(From "Bobst: the autobiography of a pharmaceutical pioneer," Elmer Bobst, 1973. Bobst's account focuses on his personal role.)
"Another major step that we took in the Cancer Society grew out of a trip to Europe that I took in 1954. I visited eight European capitals for the purpose of talking about our cancer research programs and the progress that we had made in the American Cancer Society. I made public speeches, held press conferences, and talked to professional medical groups, all of which were intrigued by what we had been doing. No matter who was in the audience, one of the first questions, in every case, was 'how do you raise money?' Europeans had not benefitted from the tradition of public fund-raising that we enjoy in America. Equally important, however, was the distressing fact that became apparent to me as I talked with people interested in cancer abroad. There was not a two-way flow of information between us and Europe. They knew of cancer research programs that were unfamiliar to me, and many of our efforts were unfamiliar to them. When I got home, I broached the idea of starting a healthy two-way program of information and cooperation. One such effort -- the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer -- had almost died aborning after three modest international conferences in Paris. It was short of funds and operated with a small staff that had little effect. I suggested that we organize the fourth international congress on cancer in the United States, and assure its success by funding it from generous private sources. Dr. Cameron put the idea into action. The congress, finally held in St. Louis in 1957, was a complete success, and made international headlines when the U.S. government used the occasion to announce that it would make radioisotopes available for cancer research and treatment all over the world.
"With the definite idea of creating an affiliation with cancer societies throughout the world, I proposed this step on my return from Europe after making quite a number of cancer speeches and noting an intense interest of those devoted to this wonderful cause. Our board of directors, however, for two years or more were not sufficiently interested to bring about the relationship I originally had in mind. But Mary Lasker, hand in hand with me in the thought of developing the worldwide affiliation with our American societies, decided to bring a reasonable number of cancer workers from varied countries in Europe to visit our American Cancer Society meeting in Detroit. We both put up $25,000 to defray expenses. Delegates from twenty-five countries spent ten days studying the American Cancer Society's operations in work shops in New York, and a month in the field, studying the society's installations and visiting clinics. The foreign delegates were particularly impressed by our fund-raising techniques and carried the knowledge home with them to begin their own nation wide drives for cancer research funds. As a result of these and other efforts, the Cancer Society is now directly affiliated with 144 other societies in seventy-two countries, including some behind the Iron Curtain. The exchange of information on procedures, promotion, and research is free flowing, heavy, and beneficial to the victims of cancer everywhere."
(From "Crusade: The Official History of the American Cancer Society," by Walter S. Ross, Arbor House Publishing Co., 1987.)
"Although its focus was on its own country, the American Society for the Control of Cancer early recognized the international aspects of cancer. Its managing director, Dr. George A. Soper, toured Europe in 1924, visiting the twenty-odd cancer societies that had been inspired by the success of the ASCC and looking into research and treatment facilities. He reported his findings in "Cancer Control in Europe," which was published by the Society in 1925.
"The Executive Committee decided that 'the investigation of what other countries were doing in regard to cancer control had produced much information.' This led logically to the idea of holding an international cancer symposium. The dates were September 20-24, 1926; the place Lake Mohonk, New York. 'The aim is not to initiate investigations but to report upon those productive ones which have already been made.'
"A group of 109 cancer authorities from England, France, Germany,
Denmark, and several other countries, plus many other Americans,
gathered at the Lake Mohonk House
to discuss cancer control. They
ultimately agreed on fifteen statements of 'practical fact or sound
working opinions... as the basis of the campaign which mankind should
make against cancer.' These said, among other things, that cancer isn't
contagious or infectious, it is not hereditary, early detection is the
best assurance of cure; and the public must be taught the earliest
signals of cancer. Unexpectedly, the symposium generated a huge amount
of press coverage, which furthered the cause of cancer control.
"At a later international cancer congress in Madrid, October 1933, held under the auspices of French authorities, the delegates voted to establish an permanent International Union Against Cancer (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, or UICC) aimed at coordinating international cancer research and control. The following year the union was established in Paris. In 1954 Mefford Runyan, the executive director of the American Cancer Society, asked Miss Mildred E. Allen to find out from the UICC where other cancer societies existed. At the time the assistant general-secretary of the UICC, Dr. Pierre Denoix, sent a list of forty-eight cancer organizations.
"Elmer Bobst, a leading ACS volunteer, who traveled widely told Runyan, 'We have to do something to help other countries to develop cancer societies. Everywhere I went, people asked me about my work with the American Cancer society.' Mrs. Lasker was also interested in encouraging international cancer control. In 1954, at the request of Bobst and Mary Lasker, the ACS Board of Directors established a special Committee to Advance the Worldwide Fight Against Cancer 'to aid and stimulate the creation of cancer societies in other countries.' Dr. Alfred Popma served as its chairman for the first five years. For staff support, the ACS established a foreign desk, with Mrs. Allen -- who had worked for the U.S. State Department -- in charge. In 1966 she was joined by Gerry Schramm de Harven, who took over the foreign desk when Mrs. Allen retired in 1967. After leaving the ACS, Mildred Allen moved to Zurich, Switzerland, where she worked as a consultant to the UICC until her death in 1977.
