HPV Infects Kids

Transmission of human papillomavirus during sexual acivity is the most publicized, but this is not the only way it can be spread. HPV infection can also occur during birth, and when it does, it frequently results in persistent infection. It can also be transmitted by hands.

Perinatal infection and persistence of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in infants. J Cason, JN Kaye, RJ Jewers, PK Kambo, JM Bible, B Kell, B Shergill, F Pakarian, KS Raju, JM Best. J Med Virol 1995 Nov;47(3):209-218. Six of ten doubly infected mothers doubly infected their infants.

Cason - J Med Virol 1995 abstract / PubMed

High-genital papillomavirus infections are spread vertically. PS Rice, J Cason, JM Best, JE Banatvala. Rev Med Virol 1999 Jan-Mar;9(1):15-21. "we present evidence for vertical transmission from at least 30% HPV positive mothers to their infants, resulting in persistent infection in children. That the mother is the source of infant infection has been confirmed by DNA sequencing." 48% of children under 11 years old may be infected with high-risk HPV-16.

Rice - Rev Med Virol 1999 abstract / PubMed

Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role of maternal transmission. S Syrjanen, M Puranen. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2000;11(2):259-274. Extensive Review.

Syrjanen / Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2000 full article (pdf, 16pp 18Mb)

High prevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 infection among children. PS Rice, C Mant, J Cason, JM Bible, P Muir, B Kell, JM Best. J Med Virol 2000 May;61(1):70-75. In this study in London, 267 healthy children aged 3 to 11 were tested for the presence of HPV DNA in their mouths. HPV DNA was detected in only 45 (16.8%) by less-sensitive generic PCR, while HPV-16 specific nested PCR detected HPV-16 DNA in 138 (51.7%) of the samples. The prevalence of infection was similar regardless of age or sex. Also, in 6/53 (11.3%) of HPV-16 positive samples, reverse transcriptase PCR determined that there was active infection. (HPV-16 is the most common high-risk HPV type.)

Rice / Medscape 2000 news
Rice - J Med Virol 2000 abstract / PubMed

Transmission of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) between parents and infant: a prospective study of HPV in families in Finland. MA Rintala, SE Grenman, MH Puranen, E Isolauri, U Ekblad, PO Kero, SM Syrjanen SM. J Clin Microbiol 2005 Jan;43(1):376-381. "The Finnish HPV Family Study is a prospective cohort study assessing the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission between parents and infant. Serial genital and oral scrapings from 76 families, including mother, father, and infant, and semen samples were collected over 2 years of follow-up, analyzed by nested PCR, and confirmed by hybridization with 12 high-risk (HR) HPV types. The most common HPV profile was HR HPV in all family members (29%), followed by HPV-positive mother-infant pairs (26%). HPV-positive father-infant pairs were less frequent (11%), and in six (8%) families, only the infant was HR HPV positive. The prevalence of genital HR HPV in the parents ranged from 13 to 25%, and that of oral HPV ranged from 8 to 34%. In the infants, HPV DNA was detected in 15% of the genital and 10% of the oral samples at birth, reaching peaks of 18 and 21%, respectively, at 6 months, and declining to 10% at 24 months. Persistent HPV in the mother was a risk factor for oral HPV in the infant (odds ratio [OR], 5.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 21.3), while oral HPV in the mother at 6 months was a risk factor for genital HR HPV (OR, 6.38; 95% CI, 1.15 to 35.32). No such independent risk could be attributed to subclinical HPV in the father. Persistent maternal cervical HPV and subclinical oral HPV affect the risk of infant HPV. The age of 6 months is a critical point for the infant to acquire or be free of HR HPV DNA." Also, "HPV DNA has been detected in amniotic fluid (18, 30), fetal membranes (27), placental trophoblastic cells (4), and infants born by cesarean section (4, 16, 25, 27, 30), as well as in spontaneously aborted material (7). Vertical transmission from mother to infant is well documented (4, 14, 16, 24-27). The concordance between HPV types detected in infants and their mothers ranges from 57 to 69%, suggesting that HPV infections in infants may be acquired from sources other than the mother (23)... HPV DNA has been detected in 8 to 64% of semen samples from asymptomatic men (2, 6, 13, 19), both in the seminal plasma and in spermatozoa (11). Furthermore, HPV is actively transcribed in sperm cells (10, 11)."

