General American Investors

General American Investors Inc. was formed by Lehman Brothers and Lazard Freres. The board of directors of Second General American Investors (later merged with the first) consisted of members of Lazard and Lehman, "also Matthew C. Brush, President of the American International Corporation; J.H. Hillman Jr., Chairman of the Board of the People's Savings and Trust Company of Pittsburgh; George Pick of George Pick & Co. of Chicago, and Fred W. Scott of Scott & Springfellow of Richmond, Va." ($15,000,000 Capital for New Corporation. New York Times, Oct. 17, 1928, p. 40.)

Officers and directors of General American Investors in 1936 included Monroe C. Gutman, officer and director; Allan S. Lehman, director; Arthur Lehman, officer and director; Robert Lehman, officer and director; Philip Lehman, director; Frederic W. Scott, director; John M. Hancock, director. ($5,000,000 Given in Sun Oil Stock. New York Times, Apr. 1, 1936.)

Frank Altschul

Mary Lasker's longtime correspondent Frank Altschul was the first president of this firm when it was founded in 1927, and was later its chairman from 1948 to 1961. GAI is "one of a limited number of closed-end funds in operation today, formed prior to 1940, which is characterized as 'internally managed,'" meaning that no outside investment company is involved.

About / General American Investors Company Inc.

Frank Altschul was a correpondent of Edward Bernays; Chester Bowles; Alfred E. Cohn, a trustee of the 1928 Lasker Foundation; Archibald Cox; surgeon Harvey Cushing, a member of the advisory committee of Yale's Institute of Human Relations; John W. Davis, also a member of the IHR committee; William J. Donovan; Lewis Douglas, chairman of the board of Memorial Hospital and the grandson of James Ewing's benefactor, James Douglas of Phelps Dodge; W. Averell Harriman; Sen. Lister Hill; Alfred Sloan, co-founder of the Sloan-Kettering Institute; Adlai Stevenson; Allen Wardwell; and Owen Young of General Electric, also a member of the IHR committee. Also: William A. Benton from 1940-73; J.P. Morgan partner Russell C. Leffingwell; Harold F. Linder; John L. Loeb; Henry R. Luce of Time, Inc.; the John J. McCloys; Congressional anti-smoking activists Richard L. and Maurine Neuberger; Elmo Roper from 1949-70; and Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times from 1935-75.

Frank Altschul Papers / Columbia University

Frank Altschul ran Lazard Freres in New York until the middle of World War II. His father, Charles Altschul, had been the eighth employee hired by Lazard in San Francisco. Andre Meyer, an employee of Lazard Paris, arrived in New York as a refugee in 1940, and two years later he was joined by Pierre David-Weill, whose family were the sole blood relations of the founders and who owned the firm. Meyer and David-Weill kicked out Frank Altschul in 1943, but let him have General American Investors as a going-away present. (Financier, by Carrie Reich. William Morrow & Co., 1985.)

Wall Street Personalities / (pdf, 56pp)

In 1957, Frank Altschul was a member of the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development, "the select inner group which actually runs the CED." Other members of this inner core included William Benton, Donald K. David, and Philip L. Graham. Paul G. Hoffman founded the CED in 1942, and was its Chairman from 1942 to 1948. Other founding members included William Benton; Marion B. Folsom, Chairman from 1950 to 1953 and later Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare in the Eisenhower administration; and Eric A. Johnston, a member of the ASCC takeover group. James D. Zellerbach was Chairman from 1955 to 1957, and Donald K. David, Dean of Harvard University, Trustee of the Ford Foudation and Carnegie Institute, was Chairman from 1957 to 1959. J. Irwin Miller, Chairman of the Board of Cummins Engine Co., was a member of the CED's Commission on Money and Credit, set up in 1957. (The Invisible Government, by Dan Smoot, 1962.)

The Invisible Government / Raymond W. Jensen website (pdf, 124pp)

Frank Altschul's son, Arthur G. Altschul Sr., was a director of GAI since 1954, and chairman since 1961, until he retired in 1995. He was also a general partner of Goldman Sachs from 1959 to 1977, and a limited partner until 1999. He, Walter Cronkite, and Benno Schmidt were honorary chairs of St. Bernard School's fundraising campaign, ca. 1999?.