"Under Mmes. Allen and de Harven, the ACS became known as a source of help for groups in all countries who wish to establish or improve voluntary cancer societies. As the first voluntary health group to demonstrate that it is both essential and possible to involve the public in cancer control, it has provided a model for similar efforts elsewhere in the world. And as the leading voluntary health organization, the ACS has supplied information, materials, and expertise to help establish cancer societies adapted to the social, economic, and governmental structures of more than 100 countries. And it has maintained liaison with them to help forward cancer control.
"Its volunteers and staff have often been invited to share their experience with other nations, including great powers whose ideologies and interests are in conflict with those of the United States and with one another, namely the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Peoples' Republic of China.
"The late U.S. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey told the Senate on September 22, 1961, 'it is fair to say that in my three years of study of world medical problems, I have found that no single American voluntary organization has worked more closely with voluntary health groups than has the American Cancer Society. Much of the credit for this great work goes to Mary Lasker and Elmer Bobst.'
"The ACS has also been a staunch supporter of the UICC, responsible for approximately one-half of that organization's budget. A number of leading ACS volunteers -- including Dr. R. Lee Clark, Charles R. Ebersol, Mrs. Audrey Mars, Dr. Gerald P. Murphey, Frank Wilcox, and Armand Willig -- have also worked to help make the UICC the leading organization of its kind in the world." Francis J. Wilcox, Attorney, Senior Partner of Wilcox & Wilcox, Eau Claire, WI, participated in the Nov. 18, 1981, National Conference on Smoking or Health - Developing a Blueprint for Action, Work Group 6, "High Priority State and Local Governmental Initiatives."
Clark was the first president of the University of Texas MD Anderson
Cancer Center (1946-78). From 1972 to 1977, Clark was also the senior
scientist on the President's Cancer Panel of the National Cancer
Institute, and he was national president of the American Cancer Society
from 1976 to 1977. Clark "traveled around the world helping other
countries establish cancer centers," and was chairman of the Committee
on International Collaborative Activities of the International Union
Against Cancer (UICC). (Tribute to a Giant. Dr. R. Lee Clark,
1907-1994. MD Anderson Cancer Center, Conquest, 1994.)
Gardner began as an National Research Council Fellow in the Department of Anatomy at Yale in 1933, and was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy from 1943 to 1967. He was vice president of the International Union for the Control of Cancer (UICC), from 1949-1950; Chairman of the UICC Committee on Fellowships from 1960-66; and President of the UICC from 1970-74. He was a member of the National Advisory Cancer Council of the USPHS from 1948-54; a member of the NCI's Board of Scientific Counselors from 1962-64 (an NCI document indicates it was until 1965); and a member of the Committee on Scientific Personnel for Research of the ACS from 1962-68.
Gardner was a member and Scientific Director of the Scientific
Advisory Board of the Council for Tobacco Research from 1971 to 1985,
and its Chairman from 1973 to
1981 (between CC Little and Sheldon Sommers).
Gardner was on the Board of Directors of the American Cancer Society in 1956, along with James Adams of Lazard Freres, Lane W. Adams, Elmer H. Bobst, and Mrs. Albert D. Lasker. Honorary Life Members included Gen. William J. Donovan, Anna M. Rosenberg, Eric A. Johnston, and Alfred P. Sloan Jr.Directors of the American Cancer Society, 1956 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Work at Yale under Gardner was reported on by Sir Ernest Kennaway, of the British Empire Cancer Campaign, May 1956.Kennaway, 1956 / UCSF (pdf, 15 pp)
Letter from MD Anderson epidemiologist Eleanor J. Macdonald to
Alexander Holtzman of Philip Morris concerning Gardner's joining the
CTR, Sep. 14, 1971: "Dr. George M. Smith at the time of his death, was
collecting memorabilia of the 'Giants of Cancer Research.' It was
marvellous. Two volumes of letters and pictures and original
manuscripts. He asked me to complete it if he died. I wrote to his
daughter, Claire Smith Noyes, and she told me Bill Gardner had asked
for it. She said he had told her her father was senile when he had
assembled it and he (Bill Gardner) had destroyed it. This is a
disaster. So many of these famous men are dead, and their personal
letters to Uncle George and their papers and pictures were invaluable.
He had letters and papers of mine there, too. I saw them, and worked on
them with Dr. Smith."
