Association of DNA aneuploidy with human
malignant transformation of sinonasal transitional papillomas. PJ
Klemi, H Joensuu, L Siivonen, E Virolainen, S Syrjšnen, K
Syrjšnen. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989 Jun;100(6):563-567. 19
transitional papillomas of the sinonasal region and 9 maxillary
squamous cell carcinomas. "Thirteen (68%) of the papillomas and none of
the carcinomas contained HPV genome. Six (32%) of the papillomas and 4
(44%) of the carcinomas had an aneuploid DNA content. The relative DNA
content (DNA index) of the aneuploid maxillary carcinomas was larger
than that of aneuploid papillomas (p = 0.004). Three of the papillomas
underwent malignant transformation, all three of which contained HPV
type 16 DNA; two were also aneuploid. Data indicate that papillomas
containing HPV type 16 DNA have a tendency (p = 0.06) to undergo
malignant transformation, and that this tendency is greater if DNA
aneuploidy or HPV type 11 DNA is also present (p = 0.02)."
Sinonasal papillomas and human papillomavirus: human
11 detected in fungiform Schneiderian papillomas by in situ
hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. R Judd, SR Zaki, LM
Coffield, BL Evatt. Hum Pathol 1991 Jun;22(6):550-556. Four squamous
papillomas, three fungiform papillomas, nine inverted papillomas, and
three cylindrical cell papillomas. "All three fungiform papillomas were
positive by all three techniques: immunohistochemistry, in situ
hybridization for HPV 6/11, and the polymerase chain reaction for HPV
11. None of the other lesions contained detectable HPV using the
specific probes included in this study."
Human papillomavirus type 6 detected by the polymerase chain
reaction in invasive sinonasal papillary squamous cell carcinoma. R
Judd, SR Zaki, LM Coffield, BL Evatt. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991
Nov;115(11):1150-1153. One adenocarcinoma, two undifferentiated
nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and five squamous cell carcinomas were
negative for HPV infection by in situ hybridization, while a single
invasive papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus was
positive for HPV-6.
Sinonasal Schneiderian papillomas: human papillomavirus typing
polymerase chain reaction. FH Sarkar, DW Visscher, EB Kintanar, RJ
Zarbo, JD Crissman. Mod Pathol 1992 May;5(3):329-332. "The HPV gene
sequences (E6-E7 portions) were not detected in any of the 24 inverted
or nine cylindrical cell papillomas. One of the [two] fungiform
papillomas was positive for HPV 6b/11."
Prevalence of human papillomavirus in sinonasal papillomas: a
using polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. CM
McLachlin, RA Kandel, TJ Colgan, DB Swanson, IJ Witterick, BY Ngan. Mod
Pathol 1992 Jul;5(4):406-409. "Three of 15 inverted papillomas and two
of five fungiform papillomas were positive for HPV 6/11 by ISH, whereas
PCR detected HPV 6/11 sequences in two of 15 inverted and three of five
fungiform papillomas. Biopsies from two patients who had serial
resections contained HPV 6/11 in the original lesions and all
recurrences. No HPV was detected in the carcinomas by ISH, whereas PCR
detected HPV 16 in one carcinoma."