Arthur G. Altschul Sr. obituary / St. Bernard's School
General American Investors 1996 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 1997 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 1998 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 1999 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 2000 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 2001 DEF14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 2002 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
General American Investors 2003 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission
Board of Directors / General American Investors

Matthew C. Brush

"V. THE ORDER'S 'FRONT MAN': MATTHEW C. BRUSH. From World War I until well into the 1930s The Order's 'front man' in both Guaranty Trust and Brown Brothers, Harriman was Matthew C. Brush. Brush was not Yale, not a member of The Order, but through an accidental meeting in the 1890s his talents were used by The Order. Brush became a Knight Templar, a 32nd degree Mason and a Shriner, but not - so far as we can trace - more closely linked to the power center. Brush was born in Stillwater, Minnesota in 1877 and was a graduate of the Armour Institute of Technology and MIT. By accident his first job in the 1890s was as a clerk with Franklin MacVeagh & Company of Chicago. Franklin MacVeagh was a member (The Order '62) and later Secretary of the Treasury (1909-1913) under President William Taft (The Order '78)... After a series of posts in railroad companies, Brush was made Vice President of American International Corporation in 1918 and President in 1923. He was also Chairman of the Equitable Office Building, also known as 120 Broadway..." (America's Secret Establishment, by Antony C. Sutton. Liberty House Press, 1986, pp. 136-137.)

Brush was elected a director of the International Acceptance Bank in 1923. He was also a director of the United American Lines, "controlled by W. Averill [sic] Harriman and his associates," of which Harriman was Chairman (Hawaiian Ship Lines Splits With United. New York Times, March 22, 1923, p. 29); and Petroleum Bond and Share Corporation, formed for "investing and facilitating the financing of companies engaged in or affiliated with the oil industry." Other directors were John M. Lovejoy, President; W.A. Harriman; Judge Morgan J. O'Brien; Joseph F. Uihlein; G.H. Walker; and Cornelius F. Kelley. (New Oil Finance Company. New York Times, June 29, 1928, p. 35.)

Brush was offered the Presidency of the American Sugar Refining Company in 1924. "Among the largest interests supporting Mr. Brush as stockholders or bankers are those represented in the offer to Mr. Brush by James L. Richards, Boston financier and a director of the American Sugar Refining Company, who also represents the Kidder, Peabody & Co.'s interest; and Robert Winsor of Kidder, Peabody & Co. of New York and Boston... Before coming to New York to take charge of the affairs of American International, Mr. Brush had straightened out the financial affairs of the Boston Elevated Railway Company of which Mr. Richards is a director and member of the Executive Committee." (Call Brush To Head American Sugar Co. New York Times, Dec. 16, 1924.)

"Mrs. Louise Doud Brush, who died at the Hotel Commodore on June 6, at the age of 83, left no will to dispose of her estate of more than $2,000,000, it became known yesterday when letters of adminsitration were granted by Surrogate Foley to her two sons, Matthew C. Brush of 128 West Fifty-ninth Street, and George Sabin Brush of New Haven, Conn. Mrs. Brush was the widow of George M. Brush, a Minnesota railway pioneer. Matthew C. Brush is President of the American International Corporation and George Sabin Brush is an oil promoter. The sons are the only heirs." (Leaves $2,000,000 and No Will. New York Times, July 22, 1928.)

In 1930, GAI and several other tenants of 120 Broadway (American International Corporation, Investors Trustee Foundation of U.S., and Prudential Investors Corp.) were proposed for a Congressional investigation of railroad-security holding companies. (Urges an Inquiry Into 75 Companies. New York Times, Jan. 18, 1930, p. 25.)

Frederic W. Scott

Scott was born in Petersburg, Va, Frederic Robert and Sarah Frances Branch Scott, and was educated at Princeton University. His career began as a clerk at Thomas Branch & Co. Later, he was a partner in the leaf tobacco firm of Arrington & Scott, a member of Shelburne & Scott, tobacco warehousemen, and Adams & Scott, tobacco rehandlers. In 1893, he founded Scott & Stringfellow with Charles S. Stringfellow Jr. He was a director of the Merchants National Bank in Richmond, which founded by his father and his grandfather, Thomas Branch. In 1926 the bank merged with the First National Bank of Richmond, and became the First and Merchants National Bank. He was an organizer of the Atlantic Life Insurance Co., and was a director of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, the Richmond Terminal Railway, General American Investors, and the Atlantic Improvement Co. He was a member of the board of visitors of the University of Virginia (although not an alumnus), and in 1930 was elected rector. He gave the university $300,000 for its stadium. (Frederick W. Scott, Virginia Financier. New York Times, Sep. 25, 1939.) He was a director of the Continental Insurance Co. in 1915 (Display Ad. New York Times, Jan. 16, 1916) and the American International Corp. (Display Ad. New York Times, Jan. 21, 1929.) He was an honorary pallbearer at the funeral of Edwin A. Alderman, President of the University of Virginia. (The Honorary Pallbearers. New York Times, May 2, 1931.) His son, Buford Scott, was elected a director of P. Lorillard Tobacco Co. in 1938. (Plans No Financing. New York Times, Mar. 9, 1938.) His granddaughter married a grandson of Dr. Frederic Tremaine Billings. (Alexander Murray Fisher Jr. Is Fiance of Mary Ross Reed. New York Times, Apr. 14, 1968.)