Rintala - J Clin Microbiol 2005 full article / PubMed Central
Rintala / J Clin Microbiol 2005 full article

[Infection of the upper respiratory tract with human papilloma virus in children without clinical signs of respiratory papillomatosis]. [No authors listed]. Vestn Otorinolaringol 2009;(1):16-19. 57 children (30 boys and 27 girls) aged from 2 yr 10 mo to 14 yr 5 mo (mean 82+/-28.9 months). "HPV DNA was documented in 24 of the 57 (42.1%) children. In was found in ten (17.5%) samples from mucosal cells of the posterior pharyngeal wall, in pharyngeal tonsil biopsies from 16 of the 52 (30.8%) children, and in palatal tonsil biopsies from one of the 8 (12.5%) patients. Type 6 HPV was identified in 8 (14%) children, type 11 HPV in 1 (1.7%), type 16 HPV in 5 (8.8%), type 31 in 4 (7%), and type 33 in 12 (21%) patients. None of the samples contained type 18 HPV. Two types of HPV were simultaneously found in 4 (7%) children and three types in one patient. The frequency of HPV infection was comparable in children of preschool and school age."

No authors listed - Vestn Otorinolaringol 2009 abstract / PubMed

Prevalence, genotype distribution and persistence of human papillomavirus in oral mucosa of women: a six-year follow-up study. J Rautava, J Willberg, K Louvanto, L Wideman, K Syrjänen, S Grénman, S Syrjänen. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e42171. 324 pregnant women enrolled in the 3(rd) trimester. "The point prevalence of oral HPV varied from 15% to 24% during the 6-year follow-up. Altogether, 18 HPV genotypes were identified either as single or multiple-type oral infections. HPV16 was the most prevalent type at 9.7%-18.4%, followed by HPV18, HPV6, and multiple infections. Altogether, 74 women had persistent oral HPV infection determined as at least two consecutive samples positive with the same HPV genotype. HPV16 and HPV6 were the two most frequent types to persist (76% and 9%) for a mean of 18.6 and 20.2 months, respectively, followed by multiple infections (8%) for 18.3 months. An increased risk for persistent oral HPV infection with species 7/9 was associated with being seropositive for low-risk (LR)-HPV-types at baseline, whereas the use of oral contraceptives and a second pregnancy during follow-up were protective. Clinical oral lesions were detected in 17% of these women, one-third of whom had persistent oral HPV-infections."

Rautava - PLoS One 2012 full article / PubMed Central
Rautava / PLoS One 2012 full article

Survey of human papillomavirus types and their vertical transmission in pregnant women. Y Hong, SQ Li, YL Hu, ZQ Wang. BMC Infect Dis 2013 Feb 27;13:109. 3139 pregnant women and 233 neonates of HPV+. "Overall prevalence of HPV DNA among pregnant women was 13.4% (422/3139). The most frequently detected HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (29.6%, 125/422), -18 (14.7%, 62/422), and -58 (14.2%, 60/422). The rate of concordance for HPV DNA in maternal-neonatal pairs was 23.6% (55/233), with HPV type-specific concordance occurring in 26 cases. A higher prevalence of HPV DNA was apparent in female neonates compared with males (17.7 vs. 11.6%)."

Hong - BMC Infect Dis 2013 full article / PubMed Central

Transmission of carcinogenic human papillomavirus types from mother to child: a meta-analysis of published studies. M Merckx, WV Liesbeth, M Arbyn, J Meys, S Weyers, M Temmerman, D Vanden Broeck. Eur J Cancer Prev 2013 May;22(3):277-285. Meta-analysis. "Twenty eligible studies, including 3128 women/children pairs, fulfilled the selection criteria. High heterogeneity could be found (I=96%). The overall estimated risk difference was 33% (95% confidence interval: 22-44%). On restricting to high-risk HPV-positive mothers only (n=4; women=231), the difference in risk was 45% (95% confidence interval: 33-56%). The heterogeneity was found to be low (I=15%). This meta-analysis indicates a significantly higher risk for children born to HPV-positive mothers to become HPV positive themselves."

Merckx - Eur J Cancer Prev 2013 abstract / PubMed

Distribution of maternal and infant human papillomavirus: risk factors associated with vertical transmission. HS Hahn, MK Kee, HJ Kim, MY Kim, YS Kang, JS Park, TJ Kim. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Jul;169(2):202-206. "HPV was detected in 72 of 469 pregnant women (15.4%) and in 15 neonates (3.2%). Maternal HPV positivity was associated with primiparity and abnormal cervical cytology. The rate of vertical transmission was 20.8%, and all HPV-positive neonates were born from HPV-positive mothers. Vertical transmission was associated with vaginal delivery and multiple HPV types in the mother. Neonates with HPV showed a tendency for higher maternal total HPV copy number than neonates without HPV, but this difference was not significant (p=0.081). No cases of HPV infection were found in the infants at 2 months postpartum, and no HPV was detected in placenta, cord blood or maternal blood."