"Dr. Smith had a wonderful team there. Duran-Reynals, Harry Green
[Harry S.N. Greene], Lionel Strong, and a number of others. They all
had tenure, and a happy environment, all brought there by Dr. Smith.
When Gardner moved into Smith's spot, general misery hit the place.
Duran-Reynals was ridiculed and tried to come here. He sickened and
died at 58 in 1958. Lionel Strong left. Harry Green was wretched. They
all talked to me. He was a blight. The joy was gone, and Yale ceased to
be the nerve center of cancer research, that it was under Smith."
"Strange, on Smith's momentum he got his professorship, his spots on the Anna Fuller Fund (which was Smith's fortune), the Coffin Child's (which was set up at Dr. Smith's suggestion by Sterling Childs). He has worked himself up politically in the International Union and the Cancer Society. He will be 65 next year, and through at Yale. The Tobacco Council could surely do better. On paper he looks fine. In fact, no!."Macdonald letter 1971 / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Dr. George M. Smith was surgeon and research associate in anatomy
professor emeritus at the Yale School of Medicine. He was born in Hong
Kong in 1879, the son of John Henry Smith, "master of ships and
merchant in the China trade." He was associate in pathology Washington
University 1910-16, associate professor pathology and director Barnard
Skin and Cancer Hospital 1915-16, physician in Waterbury, Conn.,
1916-31, physician Scovill Manufacturing Company, Waterbury, 1916-48
(medical director 1920-48), and American Brass Company 1919-34, fellow
on Blossom Fund, Yale University, 1930-33, research associate in
anatomy 1933-48, emeritus 1948-51, chairman Atypical Growth Research
Unit (Yale), 1934-38, medical director The Anna Fuller Fund for Medical
Research 1938-51, executive director National Advisory Cancer Council,
National Cancer Institute, U S Public Health Service 1946, special
consultant 1947-51, on board scientific advisors The Jane Coffin Childs
Memorial Fund for Medical Research 1938-51, advisor International
Cancer Research Fund (later Donner Foundation). He was a vice president
of the American Cancer Society about 1939. He married Lucy Clare,
daughter of Alden March and Ellen (Shepardson) Young. (George Milton
1901. Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the
Undergraduate Schools Deceased During the Year 1950-1951, pages 47-48.)
John Henry Goss (Yale 1894), president of The Alden M. Young Company,
was his brother-in-law. The Scovill
was controlled by the relatives of C.I.A. director Porter Johnston Goss.
Dr. George Smith was to be an usher at the wedding of Dr. Raynham Townsend. Fellow ushers included Dr. Hugh Auchincloss [Scroll & Key 1901], and Dr. Albert Lamb [S&B 1903]. (Society Home and Abroad. New York Times, May 17, 1908.)
Duran-Reynals received a grant of $59,313.60 from the American Cancer Society in 1955-56 for his research, "To Ascertain Whether All or Some Types of Lung Cancer, Apparently Induced by External Specific Irritants or Other Non-Infectious Causes are Fundamentally Induced by Viruses." The ACS was also funding C.P. Rhoads, Evarts A. Graham, Paul Kotin, and Philippe Shubik in chemical carcinogenesis.ACS Grants, 1956 / UCSF (pdf, 6 pp)
Oct. 29, 1980, letter from Ernie Pepples, senior vice president and general counsel of Brown & Williamson Tobacco, to William Gardner at the CTR, transmitting the classic article, The Rise and Fall of Ischemic Heart Disease, by Reuel A. Stallones in Scientific American, November 1980; describing the unexplained decline in heart disease rates that began in the 1960s. Smoking did not account for it, and he noted that "The author seems to be looking for a single cause not yet identified."Pepples to Gardner, 1980 / UCSF (pdf, 1 p)
"In 1975, following the Third World Conference on Smoking and Health, [Nigel] Gray was asked by the UICC board to set up a Special Project on smoking and lung cancer. Gray's project was funded by a $100,000 grant from the International Cancer Foundation (ICF), incorporated in Geneva in 1971 'to enable the UICC to expand its activities in various directions which urgently call for attention on an international basis...' ICF Corporate and Foundation Members were expected to contribute $25,000 to $50,000 annually, according to a letter received by one U.S. company in 1974. The letter listed Lane Adams, longtime ACS executive vice president, as the USA member of the three-man ICF governing board." (Confidential report, Nov. 30, 1981.)International Conspiracy Against Cigarette Smoking / UCSF (pdf, 11 pp)
Interestingly, another entity called ICF had been founded in 1969 by Herbert S. Winokur Jr., now a director of the infamous Enron Corp. (along with longtime anti-smoking coordinator Charles A. LeMaistre, R. Lee Clark's successor as president of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center; and LeMaistre's successor John Mendelsohn). This ICF was later responsible for the illegal pass-through contracts under which the crucial chapters of the EPA report on the health effects of secondhand smoke were written. Perhaps the potential for financial "confusion" between the two ICFs ought to be investigated.The EPA's ETS Lies
