fever, and an elevated white blood cell count. One month later a chest radiograph revealed a 'fan-shaped shadow in the region of the left axilla' (the upper lobe of his left lung) that regressed over the next few days; this condition recurred in October and, once again, soon subsided. An attempted aspiration of a suspected lung abscess in December 1932 resulted in a pneumothorax that persisted until his February 1933 admission to Barnes Hospital. His December symptoms had abated somewhat, but, 10 days before admission, fever and chest discomfort recurred, and he arrived with a tentative diagnosis of lung abscess.... His third admission, on March 13, was for further workup. Dr. Arbuckle bronchoscoped him again and, after visualizing the left upper lobe bronchus, stated that its lumen was larger than it had been at the prior examination. We saw walls lined with a dark red membrane that bled easily, but was unable to distinguish whether these were chronic inflammatory changes or malignant growths. In the main stem bronchus, just at the opening of the upper lobe bronchus, Arbuckle felt that the biopsy material was not sufficient for diagnosis. Nonetheless, Dr. W. Dean, Jr., pathologist for the Ear, Nose and Throat Service, reported the condition to be squamous cell carcinoma of the left upper lobe. Dr. Arbuckle's third bronchoscopy, on March 21, showed abnormalities in both the upper lobe and the main stem bronchi, and satisfactory biopsies taken from these areas showed squamous cell carcinoma." (Excerpt from Evarts A. Graham: The Life, Lives and Times of the Surgical Spirit of St. Louis, by C. Barber Miller, BC Decker, Inc. 2002. Washington University in St. Louis Magazine, Fall 2003.)Barber / Washington University in St. Louis Magazine
Evarts Ambrose Graham. March 19, 1883 - March 4, 1957. By Lester R. Dragstedt. In: Biographical Memoirs V. 48, National Academy Press, 1976, pp. 220-251.Graham bio / National Academy Press
Graham was a correspondent of Harvey Cushing between 1919 and 1934. The lung cancer of Harvey Cushing's daughter, Barbara, who was married to William S. Paley, was featured in anti-smoking propaganda to the US Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources on behalf of the American Cancer Society, May 5, 1983.
Dr. Charles S. Cameron Jr. became the Medical and Scientific Director of the American Cancer Society in 1948, after the resignation of CC Little. He was the son of one of Elmer Bobst's friends from the Schering and Glatz pharmaceutical company. In 1950 he founded CA-A bulletin of Cancer Progress, later renamed CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, a treatment-oriented journal. His best-selling 1956 book, "The Truth About Cancer," was dedicated to Bobst. Cameron left the ACS that year to become Dean of Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital.
"A few chronic infections, especially infections in certain organs, seem to make the development of cancer more likely. The germs of infection - bacteria, parasites, or other microorganisms - are probably not cancer-causing agents in themselves. But the infections that they cause are associated with inflammation - a kind of chronic irritation. It is probably this irritation that favors the development of cancer rather than the infecting organisms themselves.
"For example, syphilis involving the tongue (here we refer to late syphilis - not the chancre) is eventually complicated by cancer of the tongue in many cases, although in these cases other forms of irritation are frequently present also. Tuberculosis affecting the skin, called lupus (a form of the disease rarely seen nowadays) predisposes to skin cancer, but to a lesser degree. Some unusually severe cases of colitis (inflammation of the large intestine), sometimes due to bacterial infections, are associated with a tendency to develop cancer.
"Cancer of the bladder is found more often in the eastern Mediterranean countries - Egypt especially - than anywhere else in the world, and it affects men mcuh more often than women. Moreover, most of the men who get it are members of the same social class or caste - those who work in the fields bordering the few sources of fresh water, such as the valleys of the Nile. A somewhat crude system irrigation requires that these 'fellahs,' as they are called, stand for long hours in flooded areas. They are exposed to a water-borne parasite of microscopic size, known as bilharzia, which penetrates the skin of the feet and eventually comes to lodge in the walls of the bladder. There they cause a low-grade but continuous inflammation, which very often leads to cancer.