Human papillomavirus in sinonasal papillomas and squamous cell
carcinoma. HK Kashima, T Kessis, RH Hruban, TC Wu, SJ Zinreich, KV
Shah. Laryngoscope 1992 Sep;102(9):973-976. "Four (15%) of 26 squamous
papillomas, 7 (24%) of 29 inverted papillomas, and 1 (4%) of 24
squamous carcinomas were positive for HPV when examined using the PCR
amplification technique. Human papillomavirus 6 was present in 5
specimens (3 squamous and 2 inverted papillomas); HPV-11 was present in
6 specimens (1 squamous and 5 inverted papillomas); and HPV-18 was
present in 1 of 24 squamous carcinomas. HPV-16 was not identified in
Human papillomavirus (HPV) in sinonasal papillomas: a study of
cases using in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. C
Buchwald, MB Franzmann, GK Jacobsen, H Lindeberg. Laryngoscope 1995
Jan;105(1):66-71. "In only 6% of the 52 benign inverted papillomas was
HPV DNA identified, whereas 69% of the exophytic papillomas were
infected by HPV DNA. In none of the 5 cases with columnar cell
papillomas could HPV be demonstrated. HPV 6/11 was identified in all of
these HPV-positive cases. In the carcinoma area, HPV was detected in 2
(1 HPV 6/11 and 1 HPV 18) of the 5 inverted papillomas associated with
A majority of inverted sinonasal papillomas carries
virus genomes. MR Macdonald, KT Le, J Freeman, MF Hui, RK Cheung, HM
Dosch. Cancer 1995 May 1;75(9):2307-2312. "EBV DNA was found in 13 of
20 IP specimens (65%) and none of the 10 control tissues. Nine of the
20 specimens contained HPV DNA, and 5 of 20 specimens contained both
EBV and HPV." HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were sought.
Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in sinonasal
Schneiderian papillomas. An in situ hybridization and polymerase chain
reaction study. MJ Gaffey, HF Frierson, LM Weiss, CM Barber, GB Baber,
MH Stoler. Am J Clin Pathol 1996 Oct;106(4):475-482. "Polymerase chain
reaction was successful in 19 papillomas, including 12 of 19 inverted
SNP, 1 of 1 inverted SNP with squamous cell carcinoma, 4 of 5 fungiform
SNP, and 2 of 3 oncocytic lesions. Southern blot hybridization of PCR
products showed the presence of EBV DNA in two lesions, including one
inverted SNP and the single inverted SNP with squamous cell carcinoma.
By both DNA- and RNA-mRNA ISH, positivity for EBER was detected in rare
stomal lymphocytes but not the overlying epithelium in the inverted SNP
with SCC. The remaining cases, including the other inverted SNP
positive for EBV by PCR, were completely negative by both ISH
techniques. Human papillomavirus was detected by ISH in 1 of 19 (5%)
inverted, 1 of 1 (100%) inverted with squamous cancer, 5 of 5 (100%)
fungiform, and 0 of 3 (0%) oncocytic SNP. Three SNP contained HPV 6
(all fungiform), three SNP labeled for HPV 11 (two fungiform and the
inverted SNP with squamous cancer), and one inverted SNP contained HPV
Carcinomas occurring in papillomas of the nasal septum
with human papilloma virus (HPV). C Buchwald, MB Franzmann, GK
Jacobsen, BR Juhl, H Lindeberg. Rhinology 1997 Jun;35(2):74-78. "In the
first case HPV type 6/11 was demonstrated by in-situ hybridisation and
PCR in the original papilloma as well as in the recurrent papilloma and
in the carcinoma. In the second case HPV type 18 was found in the nasal
lesion as well as in the metastasis. All samples were examined for
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by PCR, but with negative results."
Identification of p53 and human papilloma virus in
papillomas. N Mirza, K Montone, Y Sato, H Kroger, DW Kennedy.
Laryngoscope 1998 Apr;108(4 Pt 1):497-501. HPV was detected in six
(20%) of 30 Schneiderian papillomas, "an unusual neoplasm with the
propensity for local tissue destruction, recurrence, and malignant
degeneration... In the presence of HPV the odds ratio for carcinoma
was 11.5:1, or 11.5 times higher than expected."
Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in sinonasal inverted
papillomas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CS Hwang, HS Yang, MK
Hong. Am J Rhinol 1998 Sep-Oct;12(5):363-366. "Two cases of HPV 11 and
one of HPV 6 were amplified in 36 samples of benign inverted papilloma,
and two cases of HPV 16 were amplified in five samples of inverted
papilloma with co-existing squamous cell carcinoma."