James Cabell Bruce

James Bruce's father was the late U.S. Sen. William Cabell Bruce of Maryland. His brother was David K.E. Bruce. He graduated from Princeton University in 1914, after working in Woodrow Wilson's campaign for Governor of New Jersey. He received his law degree from the University of Maryland in 1916. He joined the staff of the International Banking Corporation in London, where he was employed when World War I began. He rose from private to major in the US Army, and served as a military aide to President Wilson at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations. He was vice president of the Exchange Bank from 1921 to 1926, the International Acceptance Bank in 1926-27, and the Chase National Bank from 1927-31. In 1927, he was elected to the board of directors of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore, and a vice president of the National Park Bank of New York. He retained his position when it merged with the Chase National Bank in 1929. From 1949 to 1950, he was the first director of the Mutual Assistance Program, the forerunner of NATO, and was ambassador to Argentina from 1947-49. (Baltimore Bank Elects James Bruce. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1927; Buenos Aires Post Due to Go to Bruce. By Bertram D. Hulen. New York Times, May 18, 1947; James Cabell Bruce Is Dead at 88; An Envoy, Banker and Politician. By Barbara Basler. New York Times, Jul. 18, 1980 p. 22.) William Cabell Bruce was a correspondent of Dr. William H. Welch, Skull & Bones 1870, from 1910 to 1933.

In 1931, James Bruce left the Chase National Bank of New York to return to the Baltimore Trust Company as its president. (Bruce Leaves Chase Bank. New York Times, May 9, 1931.) In 1932, Bruce was a director/trustee of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore, along with Louis K. Liggett, chairman of the board of Drug, Incorporated, Boston. (Display Ad 39. New York Times, Feb. 14, 1932 p. N11.) In 1933, he was president of the Baltimore Trust Company, and chairman of the board of the United Puerto Rican Sugar Company. (Receiver is Named For Sugar Company. New York Times, Feb. 14, 1933.) The former president of the Davison Chemical Company filed suit against James Bruce, Albert H. Wiggin of the Chase National Bank, and others, alleging that they conspired to wreck his company because he refused to merge it with Rio Tinto Ltd. of England. (Sues For $5,000,000 On Davison Chemical. New York Times, Jun. 28, 1933.) He was one of the defendants in sixteen lawsuits alleging negligence by twenty-three officers and directors of the defunct Baltimore Trust, and settled his liability for $50,000 ($16,000,000 Asked In Bank Failure. New York Times, Aug. 7, 1936; Settles Liability. New York Times, Dec. 25, 1936.)

In 1935, Bruce became a vice president of the National Dairy Products Corporation, which was subsequently his usual given affiliation (Bruce to Join National Dairy. New York Times, Dec. 19, 1934.) The firm's address was at 120 Broadway. He was a member of a hunting party, which included Joseph H. Durrell of the National City Bank, whose arms and ammunition were allegedly taken by Mexican bandits (U.S. Bankers Are Safe On Ranch in Mexico. New York Times, Oct. 16, 1935.) He resigned from National Dairy to became US Envoy to Argentina in 1947, and rejoined it in 1950 (Elected As a Director of Dairy Products Corp. New York Times, Feb. 3, 1950.) He was elected to General American Investors in 1940. (Dairy Official Director of Investors Company. New York Times, Nov. 7, 1940.) He was a director of General American Investors, American Airlines, Avco Manufacturing Company, Fruehauf Trailer Company, Commercial Credit Company, Grayson-Robinson Stores Inc., National Dairy Products Company and the Republic Steel Company, when he was elected to the board of Revlon. (Two Directors Elected By Revlon. New York Times, Jan. 25, 1957.)

In 1946, Bruce was vice chairman of the United Hospital Fund, whose president was Roy E. Larsen of Skull & Bones-founded Time Inc. (Hospital Drive Oct. 7. New York Times, Sep. 23, 1946.) Bruce became US Envoy to Argentina after President Truman proclaimed that the US is satisfied wirh Argentina's compliance with the anti-Nazi provisions of the Act of Chapultepec. (U.S., Argentina End Dispute; Hemisphere Parley Speeded. New York Times, Jun. 4, 1947.) The Secretary of State was Dean Acheson, a graduate of Yale whose son, David Campion Acheson, was a member of Skull & Bones, 1943.