"Other infections, not identified with a single infecting germ but with several organisms that contaminate an already weakened or susceptible tissue, are considered precursors of cancer. Chronically infected scars - especially burn scars which habitually break down, and persistent ulcerations from deep and extensive burns or other causes - favor the appearance of skin cancer, though usually only after some years. Cancer of the cervix (the neck of the womb) is regarded by many as more prone to develop in a chronically infected cervix than in a perfectly healthy one. Such infection is not venereal; it develops very often on the basis of old, unrepaired childbirth injuries, including lacerations or 'tears.'
"These remarks about infection and cancer must not give the impression that cancer is caused by germs. Nearly 100 years of careful observation and experimental work have failed to disclose the existence of any cancer-causing organism. Our examples are meant to show that cancer appears to be favored by the long-continued irritation caused by some chronic bacterial infections, rather than by the bacteria themselves.
"We know that several kinds of tumor - benign and malignant - that occur in animals are due to viruses - those strange agents of disease so small that they pass through porcelain and are visible only under the extremely powerful electron microscope. Indeed, only in the past few years has it been possible to see these incredibly small bodies. Previously, their existence rested on theory.
"Viruses are the causes of a warty tumor of the skin affecting wild rabbits, and of another tumor of the skin, this one malignant, that also occurs in rabbits. Cancer of the kidney, found sometimes in frogs, is caused by a virus, and so is a leukemia-like disease of the blood affecting chickens and other fowl. The first tumor ever shown to be caused by a virus was the chicken sarcoma, which was discovered in 1910 to be transmissible from an infected bird to a healthy one under circumstances that made a virus the most likely suspect - even though no one had ever actually seen a virus! Within the past few years, evidence has suggested that leukemia in certain strains of mice may be induced by viruses, as may be a tumor involving the salivary gland of the same species.
"During the past decade or so, many researchers have turned their attention to the role of some agent that behaves like a virus. This agent seems to have an important influence - probably the determining one - in the appearance of cancer of the breast in mice. It is transmitted from mother to offspring in the mother's milk, and some investigators say it has the physical structure of a virus as seen in the electron microscope. In this way, the 'milk factor,' as the infecting agent is called, is passed along through succeeding generations of mice. When it is present in a strain or 'breed' of mice, cancer of the breast will develop in about eight or nine out of every ten females who live long enough to get it. But if the newborn female offspring are removed from their mother immediately after birth - before they have nursed at her breasts even once - and are placed with a foster mother of a strain that does not carry the 'milk factor,' they will not develop cancer as they grow older - or will do so only rarely.
"There is no direct evidence that a 'milk factor' causes cancer of the breast in human beings, but a few scientists believe that such a possibility may exist. As circumstantial evidence, they point to the frequency of cancer of the breast in some families. One investigator has gone so far as to suggest that breast cancer - which at the moment takes about 21,000 lives a year - could be virtually eliminated if the practice of breast-feeding could be halted throughout the world for two or three generations. But the counter-arguments weigh heavy. For instance, breast cancer is rather uncommon in Japan, where breast-feeding is uniformly practiced.
"Most scientists do not accept the existence of a transmissible agent as the cause of human cancer of the breast. On the other hand, the discovery of the 'milk factor,' and of other virus-like substances responsible for certain tumors in animals, has revived the interest of scientists in viruses and in their possible relation to tumor growth in general and to cancer in humans specifically.
"We have heard a great deal in late years about virus pneumonia. This kind of lung infection sometimes assumes the proportion of a mild epidemic. It so happens that this condition seems to occur with surprising frequency in patients with cancer of the lung - and early in the course of the cancer at that. It is not uncommon for X-rays taken in order to diagnose an acute infection of the lung - virus pneumonia, for example - to disclose an unsuspected lung cancer. But sometimes the area of pneumonia overlies or surrounds the lung cancer so as to hide it in the X-ray picture. Therefore, it is highly important that X-rays of the chest be taken several weeks after recovery from virus pneumonia in order to be perfectly sure that the evidence of disease has disappeared as it should, and that no lurking cancer continues to cast its shadow.