Hahn - Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 abstract / PubMed

Risk of Vertical Transmission of Human Papillomavirus throughout Pregnancy: A Prospective Study. SM Lee, JS Park, ER Norwitz, JN Koo, IH Oh, JW Park, SM Kim, YH Kim, CW Park, YS Song. PLoS One 2013 Jun 13;8(6):e66368. "HPV DNA was detected in 14%(22/153) of healthy women in the first trimester, 18%(22/124) in the second trimester, and 10%(15/153) in the third trimester; 24%(37/153) were positive for HPV DNA on at least one occasion in pregnancy. At birth, 5.2%(8/153) of neonates were HPV DNA positive. Seven of these eight infants were born to HPV-positive mothers. Placental HPV DNA was positive in 3.3%(5/152) of cases, and all five cases were from mothers with at least one HPV-positive test. Detection of HPV DNA in neonates was associated with detection of HPV in mothers during any of the three trimesters of pregnancy."

Lee - PLoS One 2013 full article / PubMed Central

The paediatric story of human papillomavirus (Review). IN Mammas, G Sourvinos, DA Spandidos. Oncol Lett 2014 Aug;8(2):502-506. Review.

Mammas - Oncol Lett 2014 full article / PubMed Central

Vertical transmission of HPV in pregnancy. A prospective clinical study of HPV-positive pregnant women. R Jach, B Galarowicz, H Huras, D Pawlik, T Basta, J Streb, H Wolski, A Ludwin, I Ludwin. Ginekol Pol 2014 Sep;85(9):672-676. 30 women with abnormal Pap test and positive for HPV DNA. "In the neonates, the presence of LR HPV DNA was detected in 9 cases (30.0%) and HR HPV DNA in 7 cases (23.3%). Fourteen neonates (46.7%) tested HPV DNA negative in the perinatal period."

Jach - Ginekol Pol 2014 abstract / PubMed

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children. J Szydłowski, K Jonczyk-Potoczna, B Pucher, B Buraczyńska-Andrzejewska, M Prauzińska, J Kolasińska-Lipńska, H Krauss, J Piątek, W Żukiewicz-Sobczak. Ann Agric Environ Med 2014 Nov 26;21(4):822-824. 51 girls and 46 boys aged 3 to 5. "The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% [n=19] cases. 'High oncogenic potential' HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children." They were infected by HPV 6 and/or 11.

Szydłowski / Ann Agric Environ Med 2014 full article

High-risk Oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus Infection of the Foreskin and Microbiology of Smegma in Prepubertal Boys. M Balci, A Tuncel, I Baran, O Guzel, T Keten, N Aksu, A Atan. Urology 2015 Aug;86(2):368-372. 100 prepubertal healthy boys of median age of 5.7 years. "High-risk HPV was detected in 9 foreskins (9%). Positive samples showed are HPV16 (n = 3), 31 (n = 2), 39 (n = 3), and 51 (n = 1)."

Balci - Urology 2015 abstract / PubMed

Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus. MS Sánchez-Torices, R Corrales-Millan, JJ Hijona-Elosegui. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2015 Aug 11 [Epub ahead of print]. "The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%."

Sánchez-Torices - Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2015 abstract / PubMed

The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus between the Neonates and Their Mothers. M Skoczyński, A Goździcka-Józefiak, A Kwaśniewska. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:126417. "HPV DNA was isolated in 12.5% (19/152) of swabs from the oral mucosa of the mothers and in 10.53% (16/152) of the children. In the group of nineteen mothers with HPV infection we found 8 (42.11%) HPV-positive children and 11 (57.89%) HPV-negative children. In the mothers group without HPV infection 133/152 (87.5%) we observed 8/133 (6.02%) HPV (+) newborns and 125/133 (93.98%) HPV (−) newborns," (p < 0.001). "There is an eleven times greater relative risk (OR = 11.363 CI: 3.536–36.509) of discovering HPV DNA in buccal smears of newborn of a HPV-positive mother than of the mother with negative results of HPV."

Skoczyński - Biomed Res Int 2015 full article / PubMed Central
Skoczyński / Biomed Res Int 2015 full article

See Also:

HPV Strains and Oncogenicity
HPV Causes Head and Neck Cancers
HPV Causes Oral Cancer
HPV is implicated in laryngeal cancer
HPV Causes Lung Cancer
HPVs Cause Skin Cancer
HPV Is Implicated in Esophageal Cancer
Human papillomaviruses cause cervical cancer

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cast 01-10-16