Bruce was a director of the Chemical Bank when he was elected to Fruehauf (Ex-Ambassador Elected Director of Fruehauf Co. New York Times, Mar. 31, 1954). He was on the board of the Niagara Fire Insurance Company and Continental Insurance Co. of the America Fore Group, along with Louis S. Cates, Chairman of the Phelps Dodge Corp. and trustee of the Hanover Bank, the successor of the Central Trust. (Display Ad 31. New York Times, Jan. 20, 1958 p. 35; Display Ad 547. New York Times, Feb. 18, 1962; Display Ad 29. New York Times, Feb. 26, 1963.) Bruce was on the board of the Chemical Corn Exchange Bank, where Maurice T. Moore of Cravath, Swain & Moore and Time Inc.; Benjamin F. Few, the president of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company; and Alex. H. Sands Jr., vice chairman of the Duke Endowment, were fellow directors. (Display Ad 48. New York Times, Jan. 6, 1959 p. 45.) Moore and Few were directors of the Chemical Bank New York Trust Company, formed from the merger with the New York Trust, while Bruce was on the Advisory Committee up to 1970. (Display Ad 38. New York Times, Sep. 9, 1959 p. 37; Display Ad 44. New York Times, Jan. 7, 1960 p. 43; Display Ad 155) and H.I. Romnes of A.T. & T and the American Cancer Society, and J. Irwin Miller of Cummins Engine Co. (Display Ad 155. New York Times, Jan. 6, 1964 p. 117; New York Times, Jan. 6, 1964; Display Ad 253. New York Times, Jan. 14, 1966; Display Ad 321. New York Times, Jan. 27, 1970.)

Presidential candidate Sen. John F. Kennedy's dinner at the River Club: "The dinner was attended by about thirty persons. Among them were James Bruce, who was co-chairman of the Business Men's Committee for Stevenson in 1956, and former Federal Court Judge Simon F. Rifkind, a law associate of Adlai E. Stevenson." (Kennedy 'Happy' With Drive Here. New York Times, Aug. 12, 1960.) Bruce and Rifkind had been elected to the board of directors of Loew's Theatres in May of that year; in 1968 it acquired the P. Lorillard Tobacco Company.

His cousin, Howard Bruce, was an organizer, chairman and president of the Baltimore National Bank; chairman of the executive committee and a director of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and owner of the Bartlett Hayward company; and a director of the Maryland Casulty Company, the United States Lines and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. He was a trustee of Johns Hopkins University. (Howard Bruce, 81, A Banker, Is Dead. New York Times, Jun. 18, 1961.) David and Howard Bruce were members of Paul Hoffman's Committee for Economic Development, and David Bruce headed the OSS in London.

Harry G. Friedman

Friedman was a vice president of GAI since 1936 and director since 1941. He succeeded Harold F. Linder as President. (Investors Company Elects. New York Times, Feb. 10, 1955.) "He was a founder of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, having been secretary of the founders' comittee for seven years before Jan. 10, 1917, when it was incorporated as the Federation for the support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies... Mr. Friedman graduated from the University of Cincinnati in 1904 and received his doctorate at Columbia four years later. He started his career as a statistician with the old United States Labor Bureau... Later he was employed by the United States Tariff Board. Entering the investment field after World War I, he was with Case, Pomeroy & Co., and Selected Industries Inc., before joining General Investors in 1931." (Harry Friedman, Financier, Dies; Leader in Jewish Philanthropies. New York Times, Nov. 23, 1965.)

His wife was Adele Oppenheimer Friedman, B.A. Radcliffe 1897 and MS Columbia 1901. "Early in the century Mrs. Friedman did research in bacteriology with the Department of Health, and in cardiology with her brother, the late Dr. B.S. Oppenheimer." (Mrs. Harry Friedman. New York Times, Nov. 9, 1960.) Adele Oppenheimer was a volunteer assistant to Dr. Leo Buerger in the pathological laboratory of Mt. Sinai Hospital. (Thrombo-angiitis obliterans: A study of the vascular lesions leading to presenile spontaneous gangrene. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1908 Oct;136(4):567; Is thrombo-angiitis obliterans related to Raynaud's Disease and erythromelalgia? The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1910 Jan;139(1):105.) Adele and Bernard S. Oppenheimer were the niece and nephew of Lionel Sutro, who founded the banking and stock brokerage firm of Sutro Brothers & Co. with his brother, Richard. (Lionel Sutro Left Fortune to Widow. New York Times, Aug. 29, 1931.)