"Cancer of the lung is so frequently associated with attacks of virus pneumonia that one eminent physician has stated that all [italics] cases of virus [italics] pneumonia in persons past middle life should be suspected of suggesting cancer of the lung until very careful examinations have proved it does not exist....
"It has been suggested that cancer of the lung may be associated with chronic infectious disease of the lung, particularly tuberculosis. Thirty years ago, there were many proponents of this view. But time and evidence have just about dispelled it. Certainly the rapidly declining tuberculosis rates of the past 20 years, and the sharp increase in lung cancer rates, speak against any association.
"But lately some attention has been directed back to 1918 to another
infectious disease involving the lung, influenza. One eminent
pathologist, after examining minutely the lungs of many persons who had
died of influenza, predicted at the time that a striking increase in
cancer of the lung could be expected in the next 30 years. Of course,
if cancer of the lung were the late result of the severe influenza of
the 1918 epidemic, then it should reach a peak and then begin to fall
off as the generation involved in the epidemic dies off. As yet, there
is no sign that this is happening. The trend is still sharply upward -
a fact which weakens the influenza theory considerably."
In 1962, the discovery that human
adenovirus type 12 caused lung cancers in "nonsmoking" hamsters
produced a brief stir of excitement. After having ridiculed early
investigators and destroying their papers, the Lasker Syndicate
exploited it to help drum up public support for the establishment of
the NCI's fruitless Special Virus Cancer Program.
Cancer 1. The Virus Theory. In: Cancer Is Yielding Up Its Secrets.
By Pat McGrady and Murray Morgan. Saturday Evening Post, May 9, 1964.
"Viruses were first suggested as cancer agents by an imaginative French
bacteriologist, Amedée Borrell, more than half a century ago.
Within a few years after Borrell enunciated his theory, several
scientists - most notably Dr. Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute
- demonstrated that a filterable substance, presumably a virus, could
cause leukemia and some solid cancers in chickens. At the time,
leukemia was not officially considered a cancer; the implications of
Rous's 1910 discovery were overlooked for many years. In 1932 another
Rockefeller Institute scientist, Dr. Richard E. Shope, showed that
injections of a virus caused rabbits to develop tumors. This was the
first proof that viruses could incite a cancer in a mammal. But most
members of the scientific and medical community remained hostile to the
idea that viruses might be involved in human cancer. Even if viruses
could start the growth of tumors in some plants and animals, there was
a species barrier, these conservatives argued, that viruses could not
cross. So powerful was the conservative opinion that researchers who
proposed projects on the possible viral cause of human cancer had
difficulty obtaining grants. The few virologists who stayed with the
chase found it expedient to pursue their investigations quietly, almost
apologetically. The voice raised most often in the 1940s and early
1950s in defense of the virus theory was the soft and cultivated voice
of an emigré Spanish
nobleman, Dr. Francisco Duran-Reynals, who had laboratory facilities
(but not academic tenure) at Yale. One Yale colleague summed up the
general reaction when he told students, 'If you are interested in
viruses as a cause of cancer, go upstairs and listen to Hans Christian
Andersen tell you a fairy story.' The little man upstairs reacted with
politeness. 'In a field where all of us know so little,' he would say
mildly, 'how can we afford to ignore any possibility, even the virus?'