Human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 and 18 detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. H Mineta, T Ogino, HM Amano, Y Ohkawa, K Araki, S Takebayashi, K Miura. Anticancer Res 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6B):4765-4768. "HPV16-DNA was detected in 23% of all cases (23/98), 31% (8/26) larynx, 16% (3/19) nasal and paranasal sinus, 19% (3/16) hypopharynx, 21% (3/14) oral cavity, 38% (5/13) oropharynx, and 10% (1/10) nasopharynx. HPV18-DNA was detected in 4% of all cases (4/98), 8% (2/26) larynx, and 15% (2/13) oropharynx. 54% (7/13) in oropharynx and 38% (10/26) in larynx showed rather high prevalence in the head and neck. CONCLUSIONS: HPV16 and 18 play an important role in carcinogenesis of the head and neck, especially, in the oropharynx and larynx."Mineta - Anticancer Res 1998 abstract / PubMed
Detection of human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA
nasopharyngeal carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. YC Tung, KH Lin,
PY Chu, CC Hsu, WR Kuo. Kao Hsiang I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih 1999
May;15(5):256-262. In 88 NPC tissue samples, "HPV and EBV DNA were
detected in 51% and in 83% of the specimens, respectively. Coexistence
of EBV and HPV in NPC was found in 42% of the samples. The "high risk"
types including HPV-16 and HPV-18 accounted for 67% of 45 HPV positive
samples. Furthermore, 80% of HPV-16 or HPV-18 positive samples also
contained EBV DNA."
Down-regulation of p27Kip1 expression is correlated with
cell proliferation but not expression of p21waf1 and p53, and human
papillomavirus infection in benign and malignant tumours of sinonasal
regions. M Saegusa, H Nitta, M Hashimura, I Okayasu. Histopathology
1999 Jul;35(1):55-64. HPV DNAs for type 16 and 18 were detected in two
(7.4%) of 27 exophytic papillomas, six (35.8%) of 28 inverted
papillomas, and nine (28.1%) of 32 squamous cell carcinomas.
Papillary squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive
a clinicopathologic and molecular study. PA Suarez, K Adler-Storthz, MA
Luna, AK El-Naggar, FW Abdul-Karim, JG Batsakis. Head Neck 2000
Jul;22(4):360-368. "HPV was found in 4 of 14 assessable carcinomas by
in-situ hybridization and in 5 of 14 by polymerase chain reaction. The
most frequently identified HPVs were HPVs in 6/11 and 16/18 patients."
Some were from sites other than the sinonasal tract.
[Detection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in
sinonasal malignant neoplasms]. PF Gao, WX Chen, LY Xiao, XJ Yan. Lin
Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 2000 Aug;14(8):347-348. EBV was detected
in 12 (37.5%), and HPV in 21 (65.6%) of 32 sinonasal malignant
[types not specified in abstract].
Human papilloma virus and p53 expression in carcinomas
with sinonasal papillomas: a Danish Epidemiological study 1980-1998. C
Buchwald, H Lindeberg, BL Pedersen, MB Franzmann. Laryngoscope 2001
Jun;111(6):1104-1110. "Among 30 examined cases of carcinomas associated
with inverted papillomas, 4 cases were HPV-positive (13%)... Among the
5 carcinomas associated with exophytic papillomas, HPV was demonstrated
together with p53 overexpression in 3 cases (60%)."
Significance of human papillomavirus in sinonasal papillomas.
Kraft, D Simmen, R Casas, M Pfaltz. J Laryngol Otol 2001
Sep;115(9):709-714. "HPV was detected in four of 37 specimens (11 per
cent) both by ISH and PCR. In particular, HPV-11 was found in three
lesions (two EP, one IP) (eight per cent), and HPV-6b was detected in
one lesion (one EP) (three per cent)."
Patterns of p21(waf1/cip1) expression in non-papillomatous
mucosa, endophytic sinonasal papillomas, and associated carcinomas. MJ
Schwerer, A Sailer, K Kraft, K Baczako, H Maier. J Clin Pathol 2001
Nov;54(11):871-876. HPV infection was found in 16 of 20 inverted
papillomas, and 2 of 5 squamous cell carcinomas.
HPV infections in benign and malignant sinonasal lesions.