Dr. Bernard S. Oppenheimer was a member of the committee appointed by the Medical Society of the State of New York to study the rising rates of heart disease during the 1920s. (Specialists to study diseases of the heart. New York Times, Feb. 24, 1927.) "Dr. Oppenheimer agreed with Professor Roy W. Scott's statement, made last week, that the stress, strain, and complexity of city life were important factors in the increase in heart disease incidence." Oppenheimer also proclaimed that "Much more could be accomplished by preventing the onset of this group of disorders than in curing them after they have caused clinical symptoms." [SIC. In fact there is evidence that this increase was a sequal of the 1918 influenza pandemic. See "How the Public Was Brainwashed About Heart Disease."] And: "No practitioner can afford to ignore the role which tobacco smoking appears to play in certain arterial conditions, such as Buerger's Disease. We have observed a few patients beyond middle life, evidently suffering from coronary artery disease, in whom typical attacks of angina pectoris could be provoked very promptly by smoking a single cigarette. In a study of these patients we found that smoking induces a constriction of the vessels of the extremities. These constrictions preceded the onset of the anginal pains by fifteen to forty-five seconds." "He also held that heredity was important in diseases of the heart's vessels, and that if preventive measures could postpone 'the onset of the mischief for a few years, there is reason to believe that the prognosis is improved.'" (Decries Rising Toll of Heart Diseases. New York Times, Oct. 29, 1931.) In 1952, Oppenheimer received $16,740 from the National Institutes of Health "for an investigation of special factors involved in producing cancers in rodents." ($2,188,699 Granted for Health Study. New York Times, Jun. 12, 1952.) He was assistant clinical professor of medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University since 1914 and a full professor since 1936; chief of ? of Mount Sinai Hospital's medical services from 1929 to 1939, and of the medical services of Montefiore Hospital from 1921 to 1933. He received an A.B. from Harvard in 1897 and an M.D. from Columbia in 1901. (B.S. Oppenheimer, Internist, 81, Dies. New York Times, Jun. 11, 1958.)

The interrelationships of serum lipids in men and women past sixty-five years of age and their bearing on atherosclerosis. Gertler MM, Oppenheimer BS. Circulation 1953 Apr;7(4):533-544.

Gertler & Oppenheimer / Circulation 1953 full article (pdf, 13pp)

Further studies of polymers as carcinogenic agents in animals. BS Oppenheimer, ET Oppenheimer, I Danishefsky, AP Stout, FR Eirich. Cancer Res 1955 Jun;15(5):333-340. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.)

Oppenheimer et al, 1955 / UCSF (pdf, 13 pp)

His wife, Enid Muriel Tribe Oppenheimer, "was the first woman member of the Physiological Society of her native Britain. She received a B.S. with honors from Bedford College for Women of the University of London, then came to the U.S. in 1919. "Between 1914 and 1940, she conducted heart and circulation research at the University of London, at Columbia and at Mount Sinai Hospital in the Bronx." She collaborated with her husband on the government-funded research at the Institute for Cancer Research at Columbia. (Married. New York Times, Sep. 2, 1919; Mrs. Oppenheimer, A Physiologist, 80. New York Times, Mar. 19, 1966.) Their son, Peter J. Sutro, Harvard 1942 (who changed his name legally), married Barbara Moffatt, whose sister was Mrs. Laurence G. Tighe Jr., Skull & Bones 1941. "During the war [Sutro] did graduate work at the Radio Research Laboratory at Harvard and served as a scientific consultant in the Pacific theatre. He received an M.A. degree in physics from Columbia University, and is doing graduate work in biology at Harvard." (Barbara Moffatt Becomes Engaged. New York Times, Sep. 11, 1948.) She died in 1960. (Memorial Service. New York Times, Nov. 8, 1960.)

The Friedmans' son was Dr. Francis Lee Friedman, professor of Physics at MIT. "Dr. Friedman had been a consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission on Projects Lexington and Hartwell, which dealt with nuclear powered flight and undersea warfare. From 1942 to 1946 he was a group leader in theoretical physics with the Manhattan District Project that developed the atomic bomb. He worked at the University of Chicago on a nuclear reactor for producing plutonium." He graduated from Harvard in 1940 then became a graduate assistant in physics at the University of Wisconsin. He got his PhD at MIT in 1949 and joined the faculty the next year. (Prof. Friedman, M.I.T. Physicist. New York Times, Aug. 5, 1962.)