In private he admitted he was hurt by the contempt in which his ideas
were held. Year after year Duran-Reynals continued to confront his
apathetic or hostile peers with new evidence of cancer viruses in
animals. In his big, old-fashioned laboratory at Yale he ran off a
series of elegant experiments which proved that the Rous sarcoma - the
cell-destroying virus of chicken cancer - was not confined to chickens
but could leap the so-called species barrier and incite cancers in
ducks and turkeys. Indeed, the virus sometimes gained virulence as it
passed from one species to another. He showed how a virus could lie
dorman for many years before inciting cancer. He made many other basic
contributions to the understanding of cancer viruses. Not until 1955
did the theories of Francisco Duran-Reynals come out of the shadow of
disfavor. At the Third National Cancer Conference in Detroit that year
one of the main speeches was delivered by Dr. Wendell Meredith Stanley,
who had been awarded the Nobel Prize in 1946 for crystallizing the
tobacco mosaic virus. Dr. Stanley bluntly told an audience composed of
the world's most active cancer investigators that they should mend
their ways, abandon the notion of an impenetrable species barrier, and
seriously consider the possibility that viruses are involved in human
cancer. 'Basic biologic phenomena generally do not differ strikingly as
one goes from one species to another,' Doctor Stanley reminded the
cancer specialists. 'I regard the fact, now proved beyond contention,
that viruses can cause cancer in animals to be directly pertinent to
the human cancer problem.' A few months later Duran-Reynals, the gentle
man of soft voice and iron determination, fell prey to a strange cancer
that first paralyzed him, then killed him. Many of his colleagues,
including his widow, suspect the cancer was incited by one of the
viruses he had experimented with in his laboratory. Maria-Luisa
Duran-Reynals has continued with her late husband's experiments. Now at
Albert Einstein Medical School, she has produced an awesome array of
mouse cancers and has shown that these cancers can be prevented by
immunizing the animals against the virus in advance. 'It is now clear,'
Mrs. Duran-Reynals said recently, 'that Francisco was a prophet - not a
dreamer or visionary, as his critics called him. Cancer control will be
achieved by immunological methods. Cynics may delay the day - but
sooner or later we shall prevent human cancers with vaccines and cure
them with vaccines, antiserums or other measures which strengthen
Francisco Duran-Reynals received a grant of $59,313.60 from the American Cancer Society in 1955-56 for his research, "To Ascertain Whether All or Some Types of Lung Cancer, Apparently Induced by External Specific Irritants or Other Non-Infectious Causes are Fundamentally Induced by Viruses."
Grants, 1956 / tobacco document
"Dr. Smith had a wonderful team there. Duran-Reynals, Harry Green
[Harry S.N. Greene], Lionel Strong, and a number of others. They all
had tenure, and a happy environment, all brought there by Dr. Smith.
When Gardner moved into Smith's spot, general misery hit the place.
Duran-Reynals was ridiculed and tried to come here. He sickened and
died at 58 in 1958. Lionel Strong left. Harry Green was wretched. They
all talked to me. He was a blight. The joy was gone, and Yale ceased to
be the nerve center of cancer research, that it was under Smith."
"Strange, on Smith's momentum he got his professorship, his spots on the Anna Fuller Fund (which was Smith's fortune), the Coffin Child's (which was set up at Dr. Smith's suggestion by Sterling Childs). He has worked himself up politically in the International Union and the Cancer Society. He will be 65 next year, and through at Yale. The Tobacco Council could surely do better. On paper he looks fine. In fact, no!."Macdonald letter 1971 / tobacco document
The illness of Babe Paley, the wife of CBS Chairman William S. Paley, fit this pattern: "...Toward the end of a trip to China with her husband, she was hit with a severe respiratory illness and a fever of 104 [degrees] that doctors diagnosed as pneumonia. Paley immediately called Isadore Rosenfeld, his doctor in New York, who suggested a course of antibiotics [which would not have been effective against a virus -cast].... Two weeks later, when they returned home, Babe was examined by an army of doctors who confirmed the pneumonia diagnosis and told her to quit smoking. She did, but her cough lingered for months and she was X-rayed monthly for the rest of the year [which may actually have harmed her considering the higher dosages used back then -cast]. Each time the diagnosis was pneumonia. Then, early in January 1974, a small tumor was found on one lung. On January 18 -- Amanda's thirteenth birthday -- Dr. Paul Ebert of New York Hospital removed one third of Babe's right lung. The tumor was malignant, but Babe's doctors were hopeful that surgery had checked the cancer." She died in 1978. (In All His Glory. The Life of William S. Paley. By Sally Bedell Smith. Simon and Schuster, 1990.) Note the extended period of time between the onset of her respiratory illness and her diagnosis of cancer, during which she might have been treated.