Syrjšnen KJ. J Clin Pathol 2003;56:174–81. Review. "To date, 33.3%
of sinonasal papillomas and 21.7% of sinonasal carcinomas analysed have
been shown to be positive for HPV. Many elements of the data parallel
the observations made in HPV lesions at other mucosal sites, such as
malignant transformation and frequent recurrence after radical
treatment; the fact that low risk HPV types 6 and 11 are usually
confined to benign lesions, whereas the reverse is true for the
oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18; and the presence of squamo–columnar
junctions and squamous cell metaplasia in the sinonasal system. The
discrepancies reported by several studies might result in part from
technical reasons, but it is also possible that sinonasal lesions have
a heterogeneous aetiology (HPV related and non-related) and/or that
some novel (yet unidentified) HPV types exist in these lesions, which
are detected by some studies but not by others."
Human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancer. S
Clin Virol 2005 Mar;32 Suppl 1:S59-66. Review. "To date, 1041
sino-nasal papillomas have been analysed for HPV and 347 (33%) cases
have been positive, whereas of the 322 sino-nasal carcinomas analysed
so far, 70 (22%) have been positive for any HPV type."
Human papillomavirus (HPV) transcripts in malignant inverted
papilloma are from integrated HPV DNA. SP McKay, L Gregoire, F Lonardo,
P Reidy, RH Mathog, WD Lancaster. Laryngoscope 2005
Aug;115(8):1428-1431. "HPV sequences were detected in samples from 3 of
the 14 patients with IP [nasal inverted papilloma]. Of the three
patients with SCC, HPV sequences were detected in two patients, whereas
one patient was negative for the oligoprobes tested. Of the 11 patients
diagnosed only with IP, 1 patient was positive for HPV DNA (HPV type
11)... and the relative level of E7 to E5 transcripts indicates
integration of the viral genome. These findings are suggestive of HPV
having an active role in the lesion."
Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in
(cylindrical cell) carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a distinct
clinicopathologic and molecular disease entity. SK El-Mofty, DW Lu. Am
J Surg Pathol 2005 Oct;29(10):1367-1372. "HPV DNA, particularly type
16, was detected in 9 cases: 4 of 21 (19%) of [keratinizing squamous
cell carcinoma], 4 of 8 (50%) of [nonkeratinizing (cylindrical cell)
carcinoma], and 1 of 10 (10%) of [sinonasal undifferentiated
Markers of malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted
H Katori, A Nozawa, M Tsukuda. Eur J Surg Oncol 2005 Oct;31(8):905-911.
Among 44 patients with sinonasal papilloma and invasive SCC, "HPV
6/11-positive was present in 42% tumour and HPV 16/18-positive was
present in 31% of tumours," by ISH.
Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in benign and malignant
sinonasal neoplasms. M Hoffmann, N Klose, S Gottschlich, T
GŲrŲgh, A Fazel, C Lohrey, W Rittgen, P Ambrosch, E Schwarz,
T Kahn. Cancer Lett 2006 Jul 28;239(1):64-70. "To determine whether HPV
DNA detection in different entities of the upper aerodigestive tract
represents a coincidental, persistent/latent or specific infection, 20
clinically intact mucosa specimens of the upper aerodigestive tract, 20
sinonasal polyps, 26 inverted papillomas, and 20 squamous cell
carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses were investigated. HPV DNA was not
detectable in specimens derived from clinically intact mucosa or in
nasal polyps. Yet, three out of 26 inverted papillomas were
HPV-positive, each showing double infection with HPV6 and 11. Four out
of 20 squamous cell carcinomas were HPV16 positive."
[Relationship between the biological behavior of nasal cavity
sinonasal inverted papilloma and infection of human papillomavirus]. SS
Lu, JW Xu, KT Huang, QH Liao. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007 May
22;87(19):1342-1344. 67 cases of NIP, vs 10 cases of benign nasal
polyps as controls. "The total HPV infection rate of the NIP slides was
49.25%, significantly higher than that of the control group (10%)," and
the infection rate of HPV types 16 and 18 was significantly higher in
the group with squamous cell carcinoma.
The prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in sinonasal
inverted papilloma specimens classified by histological grade. JY Kim,
JK Yoon, MJ Citardi, PS Batra, HJ Roh. Am J Rhinol 2007
Nov-Dec;21(6):664-669. "The HPV DNA chip contained 22 type-specific
probes that consisted of 15 high-risk subtypes and 7 low-risk subtypes.
RESULTS: Histological grading was as follows: 5, grade I; 23, grade II;
22, grade III; and 7, grade IV. Seven of 57 specimens (12.3%) showed
HPV DNA. All of the HPV(+) cases showed HPV DNA in early grade (grades
I and II) IP lesions. No higher grade (grades III and IV) IP tumors
showed HPV DNA. Among the seven HPV(+) cases, five were high-risk
subtypes and two were unspecified subtypes."
Review article: relationship of human papillomavirus with
squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review. F
Cobo, P Talavera, A Concha. Int J Surg Pathol 2008 Apr;16(2):127-136.
"HPV detection was performed in only 22 of the 115 cases of PSCC (19%),
and 11 of the 22 cases (50%) are related to this virus. The majority of
cases related to HPV are produced by low-risk HPV type 6 followed by
high-risk HPV type 16. Today, the association of HPV with PSCCs seems
unclear because in the majority of patients tests were not performed
for the detection of the HPV. This association should be clearly
established to make a correct diagnosis and propose the best
therapeutic strategies, such as new vaccines."
Expression of p53, p16(INK4A), pRb, p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1),
cyclin D1, Ki-67 and HPV DNA in sinonasal endophytic Schneiderian
(inverted) papilloma. G Altavilla, A Staffieri, G Busatto, A Canesso, L
Giacomelli, G Marioni. Acta Otolaryngol 2008 Dec 31:1-8. "HPV DNA was
detected in 14/20 patients with inverted papillomas (IPs) (70%). The
majority of tumours showed strong p16, p21, p27, pRb and cyclin D1
staining and little or no p53 expression. Tumours harbouring dysplasia
were significantly more likely to be p53-positive and exhibit
up-regulated p21 and p27, and showed altered intensity and distribution
of reactive cells into and through the epithelium."
Human papillomaviruses are identified in a subgroup of
squamous cell carcinomas with favorable outcome. L Alos, S Moyano, A
Nadal, I Alobid, JL Blanch, E Ayala, B Lloveras, W Quint, A Cardesa, J
Ordi. Cancer 2009 Apr 13;115(12):2701-2709. "HPV DNA was detected in
tumor tissue of 12 of 60 (20%) patients. HPV16 was identified in 11
tumors and HPV35 in 1."
Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck:
association with human papillomavirus infection and invasive carcinoma.
VY Jo, SE Mills, MH Stoler, EB Stelow. Am J Surg Pathol 2009
Nov;33(11):1720-1724. 67% of sinonasal tumors were HPV-positive by ISH.
Expression of p16 in Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma
Without Associated Human Papillomavirus (HPV). B Wadsworth, JM Bumpous,
AW Martin, MR Nowacki, AB Jenson, H Farghaly. Head Neck Pathol 2011
Dec;5(4):349-354. HPV types 6, 11, 16 or 18 were not detected
in 5 cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma or in 5 poorly
differentiated squamous cell carcinomas.