Nigel Gray of Australia headed the UICC Tobacco Program from 1974 to 1990; was chair of the Victorian QUIT Campaign from 1986-1995, and the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation from 1988-1996. He is currently Senior Research Fellow at the European Institute of Oncology, based in Milan, Italy; and the president of the International Agency on Tobacco and Health (IATH), with Richard Doll (of the British Doctors study fame) as vice president. IATH is funded by the Cancer Research Campaign, the British Heart Foundation, and a private charitable trust.Submission to WHO / IATH
Recommendations from delegation of international non-government organizations to director-general of World Health Organization, May 2, 1986. Demand 1 is "That WHO should declare control of cigarette smoking as its major public health project for the next decade." The delegates included Charles LeMaistre for the ACS and Nigel Gray for the UICC.Recommendations to WHO / UCSF (pdf, 2 pp)
Nigel Gray was a busy participant at the UICC's International Cancer Congress in Budapest, Hungary, Aug. 21-27, 1986. "D. Kunze who has long been involved in the UICC's smoking control program (headed by Gray), said that such programs cannot succeed without the direct involvement of political activists." Other major anti-smoking figures included Ruchard Doll, Richard Peto, Takeshi Hirayama, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Judith McKay of the Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society, E. Kjell Bjartveit ("architect of Norway's anti-smoking program"), D. David Simpson of Britain's ASH, R. Lee Clark (who arranged for the telecasts), and NIH Director James Wyngaarden. (Memorandum from Hilda and Leonard Zahn to Robert F. Gertenbach, Oct. 22, 1986.)International Cancer Congress, Budapest 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 20 pp)
Australian anti-smoker Simon Chapman calls Nigel Gray one of the three mentors in his life: "Godfather Gray: Nigel Gray, then head of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria, invited me to go with him to Papua New Guinea in 1983 to help convince the government to ban tobacco advertising. It did, although the law remains poorly enforced." He describes Gray as "always searching for opportunities to reignite concern about tobacco industry actions or complacency in government," and calls him "the godfather of tobacco control advocacy for many of us." (Agent of change more than 'a nuisance to the tobacco industry'. Simon Chapman. MJA 2002;177(11/12):661-663.)Chapman / MJA
In 2002, Nigel Gray participated in the corrupt IARC Monograph 83 on smoking and involuntary smoking.
"Epidemiology and Prevention Progress Report From the Workgroup on the Success of Prevention and Detection Programme" -- Typical health fascist junk, blaming tobacco most of all, and pretending that "healthy diets" are the next most important thing. These clowns even give a higher priority to diet than to Helicobacter pylori in the prevention of stomach cancer."Workgroup on the Success of Prevention and Detection Programme"
"Contributors to UICC Programmes, Projects and Publications" - Numerous governmental and non-governmental anti-smoking groups from many countries, plus Big Pharmaceuticals.Our Partners / UICC
"A Series of Fact Sheets From the International Union Against Cancer, by the UICC Tobacco and Cancer Programme" -- Typical productions of the anti-smoker political machine.Fact sheets by the UICC Tobacco and Cancer Programme
"History of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC)" - Their official history makes no mention of the key role played in their affairs by the American Cancer Society until 1960. Also, they claim the Fourth International Congress took place in 1947 instead of 1957."History of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC)"
"In 1966, at the 9th Cancer Congress, Tokyo, the election of Mr. Lane W. Adams, CEO of the American Cancer Society, as Chairman of the UICC Committee on National Cancer Control Programmes had much to do with an increase in activities relating to cancer societies. Major events were held in the period of 1967-1970,...""The Story of COPES" / UICC
"Welcome to COPES, a restricted access website for voluntary cancer societies and members of UICC"COPES restricted website
"UICC GLOBALink The International Tobacco Control Network"GLOBALink
GLOBALink pushes Thomas E. Novotny's book, "Curbing the epidemic: Governments and the Economies of Tobacco Control." NOVOTNY IS PRESENTLY LISTED AS THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HEALTH IN THE US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.Novotny / GLOBALink
"TOBACCOpedia The online tobacco encyclopedia"TOBACCOpedia
"The following is a broad overview of the well-developed network set up by the anti-tobacco proponents to advance their issues with opinion-makers in government and in the media. The paper describes the major international organizations and the leading regional groups. It also highlights the roles played by certain individuals within the network who, behind the scenes, set the agenda and coordinate the attack." (The Activist Movement, Philip Morris, 1993.)The Activist Movement, 1993 / UCSF (pdf, 13 pp)