Marshall L. Page

Page was Vice President and Treasurer of General American Investors Co. Inc., Senior Warden of the Episcopal Church of the Resurrection of Kew Gardens, N.Y., and President of the Alumni Association of the School of General Studies at Columbia University. (Deaths. New York Times, Jun. 7, 1981.) He graduated from Columbia University in 1935. (Fill Mins Well, Columbians Told. New York Times, June 4, 1956.) He was a vice president and former treasurer of GAI in 1957. Malcolm B Smith was treasurer. (Investment Trust Names Aide. New York Times, Jan. 31, 1957.)

Bethuel M. Webster Jr.

In 1962, Bethuel M. Webster, partner in the New York law firm of Webster, Sheffield, Fleischmann, Hitchcock & Chrystie, was elected to the board of directors of General American Investors. (Lawyer Joins Board of Investors Concern. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1962.) He was a former counsel to Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, of which former members of his firm were also counsel and directors.

Recent / Current Directors

Arthur G. Altschul Jr.

Athur G. Altschul Jr., director since 1995. Former Director of Corporate Affairs at SUGEN, a biopharmaceuticals company. Managing Member of Diaz & Altschul Group (investments and securities); also a director of Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp.

Altschul and fellow GAI director Spencer Davidson have been directors of Medicis Pharmaceutical since 1992 and 1999, respectively. Its Chairman and CEO, Jonah Shacknai, is a former chief aid to the US House of Representatives committee overseeing health (1977-82). "During his service with the House of Representatives, Mr. Shacknai drafted significant legislation affecting health care, environmental protection, science policy, and consumer protection." Other directors include Peter S. Knight, who was chief of staff to Rep. Al Gore from 1977-89; and Lottie S. Shackelford, former mayor of Little Rock, Arkansas, Clinton presidential campaign manager, and member of the Clinton/Gore transition team.

Medicis Pharmaceutical 2002 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

Altschul is chairman of the Overbrook Foundation, the family foundation established by his grandparents, Frank and Helen Altschul. The foundation recently donated $35,000 to Thirteen/WNET.

Our Directors and Staff / Overbrook Foundation

William O. Baker

William O. Baker is a director emeritus. Baker was a founding director of the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation and the Health Effects Institute.

Lawrence B. Buttenwieser

Lawrence B. Buttenwieser, partner of Rosenman & Colin LLP (Samuel I. Rosenman's old law firm), director since 1967 and Chairman of the Board since 1995. He was a director of Warner Communications from 1963 to 1990, and a director of Time Inc. after their merger until 1997. He was a member of the Board of Governors of the New York Academy of Sciences, of which William T. Golden is an Honorary Life Governor.

AOL Time Warner 1997 DEF 14A

Lewis B. Cullman

Lewis B. Cullman, director since 1961. President of Cullman Ventures, trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Neurosciences Research Foundation. Brother of Philip Morris Chairman-for-Life Joseph Cullman. He is a major benefactor of The Johns Hopkins University, including its Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center and the Lewis B. Cullman professorship, and funds experiments in cancer prevention by foods such as broccoli: "The experiments were funded by the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Foundation, the Barbara Lubin Goldsmith Foundation, the McMullan Family Fund and the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Fahey, Talalay and The Johns Hopkins University own stock in Brassica Protection Products (BPP), a company whose mission is to develop chemoprotective food products and which sells broccoli sprouts. Fahey and Talalay are board members and scientific consultants to BPP, and stock they own is subject to certain restrictions under University policy. The terms of this arrangement are being managed by The Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies." (Dietary Component Kills Bacterial Cause of Ulcers and Stomach Cancer. Hopkins Medicine Press Release, May 27, 2002.)

Dietary Component Kills Bacterial Cause of Ulcers and Stomach Cancer, May 27, 2002 / Hopkins Medicine