In 1983, ten years after that, there was still no research -- but the anti-smokers exploited her death and the deaths of other famous people, including members of Congress, to hate-monger against smoking. (Dr. William Cahan, Professor of Medicine at Cornell University Medical College, and surgeon at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; testifying to the US Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources on behalf of the American Cancer Society, May 5, 1983.) Babe Paley's sister was married to John Hay Whitney, whose business partner, Benno Schmidt, was the president of Memorial Hospital and was a member of the President's Cancer Panel in 1975; and their father was surgeon Harvey Cushing, who was a correspondent of Evarts A. Graham from 1919 to 1934. And, ironically, Mrs. William S. Paley was one of the illustrious boxholders for Edward L. Bernays' famous Green Ball in 1934.Cahan, 1983 / tobacco document
The anti-smokers still refuse to admit that infection plays any role in lung cancer - although, out of concern for liability, gene sequences suspected of being capable of causing cancer are removed from viruses used as vectors in gene therapy.Adenoviruses Are Implicated in Lung Cancer
See the American Cancer Society stonewall about infection as a CAUSE of lung cancer (as opposed to being merely complications of illness, useful tools for investigation, or potential vectors for therapy). (Section 28. Noeplasms of the Thorax: Cancer of the Lung. AA Vaporciyan, JC Nesbitt, JS Lee, C Stevens, R Komaki, JA Roth. In: Cancer Medicine, 5th edition. RC Bast, DW Kufe, RE Pollock, RR Weichselbaum, JF Holland, E Frei, editors; Associate Editor - Ted S. Gansler, MD, MBA, Director of Health Content, American Cancer Society. BC Decker Inc., 2000.) "An approved publication of the American Cancer Society."Cancer Medicine / American Cancer Society (pdf)
(Stigma, shame and blame experienced by patients with lung cancer: qualitative study. A. Chapple, S. Ziebland, A. McPherson. BMJ 2004 Jun 19;328(7454):1470.) See how the international cancer conspiracy has brainwashed society and the victims of lung cancer themselves to blame the victims and/or the tobacco companies -BUT NEVER THE HEALTH ESTABLISHMENT WHICH PLUNDERS OUR MONEY WHILE SUPPRESSING RESEARCH.Chapple, 2004 / BMJ
Cancer increase baffling. Lung cancer, linked strongly to smoking, is on the rise in under-50 women who never lit up or smoked little. By Roni Rabin, Staff Writer. Newsday Aug. 11, 2005. Experienced clinicians say they have noted the increase.Cancer increase baffling, Newsday Aug. 11, 2005 / Newday
Thanks to the American Cancer Society's suppression of research on
the role of infection in lung cancer, knowledge in 2006 is the same as
at the time of Evarts Graham's 1933 pneumocotomy. Laurie Fenton,
president of the Lung Cancer Alliance (LCA), an astroturf national
advocacy group for lung cancer patients created by the anti-smokers,
whines that "Many in the medical community are not as informed as they
could be. The majority of calls to our 800 number are people who were
misdiagnosed with bronchitis, put on antibiotics for four months, and
then told, ‘You have lung cancer. Go home and put your affairs in
order.’" A typical example is given of Joan Scarangello, a lifelong
nonsmoker, who was diagnosed with recurring pneumonia for two years.
According to Laurie Fenton, everybody is to blame except the Cancer
Society. She thinks the doctors are idiots for believing that the
patient has an infection-related disease just because the symptoms
indicate it, and attempting to use the remedies they have because the
remedies they need don't exist. Laurie Fenton's solution is CT scans,
which don't prevent an infection from causing cancer in the first
place; they merely detect smaller masses than X-rays, after they have
developed to the size of a pea and metastasized all over the place.