Sinonasal inverted papilloma associated with squamous cell carcinoma. J But-Hadzic, K Jenko, M Poljak, BJ Kocjan, N Gale, P Strojan. Radiol Oncol 2011 Dec;45(4):267-272. Three of five tumors were positive for HPV type 11.But-Hadzic - Radiol Oncol 2011 full article / PubMed Central
Human Papillomavirus-related Carcinomas of the Sinonasal Tract. JA Bishop, TW Guo, DF Smith, H Wang, T Ogawa, SI Pai, WH Westra. Am J Surg Pathol 2013 Feb;37(2):185-192. "Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001)."Bishop - Am J Surg Pathol 2013 abstract / PubMed
Human Papillomavirus-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic-like Features: A Peculiar Variant of Head and Neck Cancer Restricted to the Sinonasal Tract. JA Bishop, T Ogawa, EB Stelow, CA Moskaluk, WM Koch, SI Pai, WH Westra. Am J Surg Pathol 2013 Jun;37(6):836-844. "HPV was detected in 8 carcinomas of the sinonasal tract, but it was not detected in any ACCs arising outside of the sinonasal tract. The HPV types were 33 (n=6), 35 (n=1), and indeterminate (n=1). Six patients were women, and 2 were men, ranging in age from 40 to 73 years (mean 55 y)."Bishop - Am J Surg Pathol 2013 abstract / PubMed
High-risk human papillomavirus is transcriptionally active in a subset of sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas. AB Larque, S Hakim, J Ordi, A Nadal, A Diaz, MD Pino, L Marimon, I Alobid, A Cardesa, L Alos. Mod Pathol 2014 Mar;27(3):343-351. 70 patients. "Fourteen carcinomas (20%) were positive for high-risk HPV by PCR: 13 HPV16 and one HPV35. In situ hybridization showed a dotted nuclear positivity in all these cases. HPV16 E7 mRNA was detected in seven tumors harboring HPV16; in the remaining HPV-positive cases, RNA did not reach the quality for analysis. Strong, diffuse positivity for p16 was observed only in the HPV-positive cases."Larque - Mod Pathol 2014 abstract / PubMed
Carcinoma Ex-Schneiderian Papilloma (Malignant Transformation): A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 20 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature. J Nudell, S Chiosea, LD Thompson. Head Neck Pathol 2014 Sep;8(3):269-286. 26% of 20 cases were HPV-positive by ISH.Nudell - Head Neck Pathol 2014 abstract / PubMed
Human papillomavirus detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. D VietŪa, J Liuzzi, M Avila, Z De Guglielmo, Y Prado, M Correnti. Ecancermedicalscience 2014 Oct 23;8:475. 8.3% [?] of 4 squamous cell carcinomas of the paranasal sinus were positive for HPV.VietŪa - Ecancermedicalscience 2014 full article / PubMed Central
Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors including human papillomavirus (HPV) for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: A retrospective review. ST Gray, MW Herr, RK Sethi, G Diercks, L Lee, W Curry, A Chan, J Clark, EH Holbrook, J Rocco, PM Sadow, DT Lin. Head Neck 2015 Mar;37(3):366-374. 9 out of 19 tumors (47%) were HPV-positive.Gray - Head Neck 2015 abstract / PubMed
Human papillomavirus infection and immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins pRb, p53, and p16(INK4a) in sinonasal diseases. Y Yamashita, M Hasegawa, Z Deng, H Maeda, S Kondo, A Kyuna, S Matayoshi, S Agena, T Uehara, H Kouzaki, T Shimizu, T Ikegami, A Ganaha, M Suzuki. Infect Agent Cancer 2015 Aug 4;10:23. 32 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), 17 with IP, 5 with IP and squamous cell carcinoma (IP + SCC), and 16 with primary sinonasal SCC. "HPV DNA was detected in 6.3 % of cases with CRS, 29.4 % with IP, 40 % with IP + SCC, and 25 % with SCC. IP cases had significantly higher HPV presence than CRS cases (p = 0.04). High-risk HPV-16 was the most frequently encountered subtype (10/13, 76.9 %)."Yamashita - Infect Agent Cancer 2015 full article / PubMed Central