He graduated from Yale in 1941, received an MS from New York University a year later, and married Thais McBride, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. E. Thayer McBride of Hingham, Mass. (Thais McBride Is Wed. New York Times, Dec. 20, 1942.) He was elected treasurer of Cullman Bros., Inc. (Executive Shifts Made. New York Times, Apr. 4, 1955.) Cullman was with Wertheim & Co. after wartime service in the Navy. (Joins Firm of Cullman Bros. New York Times, May 2, 1955.) Cullman was national chairman of the fund raising campaign of the World Federation for Mental Health, United States Committee Inc. It was registered with the United Nations as a consultative body for the Economic and Social Council, and a consultant to the World Health Organization. (Mental Health Drive Names Fund Chairman. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1959; Dinner Planned Oct. 24 to Help U.S. Health Unit. New York Times, Oct. 6, 1960.) The World Federation was formerly the International Committee for Mental Hygiene. Mrs. Godfrey S. Rockefeller was a vice president, and Lewis B. Cullman treasurer. Mrs. Clifford W. Beers was an honorary president. (Tulip Time Fete Planned May 15 In St. Regis Roof. New York Times, Apr. 14, 1963.) Mrs. Albert D. Lasker was a member of Mrs. Rockefeller's committee. (New Year's Ball Will Take Place In Grand Central. New York Times, Dec. 9, 1963.) He was elected a director of General American Investors in 1961. (New Director Elected By Investing Concern. New York Times, Sep. 28, 1961.) He was elected a director of the Stephan Co. of Fort Lauderdale, Fla., manufacturers of hair preparations and toiletries. (Cullman Joins Stephan Co. New York Times, Nov. 9, 1961.) He formed Lewis B. Cullman Inc. with William Leach, who had been investment manger of Cullman Brothers since 1959, and a trust officer and manager of the investment division of the First National Bank of Denver before that. (Investor Is Principal in Managing Concern. New York Times, Mar. 13, 1962.) He was elected a director of Gilbert Marketing Group Inc. (New Director Chosen By Gilbert Marketing. New York Times, Oct. 23, 1962.) He married Dorothy Freedman Benenson (Mrs. Dorothy Benenson Bride of Lewis Cullman. New York Times, Jun. 10, 1963.) Cullman was elected to the board of the Samsonite Corporation. (Bloomingdale Properties Chooses a New President. New York Times, Nov. 16, 1969.) Cullman was a director and member of the investment committee of the Convertible Fund of Japan Ltd. (Market Place, by Robert Metz. New York Times, Jun. 4, 1979.)

Lewis B. Cullman Dies at 100, 2019 / New York Times

Spencer Davidson

Spencer Davidson, President and CEO of GAI, and a director since 1995. He was previously with Brown Brothers Harriman, and is also a director of Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp. (along with fellow GAI director Arthur G. Altschul Jr., and several directors formerly associated with the Clinton and Carter administrations), and is a trustee of the Neurosciences Research Foundation.

Medicis Pharmaceutical 2002 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

Gerald M. Edelman

Gerald M. Edelman, director since 1976. Chairman of the Department of Neurobiology at the Scripps Research Institute, former professor at The Rockefeller University; director and president of the Neurosciences Institute of the Neurosciences Research Foundation and of the Neurosciences Support Corp.; emeritus member of the board of governors of the Weizmann Institute.

Edelman was a director of Becton Dickinson (laboratory equipment) from 1982 to 2000. Fellow GAI director Raymond Troubh was a director from 1977 until 1999. Former Assistant Secretary for Health Charles C. Edwards resigned his position to become a senior vice president of Becton Dickinson in 1976.

Becton Dickinson 2000 DEF 14A / Securities and Exchange Commission

Becton Dickinson funded "Toward A Smoke-Free Workplace. A Handbook for the Business Community," by Regina Carlson, Executive Director of New Jersey Group Against Smoking Pollution, 1986.

Toward A Smoke-Free Workplace, 1986 / UCSF (pdf, 24 pp)

Anthony M. Frank

Frank was a director of GAI from 1992. He was the US Postmaster General from 1988 to 1992, and was a director of the Charles Schwab Corporation before 1988.

William J. Gedale

Gedale was the President and CEO of GAI from 1989 to 1995. He has been a director of fellow GAI director Sidney Knafel's BioReliance since 1991.

William T. Golden

And Harold F. Linder, president of GAI 1948-55

William T. Golden is a director emeritus. He was science advisor to President Truman, and Treasurer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1969 to 1999. Harold F. Linder, the President of GAI from 1948 to 1955, had been Golden's partner in investment consulting since 1931. Linder was a one of the CIA's infamous "Princeton Consultants."

The William T. Golden Page - and his business partners, Harold F. Linder and Ralph Hansmann

John D. Gordan III

John D. Gordan III, director since 1986; partner of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, former partner of Lord Day & Lord, Barrett Smith from 1979 to 1994.