And, to melodramatize the Cancer Society's lie that secondhand smoke
causes lung cancer, she wants CT scans for non-smokers exposed to
secondhand smoke as well. And, who does this witch blame for
suppressing research on lung cancer, but the tobacco industry, as if
health research is supposed the be their central purpose! Not Mary
Woodard Lasker and her Cancer Society nazis, who have totally
controlled the research agenda for the last six decades, but the
tobacco industry, whose research efforts they have been the loudest to
smear, denounce and dismiss! "On September 7, 2005 the LCA filed a
brief in the U.S. District Court, asking that the tobacco industry be
required not only to fund smoking cessation programs, but also
independent research on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of
lung cancer. In its brief, the LCA argues that by concealing the
addictive effects of smoking, the tobacco industry has stigmatized lung
cancer victims, resulting in inadequate research funding. To date, none
of the Philip Morris Tobacco Master Settlement Fund — which exceeds
$200 billion — has gone to lung cancer research." In fact, that claim
that smoking is "addicting" is a smear manufactured by the Lasker
Lobby, specifically created by them to stigmatize smokers. Again, the
anti-smokers themselves, and their political whores who received this
largesse as a reward for collaborating with them in the state tobacco lawsuits, are responsible for
this. (Women Lift Smokescreen on Lung Cancer. By Janet Rhodes. Bay Area
BusinessWoman 2005 November.)
The rabid, psychotic gibberings of the Lung Cancer Alliance's Amicus
filing in the Federal tobacco lawsuit: "The United States has alleged,
offered voluminous evidence on, and we believe now proven a teeming
half-century of fraud on the part of the Defendants, including their
denials of the severe harms to health associated with smoking long
after they themselves were aware of these harms; their elaborate and
lavishly funded efforts to distort and conceal in the interest of
continued profits the science of smoking and health; and their repeated
bad-faith denials even in recent years of the addictiveness of
cigarettes and their concomitant marketing of cigarette smoking as an
unfettered consumer 'choice.'" "As an entity with a specific interest
in lung cancer, LCA seeks to provide the Court with its perspective on
the enormously significant consequences of this long history of
misconduct for lung cancer victims and for lung cancer’s stigmatized
status in our society. Defendants’ conduct had had a profound effect on
the social meaning of lung cancer and of the experience of its victims
(the vast majority of them smokers or former smokers). It is, we argue,
largely as a result of the remarkable success of Defendants’ massive
public-relations success at portraying smoking as a mere consumer
choice -- rather than the tenacious addiction Defendants well knew it
to be -- that lung cancer sufferers stand alone among cancer victims in
being routinely blamed for their own disease. As a result of the unique
stigma that defines lung cancer as the “smoker’s disease,” lung cancer
research has lagged far behind other major cancers in research funding
and early detection programs, thereby contributing to extremely low
survival rates and the fatal lack of broadly available early detection
programs that are now routine for other cancers. The stigmatization of
lung cancer and its attendant consequences represents the direct
consequence of Defendant’s massive public-relations success at selling
cigarette smoking as a personal choice, rather than an addiction. We
believe that the remedy imposed by this Court must take account of
Defendants’ central role in shaping the very meaning of lung cancer as
a disease in the United States and the imposing gratuitous hardships of
its victims." (Motion of the Lung Cancer Alliance for leave to appear
as Amicus Curiae. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff v. PHILIP
MORRIS USA, INC. f/k/a PHILIP MORRIS INCORPORATED, et al., Defendants.
Civil Action No. 99-CV-02496 (GK).)
The LCA board of directors includes Cheryl Healton, President &
CEO of the American Legacy Foundation; and J. Steven Hart, chairman and
CEO of Williams & Jensen, who has been named "one of Washington's
top lobbyists by Washingtonian magazine and one of the top Republican
fundraisers by National Journal.... During the first administration of
Ronald Reagan, Mr. Hart was the Justice Department Special Assistant in
charge of processing Federal judicial nominations. He also served at
the Office of Management and Budget on the President's Reorganization
Task Force on ERISA, at the Labor Department in the Pension Welfare
Benefits Program, and at the Pension Benefits Guaranty Corporation."