Epstein-Barr virus infection is strictly associated with the metastatic spread of sinonasal squamous-cell carcinomas. J Doescher, G Piontek, M Wirth, M Bettstetter, J Schlegel, B Haller, G Brockhoff, R Reiter, A Pickhard. Oral Oncol 2015 Oct;51(10):929-934. 44 SNSCC and 65 HNSCC. "In total, 20 of 44 SNSCC were EBV-positive. Only these EBV positive tumors developed lymph node or distant metastases (p=0.008). LMP1 was positive in 14/44 patients. When combining both methods significance for a correlation between EBV/LMP1 positive patients and metastases was even higher (p=0.001)."Doescher - Oral Oncol 2015 abstract / PubMed
The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts in a subset of sinonasal carcinomas is evidence of involvement of HPV in its etiopathogenesis. J Laco, K SieglovŠ, H VošmikovŠ, P Dundr, K NěmejcovŠ, J MichŠlek, P Čelakovskż, V Chrobok, R Mottl, A MottlovŠ, L Tuček, R SlezŠk, M ChmelařovŠ, I SirŠk, M Vošmik, A Ryška. Virchows Arch 2015 Oct;467(4):405-415. 73 patients, "mostly (67 %) with a squamous cell carcinoma." "HPV16, HPV18, or HPV35 were detected in 18/73 (25 %) tumors, 17 SCCs, and 1 small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma... HPV-positive SCCs occurred more frequently in smokers (p = 0.04)."Laco - Virchows Arch 2015 abstract / PubMed
Significance of human papillomavirus positivity in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. S KılıÁ, SS KılıÁ, ES Kim, S Baredes, O Mahmoud, ST Gray, JA Eloy. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017 Oct;7(10):980-989. 770 cases. 526 (68.3%) HPV-negative and 244 (31.7%) were HPV-positive. Nasal cavity tumors were more likely to be HPV-positive than maxillary, ethmoid, and frontal sinus tumors.KılıÁ - Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017 abstract / PubMed
HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma: An Expanded Series of 49 Cases of the Tumor Formerly Known as HPV-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-like Features. JA Bishop, S Andreasen, JF Hang, MJ Bullock, TY Chen, A Franchi, JJ Garcia, DR Gnepp, CR Gomez-Fernandez, S Ihrler, YJ Kuo, JS Lewis Jr, KR Magliocca, S Pambuccian, A Sandison, E Uro-Coste, E Stelow, K Kiss, WH Westra. Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Dec;41(12):1690-1701. Thirty-three (67%) were positive for HPV 33.Bishop - Am J Surg Pathol 2017 abstract / PubMed
[Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of inverted papilloma and associated sinonasal carcinoma]. [Article in Russian; Abstract available in Russian from the publisher] AA Bakhtin, VP Bykova, NA Daikhes, OV Karneeva. Arkh Patol 2018;80(4):3-8. 76 cases of IP and 4 cases of sinonasal carcinoma. "PCR revealed oncogenic HPV types 16 and 35 in sinonasal carcinoma associated with IP only in one case, which makes it untimely to claim that this virus plays a very special role in the etiology of this carcinoma. Epstein-Barr virus was not found in any case."Bakhtin - Arkh Patol 2018 abstract / PubMed
Strong SOX10 expression in HPV-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma: report of six new cases validated by high-risk HPV mRNA in situ hybridization test. MS Hsieh, YH Lee, YT Jin, WC Huang. Hum Pathol 2018 Dec;82:264-272. 6 new cases, all HPV-positive.Hsieh - Hum Pathol 2018 abstract / PubMed
Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. JR Oliver, SM Lieberman, MM Tam, CZ Liu, Z Li, KS Hu, LGT Morris, B Givi. Cancer 2019 Dec 30 [Epub ahead of print]. 1523 cases. "HPV-positive SNSCC comprised 31.5% (447 of 1418 cases) of the final study cohort. Among 15 hospitals that routinely tested nonoropharyngeal SCCs for HPV, the percentage of HPV-positive SNSCCs was smaller (24.6%; P = .04)."Oliver - Cancer 2019 abstract / PubMed
Confounding By Infection
- why studies that don't include full detection of HPV (and other
causal infections) are defective, and falsely blame smoking and other
The Lie That p53 Mutations
Are the Mechanism
Behind Lung Cancer - this is because p53 mutations happen
maligancy has occurred, and the point is relevant to other cancers as