Bill Green

Bill Green, former Republican Congressman from the east side of Manhattan from 1977 to 1992, director of ClientSoft, Comcap Holdings, Commercial Capital Corp., and Energy Answers Corp.; member and vice chair of the New York City Housing Development Corp. Green was a governor-at-large, and William T. Golden was honorary life governor, of the New York Academy of Sciences, which published the Council for Tobacco Research-funded "Diversity of Interacting Receptors," Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 10, Vol. 757, edited by CTR Scientific Advisory Board member Leo G. Abood.

Green, Sedgwick William (Bill) / Congressional Bioguide
Contents, NY Acad Sci 1995 May 10 / UCSF (pdf, 17 pp)

Victoria Hamilton

Hamilton was Vice President of GAI from 1992 to 1995, and a director from 1996 to December 1998. She has been an associate of Sidney R. Knafel since 1982.

Sidney R. Knafel

Sidney R. Knafel, director since 1994; managing partner of SRK Management Co., chairman of the board of BioReliance Corp. and Insight Communications Co.; director of IGENE Biotechnology, NTL Inc., Source Media and other companies. BioReliance was formerly Microbiological Associates; after Knafel acquired it, it was used to concoct the phony propaganda about supposedly suppressed mouse inhalation studies.

Richard R. Pivirotto

Richard R. Pivirotto, director since 1971; president of Richard R. Pivirotto Co., former chairman of the board of Associated Dry Goods from 1976 to 1981; director of The Gillette Co., Greenwich Bank and Trust, Immunomedics, and New York Life Insurance Co.; charter trustee emeritus of Princeton University. Pivirotto is on the Board of Trustees of the General Theological Seminary, which was funded largely by the Trinity Church of Wall Street. Dr. Michael Gilligan, president of The Henry Luce Foundation, is a fellow trustee.

Board of Trustees / General Theological Seminary

Malcolm B. Smith

Smith joined the research staff in 1948, was appointed secretary in 1956 and vice president in 1958. He was a graduate of Dartmouth and Harvard Universities. He was a director of GAI since 1960. (Investing Company Elects. New York Times, Jun. 27, 1960.) , He succeeded Harry G. Friedman, who resigned but remained as a director. (Chairman Is Selected By General Investors. New York Times, May 11, 1961.) He was President from 1961 to 1989, Vice-Chairman of the Board since 1989, and Interim CEO during 1995. He was a trustee of the Guggenheim Memorial Foundation from 1982-1995.

Officers and Trustees / Guggenheim Foundation

Joseph T. Stewart

Joseph T. Stewart Jr. was an executive consultant to Johnson & Johnson from 1990 to 1999; former senior vice president of corporate affairs of Squibb Corp. from 1982 to 1990 and was a director of Squibb from 1984 until its merger with Bristol-Myers in 1989; trustee of the Foundation of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; director since 1987.

Raymond S. Troubh

The Raymond S. Troubh Page

The Neurosciences Research Foundation

Three current directors of GAI (Altschul, Cullman, Davidson, and Edelman) and two emeritus directors (Baker and Golden) are also members or emeritus members of the governing board of the Neurosciences Research Foundation, which also includes a retired attorney of the US Department of Justice, Patricia Dwinnell Butler, and Charles R. Wall, Senior Vice President and General Counsel of the Philip Morris Companies. The late former chairman and CEO of International Flavors and fragrances, Henry G. Walker Jr., is an emeritus member.

Board of Trustees / Neurosciences Research Foundation

Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman are top donors, at over $10 million. The Lucille P. Markey Trust, $1-2 million - Lasker Foundation director Robert J. Glaser was on its Board of Trustees from 1984 to 1997. $250,000 to $1 million donors: William T. Golden; Johnson and Johnson; National Science Foundation; Office of Naval Research; and Pew Charitable Trusts. $100,000 to $250,000: The Charles A. Dana Foundation (Mrs. Charles A. Dana was a founding trustee of Ernst Wynder's American Health Foundation); Ford Motor Co.; The Hearst Foundations; the Edward C. Johnson Fund (Fidelity Research / FMR); and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Lesser amounts (but still large by the standards of most charities) have come from the Eleanor Naylor Dana Charitable Trust; Spencer Davidson; the National Institute for Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke; Arthur G. Altschul; Sophie and Arthur Brody; General American Investors; the Robert W. Johnson Charitable Trust; Robert W. Johnson IV; and the Morgan Guaranty Trust.

Donors / Neurosciences Research Foundation

Neurosciences Research Foundation Governing Boards, 2000 (Brain Matters, Fall 2000, pdf page 11.)

Brain Matters, Fall 2000 / Neurosciences Research Institute (pdf, 12pp)

cast 06-08-19