The Medical and Scientific Advisory Board includes David M. Burns,
anti-smoker militant who was a member of the Science Advisory Board of
the corrupt EPA ETS report; and Stephanie J.
London of the National Institute of Environmental Health
Sciences, an institution dedicated to quackery. Their script on "Lung
Cancer Risks" is entirely written by the American Cancer Society.
The Joan Scarangello Foundation to Conquer Lung Cancer is a darling of the Beautiful People of New York Society: "There was dancing, singing, wine tasting, supper galore, silent auction bidding and great fun at Times Square Studios for the 2003 Strolling Supper with Blues & News to benefit Joan's Legacy: The Joan Scarangello Foundation to Conquer Lung Cancer. By the end of the evening, more than $400,000 was raised for lung cancer research and awareness programs, with the help of network anchors and Honorary Chairmen Tom Brokaw, Barbara Walters, Brian Williams and Aaron Brown." (Party Pictures 12.11.03. David Patrick Columbia's New York Social Diary.) Scarangello was "a lifelong New Yorker and untiring reader and writer who worked with a roster of top news anchors – Peter Jennings, Tom Brokaw and Brian Williams among them – before being struck by non-small cell lung cancer. In the first three years of its ambitious quest, the foundation has awarded more than $1 million in research grants, largely due to the loving labor of this husband-and-wife team who serve on a board stacked with others who knew and loved Joan." - i.e., the same media scumbags who spread lies and defamations against smokers! (A Sister’s Legacy. By Nicole Pezold. Avenue Magazine, September, 2005.)Party Pictures 12.11.03 / New York Social Diary
Between 1990 and 1995, the average percentage of smokers among males
was 24.48 percent, and 21.2 percent among females. Between 1997
and 2002, the average percentage of smokers among males was 25.07
percent, and 21.0 percent among females. In other words, the percentage
of smokers among males increased by 0.59 percent, and declined by 0.2
percent among females. (Table 3. Trends in Major Cancer Risk Factors
and Cancer Screening in the U.S. by Gender, 1990 to 2002. In: A
midpoint assessment of the American Cancer Society challenge goal to
halve the U.S. cancer mortality rates between the years 1990 and 2015.
T Byers, E Barrera, ET Fontham, LA Newman, CD Runowicz, SF Sener, MJ
Thun, S Winborn, RC Wender; American Cancer Society Incidence and
Mortality Ends Committee. Cancer 2006 Jul 15;107(2):396-405.)
But lung cancer death rates did not track with these changes in
of smoking. Among men, lung cancer incidence decreased, while among
women, lung cancer death rates increased from 1995 through 2002, but
lung cancer incidence rates stabilized from 1998 through 2002. And,
despite hype that women are at greater risk of lung cancer than men,
the all-races rate for men between 1992 and 2002 was 82.7, versus 49.2
among women. (Figure 3. SEER incidence rates and trends for the 15 most
common cancers by sex and race/ethnicity for 1992 through 2002. In:
Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2002,
featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment. BK Edwards, ML
Brown, PA Wingo, HL Howe, E Ward, LA Ries, D Schrag, PM Jamison, A
Jemal, XC Wu, C Friedman, L Harlan, J Warren, RN Anderson, LW Pickle. J
Natl Cancer Inst 2005 Oct 5;97(19):1407-1427.)
From: Table 3. Trends in Major Cancer Risk Factors and Cancer
Screening in the U.S. by Gender, 1990 to 2002. In: A midpoint
assessment of the American Cancer Society challenge goal to halve the
U.S. cancer mortality rates between the years 1990 and 2015.
Although more than 50 studies have found human papillomaviruses in
non-small cell lung cancers, researchers from the National Cancer
Institute claimed they couldn't find any HPV of any type in any of the
samples of 246 adenocarcinomas and 137 squamous cell carcinomas.
Although they admit that other types of HPV are found in the lung, they
would have us believe that HPV plays no role in lung cancer in Western
populations, and insinuate that others' results were due to
contamination. This is the same story the health establishment told
about EBV and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.